sampUrNa vishNu tatwaM – Demystifying the Mystic Vishnu

I salute you O my divine brother Vighneshwara and request you to remove all the obstacles in this spiritual write-ups; I salute my divine brother Skanda, the mighty generalissimo of the celestials to make me victorious in my attempt of revealing hidden truths of scriptures; I prostrate before my dear parents Brahma-Saraswati and saluting my mother Sharada – the goddess of learning and pray her to feed thoughts of wisdom into my brain and compile them into a great article using my hands as her medium to type; I pray to my dear parents Lakshmi-Narayana and salute the eternal Sages Nara & Narayana to drive my chariot towards the destinations called success and satisfaction; I prostrate before my dear parents Uma-Maheshwara and pray to them to reveal hidden truths of their form which remain concealed in scriptures; and finally I pray to all the Sages (rishis) whose ‘rishI-ruNaM’ (debts towards Sages) I am trying to pay off by passing on the knowledge I gain from scriptures to my fellow human beings through my articles; and especially I prostrate before the three Sages Vashishtha, Maitra-Varuna (Agastya) and Kaundinya in whose lineage I am blessed to take birth. With these prayers I’m begining this article.
tad visnoh paramam padam
(That’s me with lord Vamana at Jagannath Temple – Hyderabad)
O my benevolent lord Vamana, if you can explain about your true self to such an extent to me for the deed of placing my head virtually under your idol’s feet, then I can understand my dear lord, what kind of wisdom king Bali might have gained for carrying your foot on his head. Salutations to you!

Before I step into the mainstream discussion of revealing hidden secrets of Vishnu-Tatwam let me ask few questions to the readers. Well, the below points are from what Shruti says, here these questions aren’t accompanied with the corresponding references, however I’ll give references when I detail them out in this very same article.
  • We hear – tad visnoh paramam padam (that loftiest station of Vishnu) as a buzzword everywhere in the scriptures. Can you explain what that supreme abode of Vishnu is, beyond which there is no other superior destination?
  • Have you ever contemplated why Vedas praise Vishnu’s supreme ‘abode’ more than Vishnu himself?
  • In all the Vedas Vishnu’s only act that is praised highly and repeatedly is – the three mighty strides that he took. Can you explain what those three steps of Vishnu are, which spans the three regions viz. earth, atmosphere and heaven?
  • Can you explain why Vishnu’s two steps are known to others but his highest step which is in heaven is known to him and wise men only?
  • Can you clarify why Vishnu is called in Rig Veda as the one who roams across mountain?
  • Can you explain why Vishnu’s Supreme abode (where he places his third step) is the object that wise men always keep watching?
  • Can you explain why Vishnu’s loftiest station looks like an ‘eye’ in the sky?
  • In Vedas and in Upanishads it’s said that “sada pashyanti surayah” [wise men (sages) always behold that supreme abode]. Can you clarify what’s so enchanting about that abode that sages don’t have any other business than eyeing on that supreme lofty station of Vishnu?
  • Can you explain why Vishnu takes three steps with the length of Gayatri, Trishtup and Jagati meters while spanning the universe?
  • Can you explain why gayatri gives brilliance, trishtup gives power and Jagati gives cattle?
In my experience so far I have seen people (especially those who call themselves as great devotees of Vishnu and boast about their knowledge on Vishnu-Tatwam) living only within the sea of literal meaning of Vishnu’s glories. Touch your heart by holding Vishnu as the witness for your words and tell yourself (not to me) whether your answers for the above questions were same (or similar) as the following or not. – “Vishnu’s supreme abode that Rig Veda praises is Vaikuntha, Vedas praise Vishnu’s Vamana Avatara where he measured the three worlds to subdue Bali’s pride, Vishnu is called as roaming in mountain because the indweller of Rudra is Vishnu and Vishnu roams in mountains in the form of Rudra, Sages and gods always keep watching Vaikuntha, and no clues about other questions”. Need not tell me your answers, but you speak to your own ‘self (Atman)’ whether I have posted the answers exactly what you have been habituated to think of or not! I’m not interested to judge anyone’s answers here, the best judge is the self (Atman) of every being. Well, for most of the people these would be common answers coming out, and if you had different answers then, that’s very good indeed, that’s a sign of evolution, a sign of becoming a thinker! However, compare your answers after reading this entire article and rate yourself whether your traditional superficial thinking could be of any help in comprehending Vishnu in real sense, or not!
Well, my dear so called devotees of Vishnu, you have never understood Vishnu in true sense! The moment you abandon your hatred for Shiva, that same moment Vishnu himself would bestow the true understanding of himself on you. The moment the wisdom of true understanding of Vishnu shines in your heart and mind, you would become Yogis on this earth; believe me!
Alright! Let’s get back to the business now.
Our Sanatana Dharma and its scriptures are not as simple in meaning as what people with half baked knowledge think. Scriptures talk about something but actually mean something else. The superficial meaning is ‘apara vidyA’ and the inner meaning is ‘parA vidyA’. Till the time we read scriptures in literal sense even if we learn them by heart, that knowledge wouldn’t take us to the realization of Brahman. Superficial reading creates surface thinkers and that we have in millions on this earth who call themselves scholars and great devotees, failing to understand that they are deluded by the supreme Maya (my mother Uma). So, when we read scriptures, we should try to understand the ‘antarArdham’ (inner meaning). For that my way of learning is to hammer the scriptures under my three tools viz. logic, reasoning, and correlation / contradiction.With this introduction let me explain the inner truths surrounding Vishnu.

1. Vishnu’s Three Steps and his Supreme Abode in the Sky

Article Contents


Vishnu in Vedas strides the entire world in three steps. Does this mean a deed exhibited by Vamana? Many Vaishnava scholars believe that Vishnu’s strides of Vamana incarnation are sung in Vedas glorifying Vishnu. Also since Vishnu is called as the son of Aditi (Aditya) in Vedas, many people believe that his three strides are Vamana’s strides.

However, the three steps described in Vedas are not that of Vamana, they are that of Vishnu only and the same Vishnu of three mighty strides repeated his same act of striding in his Vamana incarnation. However, the catch is that in Vamana incarnation he used only two steps – with one he spanned earth, with the other he spanned the entire sky till heaven, now when there was no place for him to take a third step, Bali’s promise of donating three step space became falsified and as a sin of not keeping one’s promise Bali was pushed to the netherworlds. Another argument that I put forward is, in every version of Puranic scripture which describes Vamana you would find that Vamana strode the universe to suppress the pride of king Bali. Nowhere in any scripture can anybody show me the story of Vamana spanning the universe in Indra’s battle with Vritra demon. The following verse from Rig Veda clearly says that Vishnu strode the universe on the command of Indra for his battle with Vritra.

“āmāsu pakvamairaya ā sūryaṃ rohayo divi | gharmaṃ na sāman tapatā suvṛktibhirjuṣṭaṃ ghirvaṇase bṛhat |” (Rig Veda 8:89:12)
“Step forth with wider stride, my comrade Viṣṇu; make room, Dyaus, for the leaping of the lightning.Let us slay Vṛtra, let us free the rivers let them flow loosed at the command of Indra”.

So, the Vedic Vishnu shouldn’t be equated with Vamana incarnation, it is a common misconception in the minds of everyone that Vamana’s strides have been glorified in Rig Veda. Also another reality is that Vishnu of Vedas is definitely not Vamana but he definitely is a son of Aditi (aka Uma). There is a commonality between Aditi of Vedas (who is Uma) and her manifestation as Kashyapa’s wife Aditi. In both the cases Vishnu happens to be her child. This topic I’ll elaborate in a separate section altogether. But let’s first see the references from Vedas and understand the real meaning of the three strides and his lofty station.

The following verse of Rig Veda explains that Vishnu moves through the entire universe with three steps and the whole world gets covered under the dust of his feet.

“idaṃ viṣṇurvi cakrame tredhā ni dadhe padam | samūḷhamasya pāṃsure |” (Rig Veda 1:22:17)
“Through all this world strode Viṣṇu; thrice his foot he planted, and the whole was gathered in his footstep’s dust”.


The same Veda also states that Vishnu puts his highest step at the place of congregation (sacrifice). This sacrificial place is the highest place. Note that here earthly regions doesn’t mean only earth, entire set of earth, antariksha and heaven are considered as earthly regions.“viṣṇornu kaṃ vīryāṇi pra vocaṃ yaḥ pārthivāni vimamerajāṃsi | yo askabhāyaduttaraṃ sadhasthaṃ vicakramāṇastredhorughāyaḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:154:1)
“I WILL declare the mighty deeds of Viṣṇu, of him who measured out the earthly regions,
Who propped the highest place of congregation, thrice setting down his footstep, widely striding”.

The place where Vishnu placed his highest foot is the abode where the righteous Sages long to go for, where they remain in bliss. From that supreme abode springs the streams of nourishment (note meath is an archaic British English word which means nourishment).


“tadasya priyamabhi pātho aśyāṃ naro yatra devayavo madanti |  urukramasya sa hi bandhuritthā viṣṇoḥ pade parame madhva utsaḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:154:5)
“May I attain to that his well-loved mansion where men devoted to the Gods are happy. For there springs, close akin to the Wide-Strider, the well of meath (nourishment) in Viṣṇu’s highest footstep”.

Now, what are those streams which provide nourishment from the supreme abode of Vishnu? The answer is given in the below verse. There are milk giving cows which storm their milk downwards, their milk never gets exhausted and is ambrosia. Such a great abode is that abode.
“ā dhenavo dhunayantāmaśiśvīḥ sabardughāḥ śaśayā apradughdhāḥ | navyā-navyā yuvatayo bhavantīrma… |” (Rig Veda 3:55:16)
“Let the milch-kine that have no calves storm downward, yielding rich nectar, streaming, unexhausted, These who are ever new and fresh and youthful. Great is the Gods’ supreme and sole dominion”.

Now the below verse describes how that abode looks like. That supreme abode where Vishnu placed his third and highest step looks like an eye in the skies and wise men always behold that abode constantly.

“tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ | divīva cakṣurātatam |” (Rig Veda 1:22:20)
“The princes evermore behold that loftiest place where Viṣṇu is, Laid as it were an eye in heaven”.
That supreme station is praised by holy men always as evident from below verse.


“tad viprāso vipanyavo jāghṛvāṃsaḥ samindhate | viṣṇoryat paramaṃ padam |” (Rig Veda 1:22:21)
“This, Viṣṇu’s station most sublime, the singers, ever vigilant, Lovers of holy song, light up”.

Vishnu himself protects his supreme station as evident from the below verse. He upholds that supreme heaven which is the dwelling place of the immortals.

“viṣṇuritthā paramamasya vidvāñ jāto bṛhannabhi pātitṛtīyam | āsā yadasya payo akrata svaṃ sacetaso abhyarcantyatra |” (Rig Veda 10:1:3)
“Here, being manifested, lofty Viṣṇu, full wise, protects his own supremest station.
When they have offered in his mouth their sweet milk, to him with one accord they sing forth praises”.

“viṣṇurghopāḥ paramaṃ pāti pāthaḥ priyā dhāmānyamṛtādadhānaḥ | aghniṣṭā viśvā bhuvanāni veda ma… |” (Rig Veda 3:55:10)
“Viṣṇu, the guardian, keeps the loftiest station, upholding dear, immortal dwelling-places.
Agni knows well all these created beings. Great is the Gods’ supreme and sole dominion”.

And Rudra protects the secret name of those cows which reside in that supreme abode.

“tava śriye maruto marjayanta rudra yat te janima cāru citram | padaṃ yad viṣṇor upamaṃ nidhāyi tena pāsi ghuhyaṃ nāma ghonām |” (Rig Veda 5:3:3)
“For thy glory the Maruts have cleansed themselves, who are thy fair and brilliant offspring, O Rudra! The footprint of Vishnu which is put down in the highest place: therewith thou protectest the secret name of the cows”.

We have seen the verses from Vishnu Suktams of Rig Veda and understood Vishnu’s three steps and his highest step which is his supreme abode. Now the following verse from Yajurveda Shatapatha Brahmana tells us that, by spanning the universe in three strides Vishnu brought the all-pervading power to Gods.

“sa devebhya imāṃ vikrāntiṃ vicakrame yaiṣāmiyaṃ vikrāntiridameva |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:9)
“By striding (vi-kram) he obtained for the gods that all-pervading power (vikrânti) which now belongs to them”.

Also, Vishnu takes his three steps with three meters viz. Gayatri, Trishtubh and Jagati as follows.

“tadu tatpṛthivyāṃ viṣṇurvyakraṃsta | gāyatreṇa candasā |… ‘ntarikṣe viṣṇurvyakraṃsta traiṣṭubhena candasā |…divi viṣṇurvyakraṃsta jāgatena candasā…|” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:10)
“’On the earth Vishnu strode by means of the gâyatrî metre, In the air Vishnu strode by means of the trishtubh metre, In the sky Vishnu strode by means of the gagatî metre”.

Now, tell me for how many of us it makes sense when we read Vishnu’s three strides? ‘Vishnu’ name itself means – “that entity which pervades the entire vishwam (universe) in every ‘anu’ (atom) is Vishnu”. When Vishnu name itself means that he is the God who is in every atom of the universe, why does he specially need to span the universe?

What does it mean when it says that Vishnu strode the universe to obtain all pervading power? Why does Vishnu need to stride only in three steps, why not in less than three or more than three steps? If Vishnu strode the universe to bring all-pervasive power to the Gods, then it contradicts the very meaning of his name itself. Does that mean before Vishnu took his mighty strides he didn’t have the all-pervasiveness (remember Vishnu itself means a god who is all pervasive)? If he was already all-pervasive then what was the need for him to specially stride again? What is the significance of the three meters using which Vishnu strides?

Vishnu’s strides and his heavenly abode are not as simple in meaning as people think! When you remain clinging on to the literal meaning without analyzing the concept, you would always remain stuck up in the spider web of questions. Only when you gain a desire to dive deep into the inner meanings of the scriptural passages, you would find a way to free yourself out of the cobweb and every single question of your mind would get answered by your own self. Let me unleash those hidden secrets of Vedas surrounding Vishnu and his strides and explain the true meanings of all these stuff we were discussing so far.

2. Unleashing the Secrets of Vishnu’s Strides and his Supreme Station


If someone believed Vishnu’s steps to be really Vishnu’s steps, then that is his/her ignorance my friend. Vedas do not sing the glory of numerous Gods. Vedas always sing the glory of only one god viz. Bhagawan Rudra interchangeably with his own left half viz. Goddess Tripurasundari (Uma). And Vedas outwardly sing the glories of Vishnu’s strides, but the real meaning is to glorify the Tripurasundari’s deeds. Vishnu is just a symbolic object to reflect the vibes of Tripurasundari’s deeds because she is Avyakta (unrevealed or unknown) as like as Shiva, being Shiva’s own half and she expresses herself (becomes Vyakta) under the name of Vishnu. Where in Vedas do we find numerous hymns attributed to Tripurasundari? Not many except few like Vak Suktam etc. Then where from all these numerous Upanishads have originated from viz. Bahvricha Upanishda, Tripura Upanishad, Tripuratapini Upanishad, Kshurika Upanishad, all Yoga Upanishads, and all Shakta Upanishads which sing glory of Bhavani unanimously? After reading this article you would understand how beautifully Vedas sing the glory of Mahadevi Uma under the guise of Vishnu’s names.
Vedas very skillfully hide the secret of emancipation – the secret of liberation in their hymns. Vedic verses may mean outwardly something but inwardly they point at something else. Vishnu’s three strides lead to the supreme heaven the place of liberation. Well, as per Vedas only Shiva awards liberation (anugraha) and Shakti guides us towards him. Well, then what is the secret behind the three steps of Vishnu? The three mighty strides of Vishnu are nothing but the process of ascension of Kundalini Shakti (Tripurasundari) from the bottommost earthly region called Mooladhara to the highest sublime mansion (heaven) which is nothing but Sahasrara. Wait! I do not expect you all to believe my words readily now itself, and infact you shouldn’t also. However, I request you – the readers, to read this entire article with patience, and I am sure that when you finish, you would understand my point as the truth what Vedas speak. Rest assured, I never build castles in the air; when I say something, I say after profound analysis backed up with references.
Well, before posting verses as references let me first summarize the concept and then take you all through the scriptural supporting. Kundalini when gets awakened, it doesn’t flow at one single go. It has certain milestones on its way. It has to pierce through certain points before reaching Sahasrara. In our body along the spine runs the micro nerve called Sushumna. Along the spine are stationed six Chakras and the peak of the spine stands below the seventh Chakra called ‘Sahasrara’ which is the supreme heaven. Our backbone is not any ordinary bone; rather it has highest spiritual significance. The supreme mountain called ‘Meru’ which is glorified in all scriptures is nothing but our spine alone. Meru mountain has another name as ‘Brahma dandi’ because it leads us to Brahman. Scriptures say that all the worlds are strung along the Meru mountain, that again at literal sense doesn’t make any meaning, rather the real meaning of such scriptural statements is that all the worlds are attached to our backbone within the ‘Sushumna nadi’.
Within the Sushumna nerve when goddess Tripurasundari as Kundalini rises upwards, she spans the entire micro-universe (pindAndam) with three steps where her three steps are at the three granthis (knots) viz. – Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi. These three knots which are present along the spine need to be pierced before a Yogi raises the Kundalini to Sahasrara. These three steps/halts (granthis) are termed as three groups (kootas) in Upanishads which detail out SriVidya, and are called as – ‘Vagbhava, Kamakuta, and Shaktikuta’. Did you understand now what it means when Puranas say Durga (Tripurasundari) appears or lives on “Trikoota” Mountain? And this Srividya (the science of Sri Lalita) is hidden in Vedic scriptures and is not openly revealed, it is preached in disguise of Vishnu’s three strides, etc. concepts. Now, did you understand why “Srividya” is many a times termed as “rahasya vidya” (secret doctrine) in Puranas?
And without having indepth understanding of scriptures, some sects illogically always consider Vishnu’s supreme mansion as a point of supremacy to ridicule Bhagawan Rudra. But to such ignorant people who disdain Mahadeva, true knowledge would never come. The fact what they are unaware of is, Vishnu’s supreme abode is actually Bhagawan Mahadeva’s abode. The supreme abode of Vishnu which exists in the sky as like as an eye on which the Yogis and wise sages always meditate (behold), is nothing but the Sahasrara and the eye kind of fissure which exists in the sky is the “Brahma-randhra” situated above the Ajna chakra, and is the door to Sahasrara. The streams of milk that flow from that supreme heaven downwards is the Soma juice the divine nectar of immortality what the Yogis constantly drink and that gives them supreme bliss.
Now, let’s analyze these concepts in the light of scriptural references.

 

2.1. Vishnu’s three steps are Tripurasundari’s passage through three knots (granthis)


The following verse of Rig Veda explains that Vishnu moves through the entire universe with three steps and the whole world gets covered under the dust of his feet.

“idaṃ viṣṇurvi cakrame tredhā ni dadhe padam | samūḷhamasya pāṃsure |” (Rig Veda 1:22:17)
“Through all this world strode Viṣṇu; thrice his foot he planted, and the whole was gathered in his footstep’s dust”.
Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:
First of all we should keep in mind that Vedas and their contents are esoteric in nature. They may outwardly seem to be singing about something, but they contain a mystical meaning within them. Vedas do not talk about the outward universe, in fact Vedas, Vedanta, Itihasa and Puranas everything always stresses to locate the Antaratman (inner self) who is the God. Therefore when Vedas say Vishnu strode three worlds, they do not talk about outwardly visible world, rather it is a fact that entire cosmos resides within our own body. Our body is a micro-brahmanda hence it is called as ‘pindAnda’. Yes, that’s true! Entire universe (heaven, Antariksha, Earth) is situated in Sushumna nerve as stated in below verse from Chandogya Upanishad
“taM chedbrUyuryadidamasminbrahmapure daharaM puNDarIkaM veshma daharo.asminnantarAkAshaH kiM tadatra vidyate yadanveShTavyaM yadvAva vijij~nAsitavyamiti sa brUyAt.h | (Chandogya Upanishad VIII-I-2)
yAvAnvA ayamAkAshastAvAneSho.antarhR^idaya akAsha ubhe asmindyAvApR^ithivI antareva samAhiteubhAvagnishcha vAyushcha sUryAchandramasAvubhau vidyunnakShatrANi yachchAsyehAsti yachcha nAsti sarvaM tadasminsamAhitamiti |” (Chandogya Upanishad VIII-I-3)
“If the disciples should say to him, ‘In this city of Brahman in which is a small mansion in the shape of a lotus and in the small inner Akasa within – what is it that lies there which should be sought, which one should desire to understand ?’ – He should say in reply, ‘As large indeed as is this Akasa, so large is that Akasa in the heart. Within it, indeed, are contained both heaven and earth, both fire and air, both the sun and the moon, lightning and the stars. Whatever there is of him in this world and whatever is not, all that is contained within it’”.

And Taittiriya Aranyaka clarifies that within the Sushumna which runs through the heart reside all the worlds (everything is supported) as follows.
“adho nishhTyaa vitastyaante naabhyaamupari tishhThati | Jvaalamaalaakulam Bhaati vishvasyaayatanaM mahat.h |santatam silaabhistu lambatyaakoshasannibham.h |tasyaante sushhiram suukshma.n tasmintsarvaM pratishhThitam.h |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.13.2.7-8)
“It should be known that the heart which is located just at the distance of a finger span below the Adam’s apple and above the navel is the great abode of the universe which shines like fire. Like the bud of a lotus, suspends in an inverted position, the heart, surrounded by arteries. In it there is a narrow space (called Susumna nAdi). In it everything is supported”.
In fact the outside world and the inner world are identical and the same.
“piNDabrahmaaNDayoraikya.n li~Ngasuutraatmanorapi |svaapaavyaakR^itayoraikya.n svaprakaashachidaatmanoH |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1:81)
“The microcosm and the macrocosm are one and the same; so also the Linga and Sutratman, Svabhava (substance) and form and the self-resplendent light and Chidatma”.
“shariire sakala.n vishvaM pashyatyaatmaavibhedataH | brahmaaNDo.ayaM mahaamaargo raajadantordhvakuNDalii |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 2:49)
“Then he sees the whole universe in his body as not being different from Atman. This path of the Urdhva-Kundalini (higher Kundalini), O chief of Kings, conquers the macrocosm”.

There is a famous discourse between Krishna and Arjuna called as Uttara Gita. And it is one of the most revered texts of Hinduism. Even Gaudapadacharya, who was the Guru of Shankaracharya’s Guru; had written a detailed commentary on this Uttara Gita which is a great text of Yogic knowledge. In Uttara Gita Sri Krishna says to Arjuna as follows:

“tasya madhyagatAH sUryasomAgniparameshvarAH | bhUtalokA dishaH kShetrasamudrAH parvatAH shilAH | dvIpAshcha nimnagA vedAH shAstravidyAkalAkSharAH | svaramantrapurANAni guNAshchaite cha sarvashaH | bIjaM bIjAtmakAsteShAM kShetraj~nAH prANavAyavaH | suShumnAntargataM vishvaM tasminsarvaM pratiShThitam.h |”  (Uttara Gita 2:15-17)
“The Sun, the Moon, and the other Devatas, the fourteen Lokas of Bhur, Bhuvar, etc., the ten directions,East, West, etc., the sacred places, the seven oceans,the Himalaya and other mountains, the seven Islands of Jambu, etc., the seven sacred rivers, Ganga, etc., the four Vedas, all the sacred philosophies, the sixteen vowels and twenty-four consonants,the Gayatri and other sacred Mantras, the eighteen Puranas and all the Upa-Puranas included, the three Gunas, Mahat itself, the root of the Jivas, the Jivas and their Atman, the ten breaths, the whole world, in fact, consisting of all these, exists in the Susumna”.
And the backbone through which runs the Sushumna nerve is called as the Meru Mountain in scriptures. Uttara Gita clarifies this out as follows.
“gudasya pR^iShThabhAge.asminvINAdaNDasya dehabhR^it.h | dIrghAsti mUrdhniparyantaM brahmadaNDIti kathyate | tasyAnte suShiraM sUkShmaM brahmanADIti sUribhiH |” (Uttara Gita 2:13)
“Like the backbone of a Veena, or harp, the long tract of bone with many joints that stretches from the seat right up to the head of a human being is called the Meru-Danda (spinal cord). There is a minute aperture or hole that passes right through this Meru-Danda from the Muladhara to the head; it is through this hole that there passes a Nadi which the yogis called the Brahma-Nadi or Susumna”.
Within this Mahameru (spine) are seated all the 33 categories of Gods and inside the Sushumna nadi are situated all the worlds. When a Yogi sits in Yogic posture making his backbone straight and while doing Pranayama, he agitates the backbone (Mahameru) with his Yogic posture.
At first the Yogi kindles the fire called Kundalini by Pranayama where expiration and inspiration of breaths which are the libations (havis) given to the sacrifice of Kundalini awakening. Pranayama is done through the nerves; they call it as nadis. To make the Kundalini Shakti rise upwards which is nothing but Goddess Uma, one should do the following actions. [Here by seeing “Sri” do not get into a conclusion that she is Lakshmi. The name “Sri” is originally the name of Tripurasundari (who is otherwise called as Mahalakshmi) and is the consort of Shiva. Lakshmi who is Vishnu’s consort is a form of that Mahalakshmi (Uma) and hence inherited her original form’s title as “Sri”. I’ll clarify this separately later in this article. For now, just understand than the “Sri” who is Kundalini is Tripurasundari (Uma) and not Lakshmi].
“apAnaM mukulIkR^itya pAyumAkR^iShya chonmukham.h | praNavena samutthApya shrIbIjena nivartayet.h | svAtmAna.n cha shriya.n dhyAyedamR^itaplAvana.n tathA |”  (Varaha Upanishad 5:33(b)-34)
“Having closed the anus and drawn up the Vayu and caused it to rise through (the repetition of) Pranava (Om), he should complete with Sri Bija. He should contemplate upon his Atman as Sri (or Parasakti) and as being bathed by nectar”.

When awakened by a Yogi, from that mooladhara Kundalini of the form of fire rises upwards.
“yatra kuNDalinI nAma parA shaktiH pratiShThitA | yasmAdutpadyate vAyuryasmAdvahniH pravardhate |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:51)
“There is located the Parasakti named Kundalini. From that seat, Vayu arises. From that seat, Agni becomes increased”.

“yasmAdutpadyate binduryasmAnnAdaH pravardhate | yasmAdutpadyate ha.nso yasmAdutpadyate manaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:52)
“From that seat, Bindu originates and Nada becomes increased. From that seat, Hamsa is born. From that seat, Manas is born”.

Mooladhara to Vishuddha is the seat of Shakti and Ajna chakra to Sahasrara is the seat of Shiva.
“mUlAdhArAdiShaTchakra.n shaktisthAnamudIritam.h | kaNThAdupari mUrdhAnta.n shAMbhava.n sthAnamuchyate |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:53)
“The six Chakras beginning with Muladhara are said to be the seat of Sakti (Goddess). From the neck to the top of the head is said to be the seat of Sambhu (Shiva)”.
“vAyUnA.n gatimAvR^itya dhR^itvA pUrakakumbhakau | samahastayugaM bhUmau samaM pAdayuga.n tathA | vedhakakramayogena chatuShpITha.n tu vAyunA | AsphAlayenmahAmeru.n vAyuvaktre prakoTibhiH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:61- 62)
“Having checked the course of Vayu, having become perfect in the practice of expiration and restraint of breath and having planted evenly on the ground the two hands and the two feet, one should pierce the four seats through Vayu through the three Yogas. He should shake Mahameru with the (aid of) Prakotis (forces) at the mouth of Vayu”.
When gods give her a way to move up, the first knot called as Brahma Granthi opens its door for the Vayu (Kundalini) to pass through.Within the sushumna there are three granthis or psychic/pranic knots which prevent the passage of kundalini shakti.The Brahma granthi is situated in Mooladhara chakra (near the anus), Vishnu granthi is situated in Anahata chakra (near the heart)and Rudra granthi is situated in Ajna chakra (near the juncture of eyebrows).
“merumadhyagatA devAshchalante meruchAlanAt.h | Adau sa.njAyate kShipra.n vedho.asya brahmagranthitaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:64)
“Through the motion of Meru, the Devatas who stay in the centre of Meru move. At first in his Brahma-Granthi, there is produced soon a hole (or passage)”.
“tenaagninaa cha sa.ntaptaa pavanenaiva chaalitaa | prasaarya svashariira.n tu sushhumnaa vadanaantare | brahmagranthi.n tato bhittvaa rajoguNasamudbhavam.h | sushhumnaa vadane shiighra.n vidyullekheva sa.nsphuret.h |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 66-67)
“Kundalini being heated by Agni and stirred up by Vayu, extends her body in the mouth of Susumna, pierces the Brahmagranthi formed of rajas and flashes at once like lightning at the mouth of Susumna”.
Then Kundalini (Uma) strides upwards by piercing through Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi as mentioned below”.
“brahmagranthi.n tato bhittvA viShNugranthiM bhinattyasau | viShNugranthi.n tato bhittvA rudragranthiM bhinattyasau |”  (Varaha Upanishad 5:65)
“Then having pierced Brahma-Granthi, he (yogi) pierces Vishnu-Granthi; then he pierces Rudra-Granthi”.

“vishhNugranthiM prayaatyuchchaiH satvara.n hR^idi sa.nsthitaa | uurdhva.n gachchhati yachchaaste rudragranthi.n tadudbhavam.h | bhruvormadhye tu saMbhidya yaati shiitaa.nshumaNDalam.h |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 68-69(a))
“Then it goes up at once through Vishnugranthi to the heart. Then it goes up through Rudragranthi and above it to the middle of the eyebrows; having pierced this place, it goes up to the Mandala (sphere) of the moon”.

After piercing the Brahma granthi when the Kundalini pierces the second knot (Vishnu granthi) at the heart level (Anahata chakra), the practitioner becomes a Yogi. He cuts the veil of Maya, and becomes freed of all illusions. He experiences great delight.
“saMpUrNahR^idayaH shUnye tvArambhe yogavAnbhavet | dvitIyA vighaTIkR^itya vAyurbhavati madhyagaH | dR^iDhAsano bhavedyogI padmAdyAsanasa.nsthitaH | viShNugranthestato bhedAtparamAnandasambhavaH |”(Soubhagyalakshmi Upanishad 2:06-07)
“His heart is filled; when heart-space resounds, he becomes a Yogi; snapping the second knot, flows. At once the breath to middle region.Poised in lotus seat and others, too, firm established must the Yogin be.The knot of Vishnu, then when rent asunder delight wells up supreme”.

After the third knot (Rudra granthi) is broken, the Jiva enters into the highest heaven, the highest state which awards liberation. This is the state of all perfections, and there is nothing beyond Sahasrara that is superior to it.

“rudragranthi.n cha bhittvaiva kamalaani bhinatti shhaT.h | sahasrakamale shaktiH shivena saha modate | saivaavasthaa paraa j~neyaa saiva nirvR^itikaariNii iti |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 86)
“Then it pierces Rudragranthi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses) are said to be traversed. Then Sakti is happy with Shiva in Sahasrara Kamala (1000 lotuses seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest Avastha (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude”.

“prakR^ityashhTakaruupa.n cha sthaana.n gachchhati kuNDalii | kroDiikR^itya shiva.n yaati kroDiikR^itya viliiyate |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 74)
“Kundalini assumes the eight forms of Prakriti (matter) and attains Shiva by encircling him and dissolves itself in Shiva”.

“atishUnyo vimardashcha bherIshabdastato bhavet | tR^itIyA.n yatnato bhittvA ninAdo mardaladhvaniH | mahAshUnya.n tato yAti sarvasiddhisamAshrayam | chittAnanda.n tato bhittvA sarvapIThagatAnilaH |”(Soubhagyalakshmi Upanishad 2:08-09)
“Beyond Anahata (Rudra granthi), ‘the unstruck note’, rises the drum’s resounding sound; with energy, piercing Rudra’s knot the drum’s note is heard.The vital breath (Kundalini) moves on to Largest Space, the sure abode of all perfections; thence,Ignoring mind’s delight, the breath pervadesAll yogic seats”.

The above mentioned three knots (granthis) are nothing but the three places where Vishnu (Goddess Uma as Kundalini) keeps his (her) foot thrice (means pierces). This action of goddess Tripurasundari of passing through the three granthis is hailed as Vishnu’s three steps in Vedas. These three granthis are otherwise called as kootas (groups) in Srividya related Shruti scriptures. The three knots viz. Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi are also called as groups, viz. Vagbhava koota, Kamakoota, and Shakti koota. These three kootas are together termed as “Trikoota” and when these three groups are considered as cities they are called “Tripura”. And because Shakti (Uma) pervades in them, she is called Tripureshwari, Tripurasundari etc. And because she pervades and resides within the three Kootas within Sushumna she (Durga) is said to be residing on “Trikoota Mountain”.
This Tripurasundari who is also called Mahalakshmi strides through the three knots as described in the below verse (well, do not confuse yourself with the name; she is not the wife of Vishnu lakshmi. Mahalakshmi is originally Tripurasundari’s name and she is Shiva’s consort. Our so called scholars have confused the masses a lot by playing around with names, but the Kundalini which is called Mahalakshmi is Uma the wife of Shiva and not the Lakshmi the wife of Vishnu).
“evametaa.n chakraasanagataa.n tripuravaasinii.n sadoditaa.n shivashaktyaatmikamaveditaa.n jaatavedaaH shiva iti seti  shaktyaatmaaksharamiti shivaadishaktyantaraalabhuutaa.n trikuuTaadichaariNii.n suuryaachandranamaskaaM mantraasanagataa.n tripura.n mahaalakshmii.nsadoditaa.n spashhTiikR^itvaa jaatavedase sunavaama somamityaadi paThitvaa puurva.n |” (Tripura Tapini Upanishad 2:11)
“Thus elucidate this incantation which abides in Tripura and which is set forth in the circular seat. Repeat the verse jatavedase, etc., and also the incantation of Tripureshvari which is ever ascendant and whose quintessence is Siva and Sakti, as already set forth. Jatavedas symbolizes Shiva, and sa has the imperishable Shakti as its essence. Elucidate Tripura, the ever-ascendant Maha Lakshmi, resting on the seat of mantras (symbolized by ha and sa), denoting the sun and the moon, pervading the three groups (Tripura viz. Vagbhavakuta, Kamakuta, and Shaktikuta)  and subsisting in between Siva and the primeval Power”.

Even Lalita Sahasranama Stotram states the following.
“mula kutatraya kalebara  |” (LS verse 36)
“Whose body is identical with the three Kootas. Or, whose body is identical with Pancha-Dashakshari Mantra with all its Kutas or combination of letters”.
Hopefully, everyone by now understood the three steps of Vishnu in reality as the piercing of the three knots during Kundalini rising. Now, finally read this note very carefully here. We read that Sushumna nadi exists within the backbone and this nadi contains all the worlds with all the creatures along with their habitation within it. And when agitated through Pranayama Kundalini rises upwards and travels through the Sushumna which means through the backbone. This implies Kundalini travels through the Meru Mountain as backbone is the Meru. Hence, this is the reason why Rig Veda praised Vishnu as the one who roams across mountain and under whose three wide steps exists entire habitation; see in the below verse.
“pra tad viṣṇu stavate vīryeṇa mṛgho na bhīmaḥ kucaro ghiriṣṭhāḥ | yasyoruṣu triṣu vikramaṇeṣvadhikṣiyanti bhuvanāni viśvā |” (Rig Veda 1:154:2)
“For this his mighty deed is Viṣṇu lauded, like some wild beast, dread, prowling, mountain-roaming;He within whose three wide-extended paces all living creatures have their habitation”.
This is why Lalita Sahasranama stotram calls her as follows.
“sumeru madhya shrungastha |” (LS verse22)
“Who dwells on the mid most peak of Mount Meru”.
“sahati merunilaya |” (LS verse 148)
“Who is greater than all and who lives in Meru Mountain”.
The three steps of Vishnu in reality as the piercing of the three knots during Kundalini rising by goddess Uma and it’s her glory that is sung under the epithet called ‘Vishnu’. Because she travels through Mahameru Mountain, Vedas mystically praise her as Vishnu travels through mountain.
Although this analysis is already concluded with above findings; yet my thirst for explaining this concept and sharing my analysis still stands unquenched. Therefore would like to explain the same concept in even more in-depth manner by diving deep into the ocean of Vedas.
Now, let’s learn the concept of three Vishnu strides in much more in-depth manner, this analysis is a bit complex, hence I request the readers to pay utmost attention while reading. 

Agni is hailed in Yajurveda and Brahmanas many a times as follows.

“trivṛdagniryāvānagniryāvatyasya mātrā |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:3:2:5)
“Threefold is Agni: as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure”.

Now, what does threefold Agni mean and what it means by his measure? We’ll analyze now. Gayatri is nothing but Agni himself as stated below.

“agnirvai gāyatrī |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 3:4:1:9)
“Gâyatrî is verily Agni”.

Well, not only that Gayatri is the name of Agni, but also the Gayatri meter (Chandas) is Agni’s meter. Agni’s measure also consists of 24 syllables because Gayatri meter consists of 24 syllables. This is evident from the following verse from Yajurveda Shatapatha Brahmana. Gayatri is called as “Tripada Gayatri” in Shastras because it has three feet (as like as Agni, both being same), where each foot consist of eight syllables.

“yadveva caturviṃśatiḥ | caturviṃśatyakṣarā vai gāyatrī gāyatro | ‘gniryāvānagniryāvatyasya mātrā tāvataivainametatsaminddhe |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6.2.1.22)
“And, again, why there are twenty-four,–the Gâyatrî consists of twenty-four syllables and Agni is Gâyatra: as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much he thus kindles him”.

Now, a question arises, why is Agni’s measure being repeatedly praised here? What does Agni measure after all? And why Agni’s measure is three-fold? The answer is – it is the Kundalini the Chid-Agni (Tripurasundari) who strides through the three inner worlds viz. earth, Atmosphere and Sky via the three knots viz. Brahma Granthi, Vishnu Granthi and Rudra Granthi. Let me explain how. 

Kundalini is the fire, and fire (Agni) takes the three steps. Agni is called Gayatri and Gayatri has three steps. With one step Agni (Gayatri) measures entire three worlds, with second step Agni (Gayatri) measures the three Vedas, and with third step Agni (Gayatri) measures the three Pranas (breaths). This is how Kundalini which is fire of consciousness moves within us. Now you may be seeing a contradiction there – as per Vedas Vishnu measured the three worlds with three steps, and here I’m saying Gayatri (Agni) measures entire three worlds in one step and trying to equate Gayatri (Agni) with Vishnu and trying to take away Vishnu’s credits from him? Hold on! My explanation is not yet over. I’ll explain what it actually means. There is no contradiction here!

Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad details out the first step of Agni (gayatri) as consisting of eight syllables and spanning the three worlds as follows.

“bhῡmir antarikṣaṁ dyauḥ ity aṣṭᾱv akṣarᾱni; aṣṭᾱkṣaraṁ ha vᾱ ekaṁ gᾱyatryai padam. etad u haivᾱsyᾱ etat, sa yᾱvad eṣu triṣu lokeṣu, tᾱvaddha jayati, yo’syᾱ etad evaṁ padaṁ veda |” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad V-xiv-1)
“’Bhumi’ (the earth), ‘Antariksa’ (sky) and ‘Dyaus’ (heaven) make eight syllables, and the first foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. So the above three worlds constitute the first foot of the Gayatri. He who knows the first foot of the Gayatri to be such wins as much as there is in those three worlds”.

Agni’s second foot consists of the three Vedas (means sphere of all knowledge) as follows.

“ṛco yajῡmṣi sᾱmᾱni, ity aṣṭᾱv akṣarᾱṇi; aṣṭᾱkṣaraṁ ha vᾱ ekaṁ gᾱyatrai padam. etad u haivᾱsyᾱ etat. sa yᾱvadīyaṁ trayī vidyᾱ, tᾱvad ha jayati. yo’syᾱ etad evaṁ padaṁ veda|” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad V-xiv-2)
“’Reah’, ‘Yajumsi’ and ‘Samani’ make eight syllables, and the second foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. So the above three Vedas constitute the second foot of the Gayatri. He who knows the second foot of the Gayatri to be such wins as much as that treasury of knowledge, the three Vedas, has to confer”.

Agni’s third foot consists of the three breaths as stated below.

“prᾱṇo’pᾱno vyᾱnah, ity aṣṭᾱv akṣarᾱṇi; aṣṭᾱkṣaraṁ ha vᾱ ekaṁ gᾱyatrai padam: etad u haivᾱsyᾱ etat. sa yᾱvad idam prᾱṇi, tᾱvad ha jayati yo’syᾱ etad evam padaṁ veda |” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad V-xiv-3)
“’Prana’, ‘Apana’ and ‘Vyana’ make eight syllables, and the third foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. So the above three forms of vital force constitute the third foot of the Gayatri. He who knows the third foot of the Gayatri to be such wins all the living beings that are in the universe”.

To understand the concept we need to go in a different sequence, in fact the Kundalini travel happens in different order of Gayatri’s (Agni) three steps stated above. Kundalini rises and travels upwards along with the Prana (breaths), and for the same, Rechaka (expiration), Pooraka (inspiration) and Kumbhaka (retention of breath) are the Pranayama exercises which must be mastered. Out of them Kumbhaka stands out to be most significant and must be mastered as stated below.

“kumbhena kumbhayetkumbha.n tadantasthaH para.n shivam.h | punarAsphAlayedadya susthira.n kaNThamudrayA |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:60)
“It is only through Kumbhaka that Kumbhaka should be firmly mastered. Within it is Parama-Shiva. That (Vayu) which is non-motionless should be shaken again through Kantha-Mudra (throat-posture)”.

Note that in Kumbhaka (retained breath) lord Shiva exists. I’ll tell you what it is shortly.

So, when it says, expiration, inspiration and retention of breath when practiced and when Kumbhaka (retention of breath) is mastered Kundalini rises, do not think like a fool that it is so literal in meaning; otherwise any tom dick and harry could have become successful in raising the serpent power. There is a deeper meaning behind the three terms viz. Rechaka, Pooraka and Kumbhaka. Yoga and Vedanta (wisdom) both are inter-dependent and are complementary to each other. Without having the theoretical knowledge of Brahman one cannot succeed in Yoga and likewise, only to have Vedanta knowledge without Yoga experience is also not going to help. This is evident from the below Shruti.

“j~naana.n kechidvadantyatra kevala.n tanna siddhaye | yogahiina.n katha.n j~naanaM mokshada.n bhavatiiha bhoH |  yogo.api j~naanahiinastu na kshamo mokshakarmaNi | tasmaajj~naana.n cha yoga.n cha mumukshurdR^iDhamabhyaset.h |” (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:12-13)
“How can Jnana without Yoga lead to liberation? It is also true that Yoga alone without Jnana will not lead to liberation. So, the one who aims at liberation; should learn Jnana and Yoga together”. 

Therefore it is a mandatory pre-requisite to imbibe scriptural wisdom first before setting up yourself on the path of Kundalini Yoga. Shruti declares that the learning of scriptural knowledge is ‘Pooraka’ (inspiration), the abandonment of all worldly attachments is ‘Rechaka’ (expiration) and the retention of the learned spiritual / scriptural knowledge as wisdom within us is called ‘Kumbhaka’ (retention). This Kumbhaka (retention) needs to be mastered and then only one becomes eligible to raise Kundalini.  (And as read above, within Kumbhaka lord Shiva lives. This means, all the scriptural knowledge that gets finally assimilated within us and retained, it gets retained as ‘Shiva tatwam’ within us because all the scriptures talk only about Shiva in different tones and indications). Without knowing the inner meanings of Shruti even if someone breathes in and out and keeps the air inside for long, it would only result in suffocation and not in awakening. Only after becoming a ripened fruit in scriptural knowledge one must try to elevate his self by practicing Pranayama to realize his true nature via the serpent power elevation. This is stated in the below verses of Upanishad.

“bAhyasthaviShaya.n sarva.n rechakaH samudAhR^itaH |
pUraka.n shAstravij~nAna.n kumbhaka.n svagata.n smR^itam.h |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:58)
“(The giving out of) all external objects is said to be Rechaka (expiration). The (taking in of the) spiritual knowledge of the Shastras is said to be Puraka (inspiration) and (the keeping to oneself of) such knowledge is said to be Kumbhaka (or restraint of breath)”.

So, what did you understand from this? Imbibing the knowledge of the three Vedas is Pooraka, shedding the attachments of worldly objects is Rechaka and retention of knowledge of three Vedas is Kumbhaka. This when mastered, the Yogi becomes successful in making the Kundalini-Agni (Gayatri) to take her first step. This is what is meant when Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad mentioned that Gayatri’s second foot spans three Vedas.

Prana, Apana and Vyana are the winds that play vital role in moving the Kundalini upwards. With the help of channelizing the three Vayus using Pranayama one shakes the Mahameru (backbone) and thereby Gods create passage for Kundalini (Tripurasundari) to move upwards. That’s why Prana Vayu plays a significant role in Kundalini movement.

“vAyUnA.n gatimAvR^itya dhR^itvA pUrakakumbhakau | samahastayugaM bhUmau samaM pAdayuga.n tathA | vedhakakramayogena chatuShpITha.n tu vAyunA | AsphAlayenmahAmeru.n vAyuvaktre prakoTibhiH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:61-62)
“Having checked the course of Vayu, having become perfect in the practice of expiration and restraint of breath and having planted evenly on the ground the two hands and the two feet, one should pierce the four seats through Vayu through the three Yogas. He should shake Mahameru with the (aid of) Prakotis (forces) at the mouth of Vayu”.

So, without channelizing the Pranas, Kundalini (Agni / Gayatri / Tripurasundari) cannot take her third step because the third step of Agni (Gayatri) consists of Prana, Apana and Vyana and is of eight syllables. Hope this is clear by now. However, Agni (Kundalini) cannot course herself upwards without fulfilling the second and third steps. That is, the sequence of three steps of Agni (Gayatri) is –> 1) Gaining wisdom from the three Vedas, 2) channelizing the Pranas (breaths) within the body through Pranayama, and then lastly comes the first step that is – 3) spanning the three worlds by serpent power’s upwards movement. Therefore Agni (or Gayatri or Kundalini) even though Upanishad says that it spans the three worlds in first step; it doesn’t do so in reality. That is just a mystic way to state the same fact the other way round. Agni (gayatri) spans the three worlds in three steps only because without completing the second and third steps initially, Agni cannot begin its first step.

Now, let’s again talk about Tripurasundari (Kundalini)’s movement through the three knots. Yajurveda tells us the following truth.

“gAyatrI vai prithvI traishtubham antariksham jAgatI dyaur |” (Taittiriya Samhita 1:7:5:4)
“The earth is the Gayatri, the atmosphere is connected with the Tristubh, and the sky is the Jagati”.

As per Yoga, the aspect of Mooladhara is ‘Earth’, the aspect of Anahata is ‘Antariksha’ and the aspect of Ajna chakra is the sky. And the placements of the three knots (granthis) viz. Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi are at Mooladhara, Anahata and Ajna chakras respectively.  The class of Gods called as ‘Vasus’ reside in Earthly region (hence Mooladhara). The class of Gods which reside in Antariksha is called Rudras, hence they are located along the Anahata chakra. The class of gods which reside in heaven (sky) is called as Adityas and they belong to the region of Ajna chakra.

“vasavas tvA krinvaNtu gAyatreNa chandasAngirasvat prithivy asi | rudrAs tvA krinvaNtu traishtubhena chandasAngirasvad antariksham asi | AdityAs tvA krinvaNtu jAgatena chandasAngirasvad dyaur asi |” (Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita 4:1:5:14)
“May the Vasus fashion thee with the Gayatri metre, in the manner of Angiras thou art the earth. May the Rudras fashion thee with the Tristubh metre, in the manner of Angiras thou art the atmosphere. may the Adityas fashion thee with the Jagati metre in the manner of Angiras thou art the sky”.

The reason why Gayatri is connected with Vasus, Trishtubh with Rudras and Jagati with cattle is described below. Mooladhara is the palce of residence of Tejas (Seminal fluid which is verily Brahman), and Rudras are pranas (life breaths) which sustain the upward movement of Kudnalini fire (tejas) hence they are the source of power;  and cattel are connected with the milk of liberation (Amrita / soma) which we’ll discuss at greated length in forthcoming sections.

“tejo vai gAyatrI teja eva mukhato dhatte mUrdhanvatIr bhavanti mUrdhAnam evainam samAnAnAm karoti | trishtubha upa dadhAti indriyaM vaiindriyam eva madhyato dhatte | jagatIr upa dadhAti jAgatA vai pashavah pashUn evAva runddhe |” (Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita 5:3:8:1-2)
“The Gayatri is brilliance; verily at the beginning he places brilliance. The Tristubh is power; verily he places power in the middle. Cattle are connected with the Jagati; verily he wins cattle”.

Vasus are eight in number, Rudras are eleven in number and Adityas are twelve in number. Therefore Agni (kundalini) with her first foot in Gayatri meter (which has eight syllables) spans the Brahma Granthi (the region of Vasus). Agni (Kundalini) with her second step in Trishtup meter of eleven syllables spans the Antariksha (Vishnu granthi) the region of Rudras, and finally Agni (Kundalini) places her third foot in the highest sky in the region of Adityas using the Jagati meter which has twelve syllables.  This is why Yajurveda says that Vishnu takes his first stride using Gayatri meter, his second stride using Trishtup meter and his third step using Jagati meter as follows.

“tatpṛthivyāṃ viṣṇurvyakraṃsta | gāyatreṇa candasā | ‘ntarikṣe viṣṇurvyakraṃsta traiṣṭubhena candasā | divi viṣṇurvyakraṃsta jāgatena candasā |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:10)
“On the earth Vishnu strode by means of the gâyatrî metre. In the air Vishnu strode by means of the trishtubh metre.  In the sky Vishnu strode by means of the gagatî metre”.

(Note: Please don’t get confused with the above verse and the verses from Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad. Both are correct, only difference is that the Brihad Aranyaka Upansihad also talks about the same three steps of Agni but mystically merges the action of spanning three worlds in one step to highlight and emphasize the importance of Vedic wisdom (kumbhaka) and Pranas (breaths). Without fulfilling the latter two conditions, one’s inner fire wouldn’t elevate. Hence that was the lesson taught in Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad about Gayatri (Agni)’s three steps)

And because it is again evident that ‘Vishnu’ is not lord Vishnu but rather a pseudonym to call Tripurasundari who is the Kundalini which is of the form of Agni – the fire of consciousness which gives divine wisdom on awakening; she is called as Jataveda-Agni in Durga Suktam of Yajurveda.

And till now whatever is the outcome of our research that has beautifully been captured in Rig Veda in a simple and single verse as follows.

“tvamaghna indro vṛṣabhaḥ satāmasi tvaṃ viṣṇururughāyo namasyaḥ |” (Rig Veda 2:1:3)
“Hero of Heroes, Agni! Thou art Indra, thou art Viṣṇu of the Mighty Stride, salutations”.

This is the mystery why Vedas offer eight portions of sacrificial cake to Agni and three portions of the same to Vishnu. Agni (Rudra) and Vishnu (Uma) are one and the same, hence the spanning of the universe when Vedas describe from the side of Uma they sing it as three steps of Vishnu and when they describe that glory as Rudra’s glory they call it as Agni striding the universe in one single step with Agni’s (Gayatri) first foot having eight syllables. The following verse from Aitareya Brahmana of Rig Veda contains the same mystery.

“āgnāvaiṣṇavam puroḷāśaṃ nirvapanti dīkṣaṇīyam ekādaśakapālaṃ ” (Aitareya Brahmana 1.1.2)
“So, we have to offer eleven potsherds of cake (rice), three for Vishnu and remaining eight for Agni”.

Conclusion: Therefore the three steps of Vishnu are not really the steps of Vishnu; rather they are the steps of goddess Tripurasundari who travels through Sushumna running across the Mahameru (spine) as Kundalini piercing the three knots viz Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi.

P.S:- After reading the above analysis one may have a doubt – Why do I, the author, sometimes show Vedic references which state Agni is Shiva and why did I prove Agni as Tripurasundari (Chidagni / kundalini) in this article. That’s a valid question. Well, the difference is only in the mind, but essentially Vedas do NOT see any difference between Shiva and Shakti. Both are one and the same, that’s why Shiva’s half is Shakti and both share one body. This Agni who is Kundalini (Shakti) and is praised in Vishnu’s strides, is the same Agni as Skhambha (the infinite pillar of fire, the Jwala-Linga of Shiva and it spans from bottom to top within us. That same divine fire of consciousness which is Shiva helps in awakening the serpent power Kundalini Shakti to award us the supreme realization of the self. This is why Skhambha (Shiva) upholds the heaven, earth and the atmosphere as per Atharva Veda, and we have seen the same principle being shown by Tripurasundari as Kundalini within us. This is the reason why Rig Veda (10:5:7) calls Agni as “vṛṣabhaścadhenuḥ”, meaning, “O Agni, you are the Milch-cow and the Bull”, which is nothing but a reinforcement of “Ardhanareeshwara” principle.Also, know that entire body is a temple of Shiva and Shiva and Shakti both reside in the body from bottom to top. Only thing is sometimes scriptures tell their glories showing Shakti prominently and some other times they show the same glories from Shiva’s stand point. See below verses where it has been clearly shows the presence of Shiva also in Mooladhara which traditionally we think only Kundalini resides there. The Pranas are Shiva, the Atman is Shiva, the Chidagni is Shiva and Shakti is also Shiva.

“deha.n shivaalayaM prokta.n siddhida.n sarvadehinaam.h | gudameDhraantaraalasthaM muulaadhaara.n trikoNakam.h | shivasya jiivaruupasya sthaana.n taddhi prachakshate |
yatra kuNDaliniinaama paraa shaktiH pratishhThitaa | yasmaadutpadyate vaayuryasmaadvahniH pravartate | yasmaadutpadyate binduryasmaannaadaH pravartate |” (Yoga Shikha Upanishad 1:168-170)
“For all those who have a body, their body is the temple of ShivaIt gives them siddhi (fulfillment of yogic goal viz. salvation). The triangular part in between the anus and penis is called the mooladhara. This is the place where Shiva lives as a life giving force (Prana). There the Parashakthi called Kundalani lives. From there wind is produced. The fire is also produced from there”.

So, remove all the confusions and learn only one fact – Shiva and Shakti are always one and the same. The day you say that it is possible for me to take rest and my (mother who resides in my brain as) ‘mEdhA shakti (power of wisdom)’ to sit and type this article on her own, the day you say that it is possible for me to sit as audience and my (mother who resides in my throat as) vAk shakti (power of speech) to deliver this lecture on stage on her own; OR the other way round – the day when it would become possible for me to analyze these scriptures and write these articles without the help of mEdha Shakti, that day I would believe Shiva and Shakti can ever be separate. Hope this analogy would clarify all such doubts (if any). Therefore, when I feel Shakti’s glory requires to be highlighted, I would show Shakti’s presence in scriptures, and when I feel Shiva’s glory requires attention I would do so accordingly.

2.2. Vishnu’s supreme abode is lord Shiva’s abode viz. Sahasrara


Now the below verse describes how that abode looks like. That supreme abode where Vishnu placed his third and highest step looks like an eye in the skies and wise men always behold that abode constantly.That supreme station is praised by holy men always as evident from below verse.

“tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ | divīva cakṣurātatam |
tad viprāso vipanyavo jāghṛvāṃsaḥ samindhate | viṣṇoryat paramaṃ padam |” (Rig Veda 1:22:21-22)
“The princes evermore behold that loftiest place where Viṣṇu is, Laid as it were an eye in heaven. This, Viṣṇu’s station most sublime, the singers, ever vigilant, Lovers of holy song, light up”.

Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:

The below verse states that Rudra protects the secret name of the cows in that heaven which is the supreme abode of Vishnu. Well I’ll explain what is meant by protecting the secret name of the cows in a separate section; however just note one point here. If Vishnu’s supreme abode is really Vishnu’s abode, what is Rudra doing there? How did he reach there to protect cows?

“tava śriye maruto marjayanta rudra yat te janima cāru citram | padaṃ yad viṣṇor upamaṃ nidhāyi tena pāsi ghuhyaṃ nāma ghonām |” (Rig Veda 5:3:3)
“For thy glory the Maruts have cleansed themselves, who are thy fair and brilliant offspring, O Rudra! The footprint of Vishnu which is put down in the highest place: therewith thou protectest the secret name of the cows”.

The answer is, Vishnu is goddess Kundalini as analyzed in previous section, and Vishnu’s (Kundalini’s) highest step is placed in heaven and that heaven is termed as ‘parama padam’ (loftiest station, most sublime abode, supreme abode) in Vedas. It means there is nothing superior that that abode. This is nothing alien my friend! That supreme abode, beyond which nothing superior exists is the Sahasrara Chakra which is actually the abode of Shiva.

The below verse of Upanishad clearly states that the one who treads through the shat-chakras reaches the supreme abode of Vishnu beyond which nothing superior exists.We have already analyzed and proved who is internally praised under the expressions of Vishnu’s strides. We have understood from above analysis that Shakti travels through the Meru Mountain (backbone) spanning the three micro world and its regions (earth, intermediary space, and heaven present inside the Sushumna nerve) in three steps viz. piercing Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi; hence she is sung under the name of Vishnu. We’ve also seen earlier that above the Rudra granthi exists the Supreme abode which is called Sahasrara. There is nothing superior to Sahasrara.


“shhaDadhvaparivartako vaishhNavaM parama.n |
dhaamaiti bhagavaa.nshchaitasmaadya eva.n veda . athaitasmaadapara.n |” (Tripura Tapini Upanishad 1:22)
“He who treads the six paths (Shat-chakras) reaches the seat of Vishnu. Whoso knows thus (reaches that seat). Nothing besides this (exists), says the Lord”.
So, from above verse what do we learn? Whichever Yogi travels through the Shat Chakras through Kundalini awakening, reaches the supreme abode of Vishnu beyond which there is nothing superior. Now, the question is – Does that supreme abode really belong to Vishnu? Answer is – Not at all if you literally meant him to be ‘Vishnu’. That supreme abode actually belongs to Shiva and his consort Tripurasundari who exists as Kundalini and is mystically called under the name of ‘Vishnu’. So, there ‘Vishnu’ means Goddess Uma.

The below verses clearly states that ‘Sahasrara’ is the abode of Shiva.And that abode is supreme without a second because it gives liberation. It gives the highest state.

“mUlAdhArAdiShaTchakra.n shaktisthAnamudIritam.h |
kaNThAdupari mUrdhAnta.n shAMbhava.n sthAnamuchyate |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:53)
“The six Chakras beginning with Muladhara are said to be the seat of Sakti (Goddess). From the neck to the top of the head (sahasrara) is said to be the seat of Sambhu (Shiva).

“rudragranthi.n cha bhittvaiva kamalaani bhinatti shhaT.h |
sahasrakamale shaktiH shivena saha modate |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1:86)
“Then it pierces Rudragranthi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or chakras). Then Sakti is happy with Shiva in Sahasrara Kamala (1000 lotuses seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest Avastha (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude”.
So, this is why Rudra (Shiva) protects the secret name of the cows in Vishnu’s supreme abode (Which is for namesake Vishnu’s abode, but in fact its Shiva’s own abode). During one of my debates in Orkut.com forums, one Vaishnava friend wrote a funny point during our argument; he said “Rudra is the protector of cows in Vishnu’s Vaikuntha” to mean Rudra as a demi-god subordinate of Vishnu. It makes me laugh seeing the ignorance of the people.


Well, coming back to the topic let’s see another  two verses which are no doubt too big to be read at one glance; however we need to read and understand it. In summary, they say that the Kundalini (Prana) which travels through Sushumna after reaching Sahasrara achieves Kaivalya (liberation) for the Yogi, and the next verse says that, the supreme seat of Vishnu  is nothing but the essence (real meaning) of Rudra. So, it is again clear that the Sahasrara which is the seat of Brahman (Shiva) is called as the seat of Vishnu because Vishnu is an epithet used to call Goddess Uma in Vedas and Upanishads.
“athaanyatraapyuktam.h:  uurdhvagaa naaDii suShumnaakhyaa praaNasa~nchaariNii taalvantarvichchhinnaa tayaa praaNo~Nkaaramanoyuktayordhvamutkramet.h taalvadhyaagraM parivartya indriyaaNyasa.nyojya mahimaa mahimaana.n niriikShetaa  tatoniraatvakameti  niraatmakatvaanna sukhaduHkhabhaagbhavati   kevalatva.n labhataa ityeva.n hyaaha: paraH puurvaM pratiShThaapya nigR^ihiitaanila.n tataH | tiirtvaa paaramapaareNa pashchaadyu~njiita muurdhvani |”(Maitrayani Upanishad 6:21)
“And thus it has been said elsewhere: The artery, called Sushumnâ, going upwards (from the heart to the Brahmarandhra), serving as the passage of the Prâna (Kundalini), is divided within the palate. Through that artery, when it has been joined by the breath (held in subjection), by the sacred syllable Om, and by the mind (absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman), let him proceed upwards, and after turning the tip of the tongue to the palate, without using any of the organs of sense, let greatness perceive greatness. From thence he goes to selflessness, and through selflessness he ceases to be an enjoyer of pleasure and pain, he obtains aloneness (kevalatva, final deliverance). And thus it is said:‘Having successively fixed the breath, after it had been restrained, in the palate, thence having crossed the limit (the life), let him join himself afterwards to the limitless (Brahman) in the crown (sahasrara) of the head.‘”.

“athaanyatraapyuktam.h: yathaa vaapsu chaariNaH shaakunikaH suutrayantreNoddhR^ityodare.agnau juhotyeva.n vaa va khalvimaanpraaNaanomityanenoddhR^ityaanaamaye.agnau juhoti  atastaptorvivaso.atha yathaa taptorvi saarpistR^iNakaaShThasa.nsparshenojjvalatiityeva.n vaa va khalvasaavapraaNaakhyaH praaNasa.nsparshenojjvalati  atha yadujjvalatyetadbrahmaNo ruupa.n chaitadviShNoH paramaM padam.h  chaitadrudrasya rudratvametattadaparimitadhaa chaatmaana.n vibhajya puurayatiimaa.n lokaanityeva.n hyaaha vahneshcha yadvatkhalu visphuli~NgaaH suuryaanmayuukhaashcha tathaiva tasyapraaNaadayo vai punareva tasmaad abhyuchcharantiiha yathaakrameNa |” (Maitrayani Upanishad 6:26)
“And thus it has also been said elsewhere: As a sportsman, after drawing out the denizens of the waters with a net, offers them (as a sacrifice) in the fire of his stomach, thus are these Prânas (vital airs), after they have been drawn out with the syllable Om, offered in the faultless fire (Brahman). Hence he is like a heated vessel (full of clarified butter); for as the clarified butter in the heated vessel lights up, when touched with grass and sticks, thus does this being which is called Not-breath (Âtman) light up, when touched by the Prânas (the vital airs). And that which flares up, that is the manifest form of Brahman, that is the highest place of Vishnu; that is the essence of Rudra. And this, dividing his Self in endless ways, fills all these worlds. And thus it is said: ‘As the sparks from the fire, and as the rays from the sun, thus do his Prânas and the rest in proper order again and again proceed from him here on earth.’”

Now here is a direct verse which states a ‘to the point’ statement that when Prana (Kundalini) moves in the Sushumna, it reaches the seat of Vishnu. So, what is that seat? Doubtlessly – Sahasrara (the original seat of Maheshwara).

“aaku~nchanena kuNDalinyaaH kavaaTamudghaaTya mokshadvaara.n vibhedayet.h | yena maargeNa gantavya.n taddvaaraM mukhenaachchhaadya prasuptaakuNDalinii kuTilaakaaraa sarpavadveshhTitaa bhavati | saa shaktiryenachaalitaa syaatsa tu mukto bhavati | saa kuNDalinii kaNThordhvabhaage suptaa chedyoginaaM muktaye bhavati |bandhanaayaadho muuDhaanaam.h | iDaadimaargadvaya.n vihaaya sushhumnaamaargeNaagachchhettadvishhNoH paramaM padam.h |”  (Sandilya Upanishad 1:54)
“Having by contraction opened the door of Kundalini, one should force open the door of Moksha. Closing with her mouth the door through which one ought to go, the Kundalini sleeps spiral in form and coiled up like a serpent. He who causes this Kundalini to move – he is an emancipated person. If this Kundalini were to sleep in the part beyond the neck of any Yogin (means in Sahasrara), it goes towards his emancipation. (If it were to sleep) in the lower part of the body (means in mooladhara), it is for the bondage of the ignorant. Leaving the two Nadis, Ida and the other (Paingala), it (Kundalini) should move in the Susumna. (Travelling through Sushumna) There one reaches the supreme seat of Vishnu (means Sahasrara)”.

Now, when it is clear what is that “parama padam”, let’s discuss something more about that Sahasrara. Why the Sahasrara looks like an eye in the heaven? The Supreme abode which looks like an eye kind of figure is actually the Brahmarandhra (a micro hole) at which the Yogis always meditate. Through that orifice yogi has an option to pierce his self and make it one with the Supreme self (Shiva). In fact, in Yoga it is said that when Kundalini awakens, beyond the Rudra Granthi one can see his own third eye. That third eye which is the eye of wisdom (jnana netram) is nothing but this eye kind of fissure called as Brahma Randhram which is the gate to liberation.

“brahmarandhra.n nirvANachakram |tatra sUchikAgR^ihetara.n dhUmrashikhAkAra.n dhyAyet | tatrajAlandharapIThaM mokShapradaM bhavatIti parabrahmachakram |” (Soubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad 3:08)
“Brahman-orifice (brahmarandhra) is the wheel of nirvana. There should one meditate on the opening shaped like a thread of smoke, thinner than a needle. There is the seat of meshes, the yielder of release. Therefore, it is the wheel of supreme Brahman”.

“yasyedaM maNDalaM bhitvA mAruto yAti mUrdhani |yatra tatra mriyedvApi na sa bhUyo.abijAyate | na sa bhUyo.abhijAyata |” (Amritanada Upanishad 39)
“That man is never reborn wherever he may die, whose breath goes out of the head after piercing through this Mandala (of the pineal gland). That man is never reborn”.

Brahma-Randram is a gate to Sahasrara which is a place of liberation. The following Upanisahd clearly says that the person who understands the seat of Maheshwara truly, attains Kaivalya (liberation).

“kodaNDadvayamadhye tu brahmarandhreshhu shaktitaH |
svaatmaanaM purushhaM pashyenmanastatra laya.n gatam.h |
ratnaani jyotsninaada.n tu bindumaaheshvaraM padam.h |
ya eva.n veda purushhaH sa kaivalya.n samashnuta |” (Dhyana Bindu Upanishad 104b-105)
“Between the two brows in the Brahma-hole, one should see Purusha with Sakti as his own Atman. Then his Manas is absorbed there. That man attains Kaivalya who understands the gems, moonlight, Nada, Bindu and the seat of Maheshvara (the great Lord)”.

Conclusion: This is enough to understand what the Supreme Seat of Vishnu is. The lofty station of Vishnu that is praised in Vedas is nothing but Lord Shiva’s abode (Sahasrara) and it is called Vishnu’s supreme seat because Vishnu is a symbolic representative of Uma. It is in fact the supreme seat of Uma where she unites herself with her consort Shiva.

2.3. Vishnu places his highest step at the place of sacrifice


The same Veda also states that Vishnu puts his highest step at the place of congregation (sacrifice). This sacrificial place is the highest place.
“viṣṇornu kaṃ vīryāṇi pra vocaṃ yaḥ pārthivāni vimamerajāṃsi | yo askabhāyaduttaraṃ sadhasthaṃ vicakramāṇastredhorughāyaḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:154:1)
“I WILL declare the mighty deeds of Viṣṇu, of him who measured out the earthly regions,
Who propped the highest place of congregation, thrice setting down his footstep, widely striding”.

Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:


Before explaining what is that highest place of congregation (a place where people assemble for worship / sacrifice), let me first discuss the point of Vishnu measuring the “earthly regions”. Well, some people misinterpret this verse and say that Vishnu also strides horizontally (spanning the earth widely). But my friends! Earthly regions (pārthivāni) don’t mean to be earth alone. When we look inside, we have all the three regions (earth, atmosphere and sky) within us; however, when we consider our body as a whole which is made up of five elements (panchabhoutika shareera), this entire body is earthly within which we have three regions Bhumi, Antariksha, and Akasha situated. Therefore this is yet another way of expressing the same truth about Vishnu’s three strides which span earth, atmosphere and sky where these three regions have been collectively considered as one single earthly region because all these three exists within our body which is earthly (panchabhoutika).
Within this Panchabhoutika Deha (body made of five elements) exists the Seven divine Chakras along the spine which is Mahameru Mountain. All the 33 categories of gods reside along the spine.  Through these Seven regions viz. Mooladhara, Svadhishthana, Manipooraka, Anahata, Vishuddha, Ajna, ahd Sahasrara; Goddess Tripurasundari pervades as Kundalini. And Vedas mystically glorify her under the name of Vishnu. This is the reason why Vedas hailed Vishnu for pervading through Seven regions of the earth as follows.

“ato devā avantu no yato viṣṇurvicakrame | pṛthivyāḥ saptadhāmabhiḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:22:16)
“The Gods be gracious unto us even from the place whence Viṣṇu strode Through the seven regions of the earth!”

Kundalini whom Vedas called under a pseudonym ‘Vishnu’ pervades as the fire of consciousness (Chit Shakti) awakening our divine consciousness and divinity at every Chakra she penetrates. Therefore her form is of the form of Fire of consciousness (Chidagni). This is why Vedas have clearly called out the same concept for Kundalini-Agni (Chidagni) as pervading through the seven abodes / pathways as follows.

“sapta dhāmāni pariyannamartyo dāśad dāśuṣe sukṛtemāmahasva |
suvīreṇa rayiṇāghne svābhuvā yasta ānaṭsamidhā taṃ juṣasva |” (Rig Veda 10:122:3)
“Immortal, wandering round the seven stations (sapta dhāmāni), give, a liberal Giver, to the pious worshipper,Wealth, Agni, with brave sons and ready for his use: welcome the man who comes with fuel unto thee”.

The above verse clearly states the point we discussed. Apart from that notice here that – it says “welcome the man who comes with fuel unto thee”. What is the fuel? Fuel is the Pranayama (Rechaka, Pooraka, and Kumbhaka) which keeps kindling the Chidagni within us and that’s how Kundalini propels upwards. Now, how the fire of Atman (Kundalini) is constantly lit in our bodies is described in Shatapatha Brahmana as follows. The inflow-outflow of Prana is the sacrifice that keeps the innermost Chidagni fire (Kundalini) always lit. But these Pranas (breaths) are also nothing but fire. That is to say, the sacrificer (Creatures who breathe), kindles the fire by using fire (kindles Chidagni by using Prana). The below verse confirms this fact that Agni is indeed this Prana which in turn produces Agni (Chidagni).
“tadyatrainamado manthanti | tajjātamabhiprāṇiti prāṇo vā
agnirjātamevainametatsantaṃ janayati sa punarapāniti tadenamantarātmannādhatte so
‘syaiṣo ‘ntarātmannagnirāhito bhavati |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:2:2:15)
“Now, when, on that occasion, they produce that (fire) by churning, then he (the sacrificer) breathes (blows) upon it, when produced; for fire (Agni) indeed is breath (prana): he thereby produces the one thus produced. He again draws in his breath: thereby he establishes that (fire) in his innermost soul; and that fire thus becomes established in his innermost soul”.

The below verse clarifies in more detail about the Prana being fires.

“te vā ete prāṇā eva yadagnayaḥ | prāṇodānāvevāhavanīyaśca gārhapatyaśca vyāno
‘nvāhāryapacanaḥ |”(Shatapatha Brahmana 2:2:2:18)
“The (sacrificial) fires, assuredly, are those breaths: the Âhavanîya and Gârhapatya are the out-breathing and the in-breathing; and the Anvâhârya-pakana is the through-breathing”.

Now, again getting back to the point let me show evidence which states the pervasiveness of Agni (Kundalini) within seven chakras.


“sapta maryādāḥ kavayastatakṣustāsāmekāmidabhyaṃhuro ghāt |
āyorha skambha upamasya nīḷe pathāṃvisarghe dharuṇeṣu tasthau |” (Rig Veda 10:5:6)
“Seven are the pathways which the wise have fashioned; to one of these may come the troubled mortal. He (Chidagni) standeth in the dwelling of the Highest (Sahasrara), a Pillar (Skhambha), on sure ground where paths are parted”.

The above verse is again a testimony of the oneness of Shiva and Shakti. The Jataveda Agni which exists within us is nothing but the Skhambha (Jwala Linga) of Shiva. If we see this verse as speaking about Chidagni (Kundalini Shakti) then also it is true because she takes the Jeeva to one of the seven chakras based on the karma and Sadhana of the Jeeva. Note that if a Yogi stops elevating is Kundalini after a certain chakra, he becomes awakened till that level of realization only, so only that Yogi who does rigorous Sadhana (practice) with determination and patience, and finally succeeds in raising his Kundalini till Sahasrara, he becomes emancipated, he becomes liberated. Otehrwise at each Chakra level there are other benefits of opening that chakra with Kundalini. Like for instance, Svadhisthana chakra which when gets opened with Kundalini, a person becomes sexually healthy, when manipooraka chakra becomes energized, a person’s digestive system becomes healthy, his digestive disorders gets removed and so on so forth. However, only after piercing the Ajna chakra, divine wisdom is obtained and after piercing the Sahasrara Chakra one gets liberated beyond the cycle of births and deaths.

Therefore the above verse is very true which says seven are the pathways and to one of them a Yogi reaches (based on his effort and interest). However, the Kundalini stands as a Skhambha from the highest heaven (Sahasrara) for the emancipated one.

Now let me come back to the original point of discussion which I am yet to explain. The point of discussion was to identify which place is the place of congregation where Vishnu placed his highest step.  A place of congregation means a sacred place where everyone assembles for worship; it also means a place of sacrifice. The below analysis is a bit lengthy and complex, so I would urge the readers to pay utmost attention and comprehend the message.

Yajurveda Satapatha Brahmana states that a person who wants to gain excellence (i.e., to gain liberation) needs to sacrifice. A man who wants to reach the realm of splendor, the supreme station where divine light (Brahman) exists, to become one with the Brahman (as the sole goal), he has to perform a sacrifice. What kind of sacrifice? The answer is he has to perform a sacrifice with the three Vishnu strides.

“atha viṣṇukramān kramate | devānvā eṣa prīṇāti yo yajata etena yajñena ‘rgbhiriva
tvadyajurbhiriva tvadāhutibhiriva tvatsa devānprītvā teṣvapitvī bhavati teṣvapitvī
bhūtvā tānevābhiprakrāmati |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:8)
“He now strides the (three) Vishnu-strides. He who sacrifices assuredly gratifies the gods. In gratifying the gods by that sacrifice–partly by riks, partly by yagus, partly by oblations–he acquires a share among them; and having acquired a share among them, he goes to them”.

We have already understood what the sacrifice with Vishnu strides is! So, in the same lines, the above verse states that one has to perform a sacrifice with Riks, and Yajus (Divine wisdom of Vedas), and by oblations (which are nothing but the channelizing of inflow and outflow of Pranas). When a Yogi performs this inward sacrifice, he strides the three Vishnu steps (which is nothing but his Kundalini rises upwards through the three pranic knots), and he goes to Gods (means he reaches the heaven which is Sahasrara).

Now the below verse explains that when a Yogi performs this Kundalini-Yajna the all pervading power Vishnu (read Tripurasundari) takes the Jiva from earth (mooladhara) to upwards till Sahasrara and gives Vikranti (all pervasiveness)to the Yogi , means the Yogi becomes one with the all pervading Purusha and becomes Brahman. This is the greatest state of liberation which all Upanishads teach us.

“etasmaiviṣṇuryajño vikrāntiṃ vikramate tasmādviṣṇukramān kramate tadvā ita eva
parācīnam bhūyiṣṭhā iva kramante |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:9)
“And this same pervading power Vishnu, as the sacrifice, obtains all-pervading power (vikrânti)by his strides for him (the sacrificer): for this reason he stridesthe Vishnu-strides. Now it is indeed from this (earth) that most (beings) go (upwards)”.

When emancipated after his Kundalini merges into Sahasrara, the Yogi thinks the following. Here realm of light is the Sahasrara.
“sa prekṣate | aganma svariti devā vai svaraganma devānityevaitadāha saṃ
jyotiṣābhūmeti saṃ devairabhūmetyevaitadāha |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:14)
“He looks, with the text, ‘We have gone to the realm of light (svar).’ Therealm of light assuredly means the gods: hence he thereby says, ‘We have gone to the gods.’– ‘We have united with splendour’ (he looks on the Âhavanîya fire): he thereby says, ‘We have united with the gods.’”.


The final resort which is Sahasrara is theabode of Brahman (Shiva), however it being the realm of greatest splendor of wisdom; it is symbolically mapped with Sun. Even the Gayatri Mantra which eulogizes Savitar (sun god) as the supreme Brahman, actually eulogizes Bhagawan Rudra only. (For more details one may refer to my article titled “Rudra! – The God of Sandhya Vandanam and Gayatri Mantra”).

“atha sūryamudīkṣate | saiṣā gatireṣāpratiṣṭhā tadetāṃ gatimetām pratiṣṭhāṃ gacati
tasmātsūryamudīkṣate |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:15)
“He then looks up to the sun, for that is the final goal that the safe resort. To that final goal, to that resort he thereby goes: for this reason he looks up to the sun”.

The truth is – Gayatri is “Chatushpada-Gayatri” (has four feet) however; it is called “tripada-gayatri” (having three feet) because only three feet of it is revealed. The fourth foot is supramundane and that foot is nothing but the Sun (Brahman) as Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad (VV-xiv-3) proclaims as given below.

“athᾱsya etad eva turīyaṁ darśatam padam parorajᾱ ya eṣa tapati; yad vai caturthaṁ tat turīyam; darśatam padam iti, dadṛśa iva. hy eṣaḥ; parorajᾱ iti, sarvam u hy evaiṣa raja upari upari tapati. evaṁ haiva śriyᾱ, yaśasᾱ tapati, yo’syᾱ etad evam padaṁ veda |” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad VV-xiv-3)
“Now its Turiya, apparently visible, supramundane foot is indeed this – the sun that shines. ‘Turiya’ means the fourth. ‘Apparently visible foot’, because he is seen, as it were. ‘Supramundane’, because he shines on the whole universe as its overlord. He who knows the fourth foot of the Gayatri to be such shines in the same way with splendour and fame”.

This means when Agni (Kundalini) takes the three steps (three feet of Gayatri), the Yogi attains the fourth foot viz. Brahman.

Well, coming back to sacrifice, let me reiterate – this sacrifice is not at all an outward driven ritual. There is no sacrifices which can make you (a human) stride the universe with three steps and take you to the abode of Brahman. Had it been like that, life would have been so easy for all of us. One could have spent life as per the will in enjoyments and finally would have done thatsacrifice and would have taken three mighty steps and ended up in emancipation. But that is far from reality. This is why I say all these sacrifices are internal to our body, and we have already proven this point in earlier sections.The outside world is same as what exists within us, and all the sacrifices and rituals are actually connected with our inner worlds.Not only is this, in fact all the sacrifices that are discusses in Vedic texts all internal in nature and not an outward ritual. Had they really been an outward driven ritual, then it would have been impossible for any priest to construct a fire altar of the size of the universe – Satapatha Brahmana (9:1:2:11) says, “bāhyenāgniṃ harati | ime vai lokā eṣo ‘gnirebhyastallokebhyo bahirdhā śucaṃ dadhāti | bahirvedīyaṃ vai vedirasyai tadbahirdhā śucaṃ dadhāti |”, which means, “Outside the fire-altar he throws it; for this fire-altar indeed is the same as these (three) worlds: he thus puts pain outside these worlds;–outside the sacrificial ground (vedi); for the Vedi is this (earth): he thus puts pain outside this earth”.  Now, tell me can you construct a sacrificial ground for me of the size of three worlds with the Vedi being the Earth itself? Did you understand the fallacy that prevails in the minds of the so called scholars who call the ritualistic portion of Vedas as ‘Karma Kanda’?
“piNDabrahmaaNDayoraikya.n li~Ngasuutraatmanorapi |
svaapaavyaakR^itayoraikya.n svaprakaashachidaatmanoH |”  (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1:81)
“The microcosm and the macrocosm are one and the same; so also the Linga and Sutratman, Svabhava (substance) and form and the self-resplendent light and Chidatma”.

“shariire sakala.n vishvaM pashyatyaatmaavibhedataH |
brahmaaNDo.ayaM mahaamaargo raajadantordhvakuNDalii |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 2:49)
“Then he sees the whole universe in his body as not being different from Atman. This path of the Urdhva-Kundalini (higher Kundalini), O chief of Kings, conquers the macrocosm”.

Even Mahabharata supports my point. Mahabharata clearly states what the real meaning of Sacrifice is. The below verses from Mahabharata Anu-Gita Parva should clarify my point to the readers that sacrifice in reality means an action that is internal to the body.

“nibodha daśa hotṝṇāṃ vidhānam iha yādṛśam| sarvam evātra vijñeyaṃ cittaṃ jñānam avekṣate | retaḥ śarīrabhṛt kāye vijñātā tu śarīrabhṛt | śarīrabhṛd gārhapatyas tasmād anyaḥ praṇīyate | tataś cāhavanīyas tu tasmin saṃkṣipyate haviḥ |” (MBH 14:21:1-3)
“Do thou understand, of what kind the institution is of the ten Hotris (sacrificing priests). The ear, the skin, the two eyes, the tongue, the nose, the two feet, the two hands, the genital organ, the lower duct, and speech,–these, O beautiful one, are the ten sacrificing priests. Sound and touch, colour and taste, scent, speech, action, motion, and the discharge of vital seed, of urine and of excreta, are the ten libations. The points of the compass, Quarters, Wind, Sun, Moon, Earth, Fire, Vishnu, Indra, Prajapati, and Mitra,–these, O beautiful one, are the ten (sacrificial) fires. The ten organs (of knowledge and action) are the sacrificing priests”.

Also, in Bhagawad Gita lord Shiva states through the mouth of his messenger (Krishna) the following thing. (N.B: To know how Bhagawad Gita is actually spoken by lord Shiva, refer my articles on Bhagwad Gita )


“adhibhutam ksaro bhavah purushas cadhidaivatam |
adhiyajno ’ham evatra dehe deha-bhrtam vara | (BG. 8.4)
“The physical region (Adhibhuta) is the perishable existence and Purusha or the Soul is the divine region (Adhidaivata). The Adhiyajna (Entity concerned with Sacrifice) is Myself, here in the body, O best of the embodied”.
So, it is again clear that the region of sacrifice (Adhi-Yajna) is the supreme region because that is the region which the supreme lord has said to be him. And it needs to be noted that Gita says that this region exists within the body. So, this point is in sync with my opinion and analysis.Also, the following verse from Shruti supports this point.

“ityadhordhvarajaH shukla.n shive tadanu maarutaH | praaNaapaanau samau yaati sadaa jaatau tathaiva cha | aadhibhautikadeha.n tu aadhidaivikavigrahe | deho.ativimala.n yaati chaativaahikataamiyaat.h | jaaDyabhaavavinirmuktamamala.n chinmayaatmakam.h | tasyaativaahikaM mukhya.n sarveshhaa.n tu madaatmakam.h |” (Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1:75, 1:77, 1:78)
“Thus Rajas-Sukla (seminal fluid) which rises up goes to Shiva along with Marut (Vayu); Prana and Apana which are always produced become equal.  Then this body which is Adhibhautika (composed of elements) becomes Adhidaivata (relating to a tutelar deity) and is thus purified. Then it attains the stage of Ativahika (Adiyajna). Then the body being freed from the inert state becomes stainless and of the nature of Chit. In it, the Ativahika becomes the chief of all, being of the nature of That”.

The region of sacrifice (Adi-Yajna) is called as Kurukshetra and Varanasi. We’ll see the references shortly. The Ajna chakra which is the summit or the meeting point of the three nAdis viz. Ida, Pingala, and Sushumna, that is the region of sacrifice (Adhiyajna). Above that region lies the Sahasrara Chakra which is the supreme heaven (not Indra’s heaven) the place of final beatitude, the place where Lord Shiva and Lalita Tripurasundari reside, that is the place of Brahma Jyoti, the Purusha the parabrahman!

Through the region of sacrifice (Adhiyajna) which is the place between the eyebrows and is called the “Ajna Chakra”when the vital airs (Kundalini) pierces upwards, it merges into the Parabrahman-Shiva in Sahasrara. That’s why it is called the place where Shiva imparts the Taraka Mantra (OM) to the departing vital airs and merges the Jiva within himself. Here are the evidences from Shruti.

“bR^ihaspatiruvaacha yaaj~navalkya.n yadanu kurukshetra.n | devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h | avimukta.n vai kurukshetra.n devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h | tasmaadyatra kvachana gachchhati tadeva manyeta tadavimuktameva | ida.n vai kurukshetra.n devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h | atra hi jantoH praaNeshhuutkramamaaNeshhu rudrastaarakaM brahma | vyaachashhTe yenaasaavamR^itii bhuutvaa mokshii bhavati | tasmaadavimuktameva nishheveta avimukta.n na | vimu~nchedevamevaitadyaaj~navalkyaH |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:01)
“Brihaspati (the preceptor of the gods) asked (the sage) Yajnavalkya: (Which is) the Kurukshetra, (the famous holy place that destroys sins and protects the good, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings ?
(Yajnavalkya replied): Avimukta is the Kurukshetra, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices to deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings (i.e. the middle of the eye-brows). Hence wherever one goes one shall think thus: This is the Kurukshetra, the place where the gods perform sacrifices to the deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings. This is the spot where, when the vital airs depart from the living person, Rudra imparts the mantra (Taraka Brahman) to him by which, becoming immortal, he attains liberation (final beatitude). Hence one shall resort to the Avimukta; shall not desert the Avimukta. (Brihaspati approved of the statement saying): ‘So it is, Yajnavalkya’, verily it is so, O, revered one! ‘It is so Yajnavalkya’.”

Lord Shiva is the redeemer and is the Avimukta (Ishwara).

“atha hainamatriH paprachchha yaaj~navalkya.n ya eshho.ananto.avyakta | aatmaa ta.n kathamaha.n vijaaniiyaamiti | sa hovaacha yaaj~navalkyaH so.avimukta upaasyo ya | eshho.ananto.avyakta aatmaa so.avimukte pratishhThita iti |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:02)
“Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How am I to realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied: That Avimukta (Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite and unmanifest, is established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara, possessed of attributes)’.”

This Avimukta viz. Lord Shiva resides in VARANASI which means beyond nose (nasi), which again implies the placeat the Ajna chakra (juncture of nose and eyebrows). This is the region of sacrifice (Adhi-Yajna) and is also called as Kurukshetra.

“so.avimuktaH kasminpratishhThita iti | varaNaayaa.n naashyaa.n cha madhye pratishhThita iti | kaa vai varaNaa kaa cha naashiiti | sarvaanindriyakR^itaandoshhaanvaarayatiiti tena varaNaa bhavati | sarvaanindriyakR^itaanpaapaannaashayatiiti tena naashii bhavatiiti | katama.n chaasya sthaanaM bhavatiiti . bhruvorghraaNasya cha yaH | sandhiH sa eshha dyaurlokasya parasya cha sandhirbhavatiiti . etadvai | sandhi.n sandhyaaM brahmavida upaasata iti . so.avimukta upaasya iti | so.avimukta.n j~naanamaachashhTe . yo vaitadeva.n vedeti |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:02)
“‘Which is that (place) where Avimukta is established?’ ‘
He is established in between varana and nasi’. ‘What is (meant by) varana and what (by) nasi ?’ ‘The varana is so called as it wards off all the faults committed by the (ten) organs (of perception and action). The nasi is so named as it destroys all sins committed by the (ten) organs. (The place between the varana and the nasi is the meeting place of the upper part of the nose and the centre of the eye brows). ‘Which is the seat of that (Avimukta)?’ ‘That, which is the (well known) juncture of the eye brows and the nose, is the juncture of heaven (in the form of the crown of the head) and this world (in the form at the end of the chin). The knowers of the Veda worship indeed this juncture (Samadhi) as Sandhya (in their daily worship). That Avimukta is to be worshipped. He who knows this thus (the true nature of the Avimukta), imparts the wisdom of the Avimukta (that the individual Self is no other than the attributeless Brahman, to his disciples)”.

From above verses we have understood that the Ajna chakra is called as “Kurukshetra” and “Varanasi” and that is the region of sacrifice (Adhiyajna); the same ahs been stated in Satapatha Brahmana as follows.

“teṣām kurukṣetram devayajanamāsa tasmādāhuḥ kurukṣetram devānāṃ
devayajanamiti tasmādyatra kva ca kurukṣetrasya nigacati tadeva manyata idam
devayajanamiti taddhi devānāṃ devayajanam |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 14.1.1.2)
“Their place of divine worship was Kurukshetra. Therefore people say that Kurukshetra is the gods’ place of divine worship: hence wherever in Kurukshetra one settles there one thinks, ‘This is a place for divine worship;’ for it was the gods’ place of divine worship”.

We have already analyzed in previous sections that the highest Granthi of Kundalini is located at the Ajna chakra. That is the Rudra-Granthi which Kundalini finally before entering into Sahasrara. And Ajna Chakra is the Adhi-Yajna (region of sacrifice) as proved in above analysis. Therefore it is once again proved that Vishnu’s third step which falls at the highest place of congregation is nothing but the Rudra-Granthi. Therefore it is once more proved that Vishnu’s three steps are in reality Tripurasundari’s movement through the three Granthis along the spine within the Sushumna.

I feel sorry for the ignorance of those so called scholars who say “Vedas are divided into Karma Kanda and Gyana Kanda, and only Gyana Kanda talks about liberation”. The word ‘Veda’ itself is derived from the root ‘Vid’ which means ‘knowledge (gyanam)’. Then how come one of its portions is devoid of Gyana? People misunderstand all the Yajnas (Sacrifices) present in Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and other Vedic portions to be ritualistic and hence they call those sections as ‘Karma Kanda’. However, Vedas are always esoteric in nature; they speak outwardly something but mean inwardly something else. And as proven in above analysis, all Yajnas (sacrifices) are internal in nature and they also talk about the pathway towards emancipation. And only through the grace of Mahadeva one can understand the complexities of Vedas.


Conclusion: It is clear from above analysis that Vishnu who widely strides the seven earthly regions is none other than goddess Uma in the form of Kundalini within us striding through the seven Chakras. And the highest step of Vishnu which is said to be placed at the region of congregation is again the Rudra-Granthi which Kundalini pierces at her third step.

2.4. What milk flows from Vishnu’s supreme abode?

The place where Vishnu placed his highest foot is the abode where the righteous Sages long to go for, where they remain in bliss. From that supreme abode springs the streams of nourishment (note meath is an archaic British English word which means nourishment).

“tadasya priyamabhi pātho aśyāṃ naro yatra devayavo madanti |  urukramasya sa hi bandhuritthā viṣṇoḥ pade parame madhva utsaḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:154:5)
“May I attain to that his well-loved mansion where men devoted to the Gods are happy. For there springs, close akin to the Wide-Strider, the well of meath (nourishment) in Viṣṇu’s highest footstep”.

Now, what are those streams which provide nourishment from the supreme abode of Vishnu? The answer is given in the below verse. There are lot of milk giving cows which storm their milk downwards, their milk never gets exhausted and is ambrosia. Such a great abode is that abode.

“ā dhenavo dhunayantāmaśiśvīḥ sabardughāḥ śaśayā apradughdhāḥ | navyā-navyā yuvatayo bhavantīrma… |” (Rig Veda 3:55:16)
“Let the milch-kine that have no calves storm downward, yielding rich nectar, streaming, unexhausted, These who are ever new and fresh and youthful. Great is the Gods’ supreme and sole dominion”.

Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:

This current verse under analysis is again a strong testimony of the fact that Vishnu’s highest abode is Maheshwara’s abode (Sahasrara). The milk that flows from so called Vishnu’s abode is the divine nectar of immortality (soma) that flows from Sahasrara the real abode of Shiva. We’ll see how. Let’s proceed.

In the Satapatha Brahmana episode of sacrifice also the same thing has been stated as follows.

“sa udīkṣate | svayambhūrasi śreṣṭho raśmirityeṣa vai śreṣṭho
raśmiryatsūryastasmādāha svayambhūrasi śreṣṭho raśmiriti varcodā asi varco me
dehīti tvevāhaṃ bravīmīti ha smāha yājñavalkyastaddhyeva brāhmaṇenaiṣṭhavyaṃ
yadbrahmavarcasī syādityuto ha smāhaupoditeya eṣa vāva mahyaṃ gā dāsyati godā
gā me dehītyevaṃ yaṃ kāmaṃ kāmayate so ‘smai kāmaḥ samṛdhyate |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:9:3:16)
“He looks up, with the text, ‘Self-existent art thou, the best ray of light!’ The sun is indeed the best ray of light, and therefore he says, ‘Self-existent art thou, the best ray of light.’ ‘”Light-bestowing art thou: give me light (varchas)!” so say I,’ said Yâgñavalkya, ‘for at this indeed the Brâhmana should strive, that he be brahmavarchasin (illumed by the brahma, or sacred writ).’ Aupoditeya, on the other hand, said, ‘He indeed will give me cows: (therefore I say), “Cow-giving art thou, give me cows!”‘ Thus whatever wish he (the sacrificer) entertains (and expresses), that wish is granted to him”.

In the above verse the cows are symbolicto the Sahasrara where from divine milk issues out. The best ray of light stated there doesn’t imply that of the Sun; rather, it is the brilliance of the Atman, the Parabrahman residing within the Sahasrara. Thisis stated in below verse. And we have discussed in previous sections who resides in Sahasrara. Therefore one can easily understand that the Atman which shines in Sahasrara is Shiva alone.

“vyomarandhragato naado maayuura.n naadameva cha |
kapaalakuhare madhye chaturdvaarasya madhyame |
tadaatmaa raajate tatra yathaa vyomni divaakaraH |” (Dhyana Bindu Upanishad 103-104a)
“When it goes to the hole of Akasa, it resembles that of the peacock. In the middle of the cave of the skull between the four doors shines Atman, like the sun in the sky”.
When a Yogi becomes successful to raise his Kundalini till Sahasrara, then by performing Khechari Mudra (a form of Yogic meditation) he experiences the divine ambroisia flowing from Sahasrara downwards. That milk is nectar (Amrita / Ambrosia), which gives immortality within the same life itself. That means, after attaining one’s Kundalini inside the Sahasrara Chakra and uniting the Shakti with her consort Shiva in the crown of the head (Sahasrara chakra), the Yogi Experiences supreme bliss, a divine never ending orgasm due to the unification of Shiva and Shakti. That state (Avastha) is the highest Avastha due to which Yogis love to remain in Samadhi for days together experiencing that heavenly bliss.


There are two options for the Yogi after succeeding in Kundalini awakening till Sahasrara. One option is  he can unite his Prana through Kundalini into Shiva (the Parabrahman) in Sahasrara and shed his body. This process of uniting the self (jiva) in the inner/higher self (Atman) and discarding the body would make that Jiva attain “Sayujya Mukti” and he never returns back to this world. He gets the highest form of liberation because he becomes one with Parabrahman (Shiva / Atman).

Second option is, if that Yogi likes to retain his body for some years and still experience the supreme bliss of liberation, he has that facility as well. He can live as many years as he wishes by drinking the milk that flows from Sahasrara through Khechari Mudra.  This is the reason why Vasishtha, Agastya, Angirasa kind of Brahma-rishis, are seen living from krita age to Dwapara (and beyond). How do you think they could do miracles, possess supreme powers? How do you think Agastya drank Entire Ocean in three sips?  How could they perform extraordinary feats? The answer is – for a Yogi who could successfully awaken his Kundalini Shakti till Sahasrara, there is nothing impossible. He attains the eight siddhis like Anima, Garima, Mahima etc. He bcomes a living and embodied Prabrahman in that very same body. He can live with that body till the time he wishes to live and that is possible because he regularly drinks the milk flowing out of the Sahasrara. Well, after learning this background, let’s see some verses from Shruti related to the same.

Divine nectar flows from Sahasrara which a Yogi can see after getting his Kundalini fully awakened.

“evametAsu nADIShu dharanti dashavAyavaH | eva.n nADIgati.n vAyugati.n j~nAtvA vichakShaNaH | samagrIvashiraH kAyaH sa.nvR^itAsyaH sunishchalaH | nAsAgre chaiva hR^inmadhye bindumadhye turIyakam.h | sravantamamR^itaM pashyennetrAbhyA.n susamAhitaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:31-33a)
“Thus ten Vayus move in these Nadis. A wise man who has understood the course of Nadis and Vayus should, after keeping his neck and body erect with his mouth closed, contemplate immovably upon Turyaka (Atman) at the tip of his nose, in the centre of his heart and in the middle of Bindu and should see with a tranquil mind through the (mental) eyes, the nectar flowing from there”.
The IdA nAdi is called as Chandra nAdi, pingala nAdi is called sUrya nAdi and the sushumna is called as Agni nAdi because sushumna contains the Chidagni (the Kundalini Shakti) travelling through it. When all these three nAdis merge, that is called as Ajna Chakra at the place of the juncture of eyebrows. That place is also called as Trikoota and Triveni Sangamam also. Therefore when Kundalini pierces that place which is otherwise called as Rudra-Granthi, then it reaches Sahasrara chakra, and then the Yogi achieves his highest state and gains divine bliss and can drink the nectar as well. So, the following verse affirms the same truth that the phenomenon of unifying the life forces through the Ida, Pingala and Sushumna in Ajna chakra gives you the divine milk of Sahasrara.


“puTadvaya.n samAkR^iShya vAyuH sphurati satvaram.h |
somasUryAgnisaMbadhAjjAnIyAdamR^itAya vai |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:63)
“The two Putas (cavities) being drawn, Vayu throbs quickly. The union of moon, sun and Agni should be known in relationof nectar”.
The below verse says that nectar will flow from the place of the moon. Note this carefully, it is pregnant with a great meaning.


“anenaabhyaasayogena nityamaasanabandhataH | chitta.n viliinataameti bindurno yaatyadhastathaa | rechakaM puurakaM muktvaa vaayunaa sthiiyate sthiram.h | naanaa naadaaH pravartante sa.nsravechchandramaNDalam.h |” (Yoga Shikha Upanishad 1:126-127)
“If we sit in an asana and continuously practice, the bindu will cease from going down. Without Pooraka and Rechaka, the Prana would stand in Kumbhaka for a very long time. You would hear different types of sound. The nectar will start flowing from the place of the moon”.
Now what is the place of that moon which gives this divine nectar? This is clearly answered below. It is Sahasrara alone.


“uDDiyaaNo.apyayaM bandho mR^ityumaata~Ngakesarii |
badhnaati hi shirojaatamadhogaaminabhojalam.h |” (Dhyana Bindu Upanishad 1:77)
“This Uddiyana Bandha is a lion to the elephant of death, since it binds the water (or nectar) of the Akasa which arises in the head and flows down”.
So, by relating both these verses did you understand why Chandra is also called as ‘Soma (nectar)’?It is because Chandra (moon) is symbolic of immortality (Soma being a drink symbolic of immortality).  The following verse from Satapatha Brahmana supports this.


“somo rājā devānāmannaṃ yaccandramāḥ sa |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:6:4:5)
“Now this king Soma, the food of the gods, is no other than the moon”.

Did you even understand why lord Shiva has a crescent moon on his head?  Why can’t he place moon on his chest or tie it on his hand or leg? The reason is, Chandra is Soma (Nectar) and is symbol of immortality. Immortality or the state of kaivalya or liberation –whatever you term it as, it exists not in scriptures, it exists not in holy shrines, and it exists not in anything else. The highest form of Liberation which gives true immortality and releases us from the cycle of births and deaths lies in one’s own crown (head) in the Sahasrara chakra. That is the teaching what Mahadeva gives us by wearing moon on his head. My father Lord Shiva is the greatest Guru because he has his own unique style of teaching. He teaches the Sanatkumara kind of Brahma-Rishis through silence in the form of Dakshinamurty. By remaining naked (Digambara) he teaches that there is no garment that can encompass and cover him up; therefore his garments are the direction themselves. By remaining unaffected by Kama, he becomes a role model for all those who stride the path of celibacy. By remaining as the Adi-Dampati (primordial couple) he becomes a role model to all those who stride the path of Gruhasthas. By wandering in Mountains and forests he sets an example for all Vanaprasthas. By carrying a Sanyasa-Danda he leads all Sanyasis by example by being the foremost Sanyasi. What can I describe about that beloved father of mine, who teaches me and this entire world with his unique, attractive and sometimes crazy methods of teachings? And pathetic it is to see such a great god being called today as ‘demi-god’ by the ‘demons of kaliyuga who live under the guise of devotees’.

Well, let me come back to the main course of discussion now. The below verses are evidences which account for the ancient sages remaining deathless within the same bodies. As discussed earlier, he can either cast of his body and become one with Parabrahman (Shiva) or can live in the same body for any length of time.

“samaadhiH samataavasthaa jiivaatmaparamaatmanoH |
yadi svadehamutsrashhTumichchhaa chedutsR^ijetsvayam.h |” (Yoga tattwa Upanishad 107)
“Samadhi is that state in which the Jivatman (lower self) and the Paramatman (higher Self) are differenceless (or of equal state). If he desires to lay aside his body, he can do so”.
“parabrahmaNi liiyeta na tasyotkraantirishhyate |
atha no chetsamutsrashhTu.n svashariiraM priya.n yadi |
sarvalokeshhu viharannaNimaadiguNaanvitaH|” (Yoga tattwa Upanishad 108-109a)
“He will become absorbed in Parabrahman and does not require Utkranti (going out or up). But if he does not so desire and if his body is dear to him, he lives in all the worlds possessing the Siddhis of Anima, etc”

He gains all siddhis (powers) and walks among the mankind as the embodied form of the parabrahman. His immortality is obtained by the divine nectar of Sahasrara.


“labhyate yadi tasyaiva yogasiddhiH kare sthitaa | atiitaanaagata.n vetti khecharii cha bhaved{}dhruvam.h | amarii.n yaH pibennitya.n nasya.n kurvandine dine | vajroliimabhyasennityamamaroliiti kathyate |” (Yoga tattwa Upanishad 127-128)
“If the Yoga Siddhis are ever to be attained, he only has them within his reach. He knows the past and the future and certainly moves in the air. He who drinks of the nectar thus is rendered immortal day by day. He should daily practice Vajroli. Then it is called Amaroli (which makes him ‘amar’ (deathless)”.
With some Yogic postures one can prevent the wastage of the divine milk of immortality flowing down from Sahasrara as mentioned below.


“tato jaalandharo bandhaH karmaduHkhaughanaashanaH |
jaalandhare kR^ite bandhe karNasa.nkochalakshaNe |
na piiyuushhaM patatyagnau na cha vaayuH pradhaavati |” (Dhyana Bindu Upanishad 78-79a)
“The Jalandhara Bandha is the destroyer of all the pains of the throat. When this Jalandhara Bandha which is destroyer of the pains of the throat is performed, then nectar does not fall on Agni nor does the Vayu move”.
With Khechari Mudra one can drink the nectar.

“kapaalakuhare jihvaa pravishhTaa vipariitagaa | bhruvorantargataa dR^ishhTirmudraa bhavati khecharii |” (Dhyana Bindu upanishad 79b-80a)
“When the tongue enters backwards into the hole of the skull, then there is the Mudra of vision latent in the eyebrow called Khechari”.

“antaH kapaalakuhare jihvaa.n vyaavR^itya dhaarayet.h |
bhruumadhyadR^ishhTirapyeshhaa mudraa bhavati khecharii |” (Yoga tattwa Upanishad 117b-118a)

“With the tongue thrust into the interior cavity of the head (or throat) and with the eyes intent on the spot between the eyebrows, this is called Khechari-Mudra”.Because of the divine nectar the Yogi becomes unaffected by Karma or illness.

“piiDyate na cha rogeNa lipyate na cha karmaNaa | badhyate na cha kaalena yasya mudrasti khecharii | chitta.n charati khe yasmaajjihvaa bhavati khegataa | tenaishhaa khecharii naama mudraa siddhanamaskR^itaa |” (Dhyana Bindu Upanishad 81b-83a)
“He who practises this Mudra is not affected by illness or Karma; nor is he bound by the limitations of time. Since Chitta moves in the Kha (Akasa) and since the tongue has entered (in the Mudra) Kha (viz., the hole in the mouth). Therefore the Mudra is called Khechari and worshipped by the Siddhas”.

He on account of drinking the nectar becomes deathless, wins over sleep and disease, he doesn’t get affected by hunger, thirst etc.


“na rogo maraNa.n tasya na nidraa na kshudhaa tR^ishhaa |
na cha muurchchhaa bhavettasya yo mudraa.n vetti khechariim.h |” (Dhyana Bindu upanishad 80b-81a)
“He who knows the Mudra Khechari has not disease, death, sleep, hunger, thirst, or swoon”.
Moreover, the seminal fluid which exists in our body, is verily the Parabrahman (Shiva) himself. This is why through perfect celibacy one can prolong the life span. The semen is very vital and it should not be wasted. Wastage of semen leads towards shortening of lifespan and retention of the same awards deathlessness. Yogi who practices the Khechari mudra never loses his semen. It is the same divine nectar which when brought down to perineum gets transformed as the seed and that’s how that liquid gains the power of recreating the father as his own child. This is why that vital fluid (semen) is termed as parabrahman in shruti. Losing this seed takes you towards death, and retention of it through celibacy makes you deathless.


“khecharyaa mudrayaa yasya vivara.n lambikordhvataH| binduH ksharati no yasya kaaminyaali~Ngitasya cha | yaavadbinduH sthito dehe taavanmR^ityubhaya.n kutaH |” (Dhyana Bindu Upanishad 83b-84)
“He whose hole (or passage) above the Uvula is closed (with the tongue backwards) by means of Khechari-Mudra never loses his virility, even when embraced by a lovely woman. Where is the fear of death, so long as the Bindu (virility) stays in the body?”
“yaavadbaddhaa nabhomudraa taavadbindurna gachchhati | galito.api yadaa binduH saMpraapto yonimaNDale | vrajatyuurdhva.n haThaachchhaktyaa nibaddho yonimudrayaa |” (Dhyana Bindu upanishad 85-86a)
“Bindu does not go out of the body, so long as the Khechari-Mudra is practised. (Even) when Bindu comes down to the sphere of the perineum, it goes up, being prevented and forced up by violent effort through Yoni-Mudra”.

Here we can conclude that the milk that is said to flow from Vishnu’s abode is not really Vishnu’s abode but Sahasrara (Shiva’s abode), and this milk is the divine nectar of immortality (Soma) that flows out of Sahasrara post Kundalini awakening. But this is not the end, I have an important aspect of it to discuss. This milk is NOT just nectar of immortality, but it is the liquid Brahmagyanam also. And who is that cow which pours this milk would be suspence for now. How this milk is the liquid Brahmagyanama nd who produces this milk will be discussed in the immediately following section.

2.5. What’s meant by Vishnu’s protection, Rudra’s concealment and Vritra slaying by Indra?


Vishnu himself protects his supreme station as evident from the below verse. He upholds that supreme heaven which is the dwelling place of the immortals.

“viṣṇuritthā paramamasya vidvāñ jāto bṛhannabhi pātitṛtīyam | āsā yadasya payo akrata svaṃ sacetaso abhyarcantyatra |” (Rig Veda 10:1:3)
“Here, being manifested, lofty Viṣṇu, full wise, protects his own supremest station.
When they have offered in his mouth their sweet milk, to him with one accord they sing forth praises”.

“viṣṇurghopāḥ paramaṃ pāti pāthaḥ priyā dhāmānyamṛtādadhānaḥ | aghniṣṭā viśvā bhuvanāni veda ma… |” (Rig Veda 3:55:10)
“Viṣṇu, the guardian, keeps the loftiest station, upholding dear, immortal dwelling-places.
Agni knows well all these created beings. Great is the Gods’ supreme and sole dominion”.
Also, what is the connection between Indra slaying Vritra and and Vishnu’s strides? Why does Indra want Vishnu to stride for him to kill Vritra?

“āmāsu pakvamairaya ā sūryaṃ rohayo divi | gharmaṃ na sāman tapatā suvṛktibhirjuṣṭaṃ ghirvaṇase bṛhat |” (Rig Veda 8:89:12)
“Step forth with wider stride, my comrade Viṣṇu; make room, Dyaus, for the leaping of the lightning.Let us slay Vṛtra, let us free the rivers let them flow loosed at the command of Indra”.
And what it means when it says – Rudra protects the secret name of those cows which reside in that supreme abode.


“tava śriye maruto marjayanta rudra yat te janima cāru citram | padaṃ yad viṣṇor upamaṃ nidhāyi tena pāsi ghuhyaṃ nāma ghonām |” (Rig Veda 5:3:3)
“For thy glory the Maruts have cleansed themselves, who are thy fair and brilliant offspring, O Rudra! The footprint of Vishnu which is put down in the highest place: therewith thou protectest the secret name of the cows”.
Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:


To understand why Vishnu is said to protect his own abode, and why Rudra is said to be protecting secret cows, we need to understand some important concepts first.
Vishnu (aka Goddess Uma) is the supreme Maya, the Supreme Prakriti. Due to her influence only a Jiva thinks himself to be different from Shiva (who is Brahman). Without crossing that Supreme Maya’s effect no one can gain true realization. This has been clearly stated in Upanishads as well as in Bhagawad Gita as well. This Supreme Maya is the consort of Shiva and only with the grace of that lord of the lords viz. Mahadeva, she removes the blanket of her maya from the eyes of the spiritual aspirant and then that person realizes the the meaning of ‘Tat twam asi’. Without Uma-Maheshwara’s grace the supreme Ocean of Maya cannot be sailed across.

There are two terminologies used in our scriptures related to this viz. ‘Tirodhanam’ and ‘Anugraham’. Tirodhana means veiling (curtaining), Anugraha means unveiling (revealing). Svetasvatara Upanishad details the Tirodhana and Anugraha beautifully as follows.

“sarvaajiive sarvasa.nsthe bR^ihante asmin.h ha.nso bhraamyate brahmachakre |
pR^ithagaatmaanaM preritaara.n cha matvaa jushhTastatastenaamR^itatvameti |”  (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:06)
“In that vast Brahma-wheel, in which all things live and rest, the bird flutters about, so long as he thinks that the self (in him) is different from the mover (the god, the lord). When he has been blessed by him, then he gains immortality”.

Till the time a Jiva remains in the effect of Tirodhana, he thinks he is Jiva and is different from Shiva. He eats the fruits of all the karmas and experiences pleasures and pains by falling into the never ending cycle of births and deaths (the brahma wheel). Only when Mahadeva (Brahman) and Umadevi (Brahmavidya) confers their grace on that person who is determined to gain the supreme wisdom (Brahma gyanam), then with the grace of Shiva, Uma’s Maya gets removed. And Shiva confers upon that Jiva the supreme status of immortality, or in other words that Jiva becomes one with Brahman (Shiva).

In Vedas Vishnu is a pseudonym under which Goddess Uma’s activities and glories have been declared. We have already seen how Vishnu’s three steps are not his steps in reality and how his supreme abdoe is not his abode in reality. On similar lines, here is the true menaing of the process using which Vishnu protects his own abode. We know that Sushumna is the road or path which leads to the supreme abdoe – Sahasrara.  Vishnu (means Uma in the form of Kundalini Shakti) protects or blocks the path to Sahasrara with her mouth closing the entrance of Sushumna. Here are the supporting verses.

“praaNavidyaa mahaavidyaa yastaa.n vetti sa vedavit.h |
kandordhve kuNDaliishaktirashhTadhaa kuNDalaakR^itiH |” (Yoga Chudamani Upanisahd 36)
“The Kundalani power which is above the mooladhara, in its eight studded form would always be covering the mouth of Sushumna which is the gate of Brahman”.

“brahmadvaaramukha.n nityaM mukhenaachchhaaya tishhThati |
yena dvaareNa gantavyaM brahmadvaaramanaamayam.h |” (Yoga Chudamani Upanisahd 37)
“The Kudalani Parameshwari (goddess of the universe) who should go through the disease less gate of Brahma, closes this gate with her mouth and sleeps”.

This Supreme Maya viz. Uma Tripurasundari, till the time she keeps the door to Sushumna closed, a Jiva remains under the effect of Avidya (ignorance) and keeps circling in the wheel of births and deaths, earning virtues and vices, and experiencing pleasures and pains.

When Bhagawan Rudra desires to liberate that Jiva, he who is present in the form of consciousness within the Jiva, inspires the Jiva to stride the path towards Brahma-Gyana, and Yoga. When Jiva follows that path, then with the grace of Mahadeva, he becomes successful in raising his Kundalini upwards through Yoga.

“suuchivadgaatramaadaaya vrajatyuurdhva.n sushhumnayaa |
udghaaTayetkavaaTa.n tu yathaaku~nchikayaa gR^iham.h |
kuNDalinyaa.n tathaa yogii mokshadvaaraM prabhedayet.h|” (Yoga Chudamani Upanisahd 39)
“Similar to opening the doors of the house by using the key, the yogi should open the gate to salvation using Kundalini”.

And then Kundalini unblocks the Sushumna and rises upwards to meet her consort in Sahasrara.

“mukhenaachchhaadya taddvaaraM prasuptaa parameshvarii |
prabuddhaa vahniyogena manasaa marutaa saha |” (Yoga Chudamani Upanisahd 38)
“Because of the heat generated by the practice of yoga, because of the speed of wind, and because of her mental power, she stands up and using her needle shaped body, she would go up through the Sushumna Nadi”.

Therefore it is clear now how Vishnu (aka Uma) protects his (her) supreme abode. Now, before analyzing what is meant by Rudra protecting the secret name of the cows in the supreme station, let’s analyze Indra’s heroic deed of Vritra killing first.

After analyzing and learining this it would be very clear how Vedas sing the glory of one true god viz. Rudra in how many different ways.

Rig Veda (6:20:2) states that united with Vishnu who is Indra’s close ally, Indra kills Vritra who enclosed the waters as follows. We’ll understand by the end of this analysis what is meant by hiding waters, and what is meant by Vritra. Stay focused during this journey of lengthy analysis.

“divo na tubhyamanvindra satrāsuryaṃ devebhirdhāyi viśvam |
ahiṃ yad vṛtramapo vavrivāṃsaṃ hannṛjīṣin viṣṇunāsacānaḥ |” (Rig Veda 6:20:2)
“Even as the power of Dyaus, to thee, O Indra, all Asura sway was by the Gods entrusted,
When thou, Impetuous! Leagued with Viṣṇu, slewest Vṛtra the Dragon who enclosed the waters”.

Rig Veda (8:89:12) states that following the command of Indra Vishnu strode the three mighty steps making space for war with vritra (demon) in order to free the rivers (waters) which was captivated by Vritra in a fort.

“āmāsu pakvamairaya ā sūryaṃ rohayo divi | gharmaṃ na sāman tapatā suvṛktibhirjuṣṭaṃ ghirvaṇase bṛhat |” (Rig Veda 8:89:12)
“Step forth with wider stride, my comrade Viṣṇu; make room, Dyaus, for the leaping of the lightning.Let us slay Vṛtra, let us free the rivers let them flow loosed at the command of Indra”.

Why does Indra need assistance of Vishnu? And how could Indra command Vishnu? Since we all are mostly habituated to listening stories from Puranas and we have an impression that Indra is a demi-god and Vishnu is superior to him. Therefore, for a lot of surface level thinkers it wouldn’t be digestible to read Vishnu working on Indra’s command. However, there is nothing to worry. This has an inner meaning which we would discuss, but let’s see one more verse which would be required in my analysis.

Vishnu with the help of Indra’s energy strode the universe in three steps as stated below.

“yadā te viṣṇurojasā trīṇi padā vicakrame | ādit te . .. |” (Rig Veda 8:12:27)
“When Viṣṇu, through thine (Indra’s) energy, strode wide those three great steps of his, Then thy two beautiful Bay Steeds carried thee on”.

We have analyzed and found that Vishnu in the episode of three strides is nothing but supreme goddess Uma in the form of Kundalini, when she herself is Shakti, how come she needed Indra’s energy to rise upwards? Is this ‘Indra’ really Indra in meaning? If not, who is he? Also, what is the relation between Kundalini rising and Vritra slaying by Indra?When in no other place (in Puranas or Brahmanas) Vritra has ever been portrayed as having captivated the waters of the world, only Rig Veda describes that, what is the meaning of Vritra hiding waters? Nothing to worry! This Vritra slaying activity is again an esoteric one; it has another hidden meaning which we would discuss now.

The fact is all the events that take place within the microcosm (our body), get repeated with slight differences in macrocosm in every Kalpa. Within the microcosm, all the various gods, their names and form everything is nothing but various aspects of Bhagawan Rudra and his names alone. This is the reason, in Vedas no deity is inferior, every deity, somewhere or the other place is referred as supreme because all these names are Rudra’s names, and all of them are Rudra’s aspects. However, in the macroworld the inner forces became manifested as various deities following different hierarchy thereby some of them became deities of administrative functions.

Well, let’s analyze Vritra’s story now.Let’s first read what Rig Veda states about this. The below verse says Indra slew vritra and disclosed waters by creating a cleft (fissure) in the mountain.

“indrasya nu vīryāṇi pra vocaṃ yāni cakāra prathamāni vajrī | ahannahimanvapastatarda pra vakṣaṇā abhinat parvatānām |” (Rig Veda 1:32:1)
“I WILL declare the manly deeds of Indra, the first that he achieved, the Thunder-wielder.
He slew the Dragon, then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents”.

Indra’s thunderbolt was fashioned by Tvastha with which he slew Vritra and released the waters to flow downwards.

“ahannahiṃ parvate śiśriyāṇaṃ tvaṣṭāsmai vajraṃ svaryaṃ tatakṣa | vāśrā iva dhenavaḥ syandamānā añjaḥ samudramava jaghmurāpaḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:32:2)
“ He slew the Dragon lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvaṣṭar fashioned. Like lowing kine in rapid flow descending the waters glided downward to the ocean”.

Same has been explained once more here.

“dāsapatnīrahighopā atiṣṭhan niruddhā āpaḥ paṇineva ghāvaḥ | apāṃ bilamapihitaṃ yadāsīd vṛtraṃ jaghanvānapatad vavāra |” (Rig Veda 1:32:11)
“Guarded by Ahi stood the thralls of Dāsas, the waters stayed like kine held by the robber.
But he, when he had smitten Vṛtra, opened the cave wherein the floods had been imprisoned”.

The below verse says that by Killing vritra Indra won back Soma. So comparing this point with the releasing of waters from above mentioned verses, it becomes clear that by Killing Vritra Indra released the flood of Soma which was captured inside a cave. This SOMA is the divine nectar of immortality.

“aśvyo vāro abhavastadindra sṛke yat tvā pratyahan deva ekaḥ | ajayo ghā ajayaḥ śūra somamavāsṛjaḥ sartave sapta sindhūn |” (Rig Veda 1:32:12)
“A horse’s tail wast thou when he, O Indra, smote on thy bolt; thou, God without a second,
Thou hast won back the kine, hast won the Soma; thou hast let loose to flow the Seven Rivers”.

From above point also note that the Soma what Indra released from vritra’s bondage, flowed down as seven rivers.

Let’s summarize to remember the events better before we proceed further. As per the above Vedic lore, Vritra was a dragon who captivated world’s waters (Soma) in a cave. Tvashta (Vishwakarma) fashioned the Vajra (thunderbolt) for Indra. Indra commanded Vishnu to stride the universe and create space for their battle. Vishnu strode with three mighty strides with the power of Indra. Then Vritra was slayed by Indra and thereafter Indra released the waters (Which were Soma in reality) from the cave and those waters flowed through seven rivers.

Now, the catch is, in Mahabharata itself we have 4 different versions of this story where in one of the version Vritra was Tvastha’s son created by him to slay Indra. The same story is repated in Satapatha Brahmana also. So, how come Rig Veda says Tvastha supported Indra by fashioning his thunderbolt? The answer again is these differences are because of the variations of events that occur within microcosm and macrocosm. Also, in none of the stories from Mahabharata or Satapatha Brahmana or Puranas we ever know of any incident of Vritra hiding world’s waters in a cave. So, how come Rig Veda states that Vritra captivated worlds waters which Indra released by killing him? The stories of Mahabharata and Satapatha Brahmana all are equally authentic and the differences are because of the reason that the Vritra slaying episode occurs in every Indra’s lifetime in the macro-world. The stories of Mahabharata and Satapatha Brahmana state the killing of Vritra in this universe (macro-world), but this Rig Veda states the story of killing of Vritra within our inner self.

Well, there is only one story in Mahabharata which was narrated by Krishna to Yudhishthira which actually connects with the Rig Vedic story and is meaningful with respect to the inner negative force. All other stories of Mahabharata happened in the macro universe in the lifetime of many Indras. In Udyoga Parva Indra says it clearly that earlier he was capable of vanquishing Vritra, but this time he was weaker comparatively.

“sarvaṃ vyāptam idaṃ devā vṛtreṇa jagad avyayam | na hy asya sadṛśaṃ kiṃ cit pratighātāya yad bhavet | samartho hy abhavaṃ pūrvam asamartho ‘smi sāṃpratam |” (MBH 5:10:1-2)
“Indra said, This whole indestructible universe, O gods, hath been pervaded by Vritra. There is nothing that can be equal to the task of opposing him. I was capable of yore, but now I am incapable”.

The reason behind this is, in every kalpa a new Indra comes in the macro-world and in every Indra’s lifetime this war with Vritra happens. This is a cyclic process in the life-cycle of time. And therefore the story varies a bit for every Indra. e.g->; in this version of Vritra slaying from Udyoga Parva (book 5, chapter 14) from Mahabharata, on Vishnu’s advise Indra makes (false) friendship with Vritra, and kills Vritra through deceit by using froth (foam) of ocean waves within which Vishnu enters in invisible mode. In Santi Parva (chapter CCLXXXII), Indra slays Vritra by the help of Maheshwara and Vishnu. Mahadeva creates a terrible creature called ‘Jwara’ which affects vritra and makes him weak, and Vishnu pervades Indra’s thunderbolt and Indra kills Vritra with his thunderbolt. In Vana Parva of Mahabharata (MBH 3:99) Indra kills Vritra by gaining energy from Vishnu using the thunderbolt created from the bones of sage Dadhicha. So likewise these stories differ may be because in every Indra’s lifetime these occur with differences.

However, the Vedic Vritra is NOT a so called demon, but he is the inner evil force of ignorance called as ‘Avidya (nescience)’.The manas (mind) which arises out of Avidya (ignorance, attachment etc.) is an epitome of Avidya. The ‘manonAsha (annihilation of mind)’ takes place when ‘brahma-Jnana’arises and ‘ajnana (avidya)’ perishes. I found this truly relating to what Krishna narrated to Yudhishthira in Ashwamedha Parva of Mahabharata. Read the below verse clearly, here Krishna instructs Yodhishthira about the inner enemies that reside within ourselves, and relates them to Vritra.

“sarvaṃ jihmaṃ mṛtyupadam ārjavaṃ brahmaṇaḥ padam | etāvāñ jñānaviṣayaḥ kiṃ pralāpaḥ kariṣyati naiva te niṣṭhitaṃ karma naiva te śatravo jitāḥ | kathaṃ śatruṃ śarīrastham ātmānaṃ nāvabudhyase | atra te vartayiṣyāmi yathā dharmaṃ yathā śrutam | indrasya saha vṛtreṇa yathā yuddham avartata|” (MBH 14:11:4-6)
“Vasudeva said, “All crookedness of heart leads to destruction (perdition?) and all rectitude leads to Brahman (spiritual excellence). If this and this only is the aim and object of all true wisdom, then what can mental distraction do (to one who understands this)? Thy Karma has not yet been annihilated, nor have thy enemies been subjugated, for thou dost not yet know the enemies that are still lurking within thine own flesh. I shall (therefore) relate to thee truly as I have heard it, the story of the war of Indra with Vritra as it took place”.

Therefore this Vritra is an inner demon. Now who is he is the question. In this connection Satapatha Brahmana says Vritra is none other than the moon.Hold on! Don’t conclude anything, just read on!

“tadvā etadeva vārtraghnam | yatpaurṇamāsamathaiṣa eva vṛtro yaccandramāḥ sa
yatraiṣa etāṃ rātriṃ na purastānna paścāddadṛśe tadenametena sarvaṃ hanti nāsya
kiṃ cana pariśinaṣṭi sarvaṃ ha vai pāpmānaṃ hanti na pāpmanaḥ kiṃ cana
pariśinaṣṭi ya evametadveda |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:6:4:13)
“An offering in honour of the Vritra-slayer, then, is the full-moon sacrifice. Vritra, assuredly, is no other than the moon 1; and when during that night (of new moon) he is not seen either in the east or in the west, then he (Indra) completely destroys him by means of that (new-moon sacrifice), and leaves nothing remaining of him. And, verily, he who knows this, overcomes all evil and leaves nothing remaining of evil”.

Now, wait! Moon is not a demon in reality, however moon represents the manas (mind), moon himself was born from the manas of Veda Purusha Rudra; “candramā manaso jātah” as Rig Veda (10:19:13) states. Within our body all the deities represent some or the other elements. Rudras are the Pranas (life breaths), Chandrama is the mind (manas), Aditya (sun) represents the intellect, Indra governs the ego (ahamkara) element, and our body itself is composed of ‘panchabhutas’ which consists of Vasus.  In the lower chakras which represent earth reside vasus, in the intermediate chakras which represent Antariksha reside Rudras, in the higher chakra reside Adityas; these concepts we all know from previous sections of our analysis. Therefore entire cosmos is within us. So, this shouldn’t be a surprise for us here. Well coming back to the point again, all evils of Avidya are born out of mind (manas). Bhagawad Gita clearly states what evils one could face if mind is uncontrolled.

“ndriyAnAm hi charatAm yat manah anuwidhiyate | tat asya harati prajnAm wAyuh nAwam iwa ambhasi |” (Bhagawad Gita 2.67)
“For the mind, which follows in the wake of the wandering senses, carries away his discrimination as the wind carries away a boat on the waters.”

And further it states how critical and important it is to control one’s mind, and it also tells us that with practice and with dispassion one’s mind can be controlled.

“asamshayam mahAbAho manah durnigraham chalam | abhyAsena tu kaunteya wairAgyena cha grhyate |” (Bhagawad Gita 6.35)
“Undoubtedly, O mighty-armed, the mind is difficult to control and is restless; but, by practice, O Son of Kunti, and by dispassion it is restrained.”

And this is the same fact that is required to be kept in mind while following the path of Yoga. Mind control is highly necessary without which Kundalini wouldn’t rise, and without that wisdom wouldn’t arise and therefore self-realization wouldn’t be possible. Now, did you understand why Sathapatha Brahmana said that Vritra demon is the moon himself? It means to say that Vritra is created by mind within us. Now let’s see what it says further. It says that it is actually Sun who kills Vritra (the chandrama (moon)i.e., mind).

We usually know that Indra kills Vritra, but since Vritra is an inner evil created by manas Sun kills him a stated below.

“tadvā eṣa evendraḥ | ya eṣa tapatyathaiṣa eva vṛtro yaccandramāḥ mo ‘syaiṣa
bhrātṛvyajanmeva tasmādyadyapi purā vidūramivodito ‘thainametāṃ rātrimupaiva
nyāplavate so ‘sya vyāttamāpadyate |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:6:4:18)
“Now the one that burns there (viz. the sun)is, assuredly, no other than Indra, and that moon is no other than Vritra. But the former is of a nature hostile to the latter, and for this reason, though this one (the moon, Vritra) had previously (to the night of new moon) risen at a great distance from him (the sun, Indra), he now swims towards him and enters into his open mouth”.


“taṃ grasitvodeti | sa na purastānna paścāddadṛśe grasate ha vai dviṣantam
bhrātṛvyamayamevāsti nāsya sapatnāḥ santītyāhurya evametadveda |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:6:4:19)
“Having swallowed him, he (the sun) rises; and that (other) one is not seen either in the east or in the west. And, verily, he who knows this, swallows his spiteful enemy, and of him they say, ‘He alone exists, his enemies exist not”.
As discussed above, moon is manas (mind) and all evils take their birth in mind. Mind is the cause of all sins that we commit. Sins become the cause of suffering. In reality, Mind is also the cause of all virtures which become the cause of our pleasures. But the fact is even virtue is a great pain because virtues when accumulated, becomes our sanchita-punyam (earned bank balance of good deeds) and lead us to temporary abodes where after enjoying happiness by exhausting the virtues as fuel on completion the Jiva again returns to the world of earth. Therefore virtues and vices both are our enemies in the path of liberation. Both are bondages and prevent us from getting out of the cycle of rebirths. And both these are born from mind (manas) and are its own attributes.

Sun represents the intellect (Buddhi), and when intellect of Brahma-Jnanam shines within our self, we get illuminated with the true knowledge, and only through the divine wisdom one’s karma gets burnt and this helps one to reach the state of liberation. Our ignorance (Avidya) created out of the illusions generated by the evil mind (manas) get exterminated when Sun shines under the guidance of Vedanta and Yoga.

So, in short, ‘Vritra’ is nothing but allAvidya, sins and evils generated by our mind (manas) due to which we forget that we are same as Brahman and live in bonage. The way at the sea shore we call the same ocean water by a different name ‘wave’, and when we reach the mid of the sea in a boat, we do not find any wave there, everywhere what we refer that water is as ‘ocean’. So, this is the difference which Avidya creates between the Jiva and Shiva and shows us both as two when they both are one and the same. This Avidya which is the root cause of all bondages and sins represents manas born out of moon, hence Vritra is equated with moon.And the cognition which illuminates us with the supreme knowledge of Brahman is the Sun symbolically.

“atha yadindrāya vṛtraghne pāpmā vai vṛtro yo bhūtervārayitvā tiṣṭhati
kalyāṇātkarmaṇaḥ sādhostametadindreṇaiva vṛtraghnā pāpmānaṃ vṛtraṃ hanti
tasmādindrāya vṛtraghne |” (Satapatha Brahmana 11:1:5:7)
“And as to why to Indra Vritrahan,–Vritra is sin: with the help of Indra, the slayer of Vritra, he thus slays sin, Vritra, which ever keeps him from well-being, from virtue, and from the good work: this is why he (offers) to Indra Vritrahan”.


With the help of Indra (who is an epithet to call Sun which is Intellect) as seen in previous verse) Vritra is killed.Therefore in the Vedic lore, the Indra who killed Vritra is not Indra but is actually the Sun who killed it.
The singnificance of killing Manas (entangled with samsaara) is also elaborated in the following Upanishad by lord Surya himself to Yajnyavalkya.

“savishhayaM mano bandhaaya nirvishhayaM muktaye bhavati | ataH sarva.n jagachchittagocharam.h | tadeva chitta.n niraashrayaMmanonmanyavasthaaparipakva.n layayogyaM bhavati | tallayaMparipuurNe mayi samabhyaset.h | manolayakaaraNamahameva | anaahatasya shabdasya tasya shabdasya yo dhvaniH | dhvanerantargata.n jyotirjyotirantargataM manaH | yanmanastrijagatsR^ishhTisthitivyasanakarmakR^it.h | tanmano vilaya.n yaati tadvishhNoH paramaM padam.h |” (Mandala Brahmana Upanishad – V)
The Manas influenced by worldly objects is liable to bondage; and that (Manas) which is not so influenced by these is fit for salvation. Hence the entire world becomes an object of Chitta; whereas the same Chitta when it is supportless and well-ripe in the state of Unmani, becomes worthy of Laya (absorption in Brahman). This absorption you should learn from me who am the all-full. I (Sun) alone am the cause of the absorption of Manas.The Manas is within the Jyotis (spiritual light) which again is latent in the spiritual sound which pertains to the Anahata (heart) sound.That Manas which is the agent of creation, preservation and destruction of the three worlds – that same Manas becomes absorbed in that which is the highest seat of Vishnu”.

Again this is not the end of the story. The Sun is actually related to Agni because the intellect decides the true path to realization and with the divine knowledge all our sins and karma get burnt. Burning is the task of Agni hence Agni is the actual agent personified as Sun what we discussed above.

“sūrya evāgneyaḥ | candramāḥ saumyo ‘harevāgneyaṃ rātriḥ saumyā ya evāpūryate
‘rdhamāsaḥ sa āgneyo yo ‘pakṣīyate sa saumyaḥ |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:6:3:24)
“The sun, indeed, relates to Agni, and the moon to Soma; the day relates to Agni, and the night to Soma; the waxing half-moon relates to Agni, and the waning one to Soma”.

And that’s the reason, it is said below that Agni burnt Vritra (which is nothing but all avidya, sins, samsaara and evils of mind). Agni within us is the fire of consciousness (Jwala-linga = Skhambha = Shiva) which when initiated, burns all the evils and sins and makes the Yogi stainless. Also, it is the same Agni (as Kundalini) who is the path maker for our liberation and takes us towards Sahasrara.


“sa yadagnaye pathikṛte nirvapati agnirvai pathaḥ kartā sa yasmādevādo yajamāno
yajñapathādeti tamenamagniḥ panthānamāpādayati |” (Satapatha Brahmana 11:1:5:6)
“Now as to why he prepares (an oblation) for Agni Pathikrit,–it is that Agni, being the maker of the path, leads the Sacrificer (back) to the path of sacrifice, from which he now departs”.

Infact this Agni is the real agent in slaying Vritra (Avidya), he is the Tejas (Fire of consciousness) envisoned here as a sharp point.

“sa yadāgneyo ‘ṣṭākapālaḥ puroḍāśo bhavati | agninā ha vā enaṃ tejasāghnantsa tejo
‘gnirnāvyathata tasmādāgneyo bhavati |” (Satapatha Brahmana 2:5:4:3)
“Now as to why there is a cake on eight potsherds for Agni. With Agni, (shaped into) a sharp point (tegas), indeed, they (the gods) slew him (Vritra); and Agni, that sharp point, swerved not: hence there is (a cake) for Agni”.

And then Vritra (Avidya) was burnt to ashes under the fire of Jnana (wisdom).

“atha yadagnaye vaiśvānarāya dvādaśakapālam puroḍāśaṃ nirvapati yatra vā indro
vṛtramahaṃstamagninā vaiśvānareṇa samadahattadasya sarvam pāpmānaṃ
samadahattatho evaiṣa etadindreṇaiva vṛtraghnā pāpmānaṃ vṛtraṃ hatvā tamagninā
vaiśvānareṇa saṃdahati tadasya sarvam pāpmānaṃ saṃdahati sa yo haivaṃ
vidvānetayeṣṭyā yajate na hāsyālpaścana pāpmā pariśiṣyate |” (Satapatha Brahmana 11:1:5:8)
“And as to why he prepares a cake on twelve potsherds for Agni Vaisvânara,–when Indra had slain Vritra, he burnt him completely by means of Agni Vaisvânara, and thereby burnt all his sin; and in like manner does that (Sacrificer) now, after slaying sin, Vritra, with the help of Indra Vritrahan, burn him, and all that sin of his, by means of Agni Vaisvânara; and, verily, not the slightest sin remains in him who, knowing this, performs this offering”.

Now, with this churning (analysis) of truth I suppose we have understood that Vritra is an inner demon of Avidya (ignorance) who is a product of moon (mind) and he gets killed by Indra who is Sun (Surya) in reality which is the symbol of Brahmavidya or divine wisdom, and Sun is a symbol of Agni the fire of consciousness which burnsall evils of Avidya created by mind to ashes.
Well, so far I haven’t shown direct verses which tell about Agni as Vritra slayer, so why should I leave a room for any such doubts in the mids of the readers? Here are the blunt truths directly present in Rig Veda.

“tamu tvā dadhyaṃṃṛṣiḥ putra īdhe atharvaṇaḥ | vṛtrahaṇaṃ purandaram |” (Rig Veda 6:16:14)
“Thee [Agni]! Vṛtra’s slayer, breaker down of castles, hath Atharvan’s son, Dadhyac the Ṛṣi, lighted up”.

“āghniraghāmi bhārato vṛtrahā purucetanaḥ | divodāsasya satpatiḥ |” (Rig Veda 6:16:19)
“Agni, the Bhārata, hath been sought, the Vṛtra-slayer, marked of all, Yea, Divodāsa’s Hero Lord”.

Note from the below verse that Agni si requested to slay Vritras (plural). This is again a testimony that my analysis is correct that Vritra is not any external demon, rather he is an internal vice, and any kind of negativity – bet it sins, vices, ignorance, etc. everything is a Vritra and only the Supreme lord when prayed to kill them, makes us freed of such negativities.

“aghnirvṛtrāṇi jaṅghanad draviṇasyurvipanyayā | samiddhaḥ śukra āhutaḥ |” (Rig Veda 6:16:34)
“May Agni slay the Vṛtras,—fain for riches, through the lord of song,Served with oblation, kindled, bright”.

Here Agni is called as the best slayer of Vritra (Avidya). He brings wealth (of immortality) and crushes down all the negative forces (Rakshasas).

“aghniṃ devāso aghriyamindhate vṛtrahantamam | yenā vasūnyābhṛtā tṛḷhā rakṣāṃsi vājināṣu yajñiyam |” (Rig Veda 6:16:48)
“The Gods enkindle Agni, best slayer of Vṛtra, first in rank, The Mighty, One who brings us wealth and crushes down the Rākṣasas”.

So, finally it is the inner Agni which is the actual Vritra slayer. But this again has another secret hidden within it. Let me churn it further to give you the final product called ambroisia. Agni is actually Bhagawan Rudra as Shruti declares clearly – Atharva Veda (VII:87:1) says, “yá imā́víśvā bhúvanāni cākl̥pé tásmai rudrā́ya námo astv agnáye |” which means, “To him who formed and fashioned all these worlds, to him this Rudra, yea, to Agni, reverence be paid!”. On similar lines, Sathapatha Brahmana (1:7:3:8) says, “agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyāācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti |” which means, “indeed, Agni is that god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni”.

So, finally we reached at a point that it is Rudra who kills our inner enemy called Vritra under the name of Indra. Note down this point carefully, we obtained this conclusion based on our analysis. But if one doubts it to be true just because so far I didn’t show any direct verse stating this, then one need to rethink before calling it as false because Atharva Veda (IV: 28:3) a hymn to Bhava and Sarva –is a Hymn on Rudra under his two names one of which viz. ‘Bhava’ is the creator aspect and the other ‘Sarva’ is the destroyer aspect; to both these aspects of Rudra this hymn is dedicated and this hymn sings prayer to same god Rudra showing his two names as two aspects. In this Hymn Vedas clearly called Rudra as –

“sahasrākṣáu vr̥trahánā huveháṃ dūrégavyūtī stuvánn emy ugráu |” (Atharva Veda IV: 28:3)
“[O Bhava & Sarva] the thousand-eyed slayer of Vritra, I invoke you, still praising you the strong, of wide dominion”.

Also another hymn Vratya-Rudra Suktam from Atharva Veda clearly shows that Rudra became Indra.

“sá yád dákṣiṇāṃ díśam ánu vyácalad índro bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad bálam annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:2)
“He, when he went away to the southern region, went away having become Indra, and having made Strength an eater of food”.

Also Yajurveda clearly says that it is Rudra who is in the form of yama and Indra.

“namo yAmyAya cha kshemyAya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6.1.6)
“Salutations to him who punishes in hell (as Yama) and to him who grants favours in heaven (as Indra)”.

So, this should be clear now that all the forms or deities (Indra, Agni, Surya etc…) are various aspects of Bhagawan Rudra alone, and Vedas sing always the praises of only and only one god viz. Mahadeva!

Now it is clear that it is Rudra who killed our internal enemy called Vritra under the name of Indra. Now the next the question is – then what is the role that Vishnu played in Vritra slaying? Why did he create space for battle? What it means that Vishnu strode with Indra’s command and his energy? Answer is simple, let me explain.

All Jivas who are under the curtain of Supreme Maya remain under an illusion that they are different from the Ishwara. This in other words when said, all Jivas remain covered under the blanket of Avidya (ignorance) which is evil Vritra who is the cause of sins and bondage. Because the Avidya arising of ignorant mind keeps the chakras unactivated, hence Jiva remains without realization. And since the worlds are present within the Sushumna along the chakras, it is said that Vritra the demon of Avidya pervaded entire universe and covered it entirely.

“vṛtro ha vā idaṃ sarvaṃ vṛtvā śiśye | yadidamantareṇa dyāvāpṛthivī sa yadedaṃ sarvaṃ
vṛtvā śiśye tasmādvṛtro nāma |” (Satapatha Brahmana 1:1:3:4)
“Vritra in truth lay covering all this (space) which here extends between heaven and earth, And because he lay covering (vri) all this, therefore his name is Vritra”.


And when Yogi arouses his Kundalini through Yoga, Kundalini rises and at each Chakra level Vritra gets smitten by the thunderbolt of Rudra which means Rudra kills the Avidya or ignorance of the Yogi. Each chakra corresponds to a region viz. bhu (earth), apah (water), tejas (fire), Vayu (wind), and Akasa (Ether). And even though the Yogi is verily the same supreme Brahman, but under the effect of Avidya (Vritra) he forgets his true nature and remains scared of death – he dreads the death from eartly regions, he remains scared of death from water, he dreads fire, he dreads death from wind (cyclones etc.) and also from Akasa. He lives a life of bondage thoughout without realizing that none of these elements can kill him. He fails to realize that he is the unkillable pure Atman – the Brahman. Only when Rudra strikes this demon of ignorance (Vritra) with his thunderbolt at each chakra (and each region) and kills him finally, Yogi gains realization of his immortal self with the helpof Kundalini when she crosses the Rudra-Granthi. In fact Kundalini (Uma) and Rudra work in tandem, she gives knowledge and Rudra kills the ignorance. We’ll see references to these shortly.

Because Avidya arises due to Jiva being under the Maya, it is necessary for the Goddess Uma to remove her Maya, that’s why Kundalini rising upwards becomes necessary which is the act which bestows Jnana (knowledge) after opening the Ajna chakra (Rudra Granthi).
So, did you understand why Indra (Rudra) is always helped by Vishnu (Uma) to kill Vritra (Avidya)?For liberation when we take the path of Yoga, we need the grace of both Mahadeva and Uma, Uma rises upwards to give us true knowledge as she is the Brahmavidya who reveals us the true nature of Rudra (Brahman), and Rudra destroys our Avidya and evils thereby making us polished as stainless supreme Atman. Rudra when decides to liberate his devotee (Yogi), in order to give him Jnana (wisdom) he commands his Shakti to rise upwards. This is what is meant when Veda says Indra (Rudra) commands Vishnu (Uma) to take the three strides. Now let’s see how Indra (Rudra) kills Vritra (Avidya). He smites Vritra multiple times with his thunderbolt as follows.


Rudra (Indra) and Uma (Vishnu) drive away the Avidya (Vritra) as detailed below in the passage from Satapatha Brahmana. Uma (called as Vishnu here) is always united with Rudra (called as Indra here).

Vritra encompassd Riks, Yajus and Samans within himself.

“aindravaiṣṇavaṃ dvādaśakapālam puroḍāśaṃ nirvapati | tadyadetayā yajate vṛtre ha
vā idamagre sarvanāma yadṛco yadyajūṃṣi yatsāmāni tasmā indro vajram prājihīrṣat |” (Satapatha Brahmana 5:5:5:1)
“He prepares a cake on twelve potsherds for Indra and Vishnu. Now as to why he makes this offering. Of old, everything here was within Vritra, to wit, the Rik, the Yagus, and the Sâman. Indra wished to hurl the thunderbolt at him”.

Now, what is meant by that is, Vritra encompassed the thre worlds viz. earth, Mid-regiona nd Heaven within himself because the three Vedas represent the three worlds as stated below.
“trayī vai vidyā | ṛco yajūṃṣi sāmānīyamevarco ‘syāṃ hyarcati yo ‘rcati sa vāgevarco
vācā hyarcati yo ‘rcati so ‘ntarikṣameva yajūṃṣi dyauḥ sāmāni saiṣā trayī vidyā
saumye ‘dhvare prayujyate |” (Satapatha Brahmana 4:6:7:1)
“Threefold, forsooth, is science; the Riks, the Yagus, and the Sâmans. The Riks are this (earth), since it is thereon that he who sings them, does sing them; the Riks are speech, since it is by speech that he who sings them, does sing them. And the Yagus, forsooth, are the air, and the Sâmans the sky. That same threefold science is used in the Soma-sacrifice”.


“imameva lokamṛcā jayati | antarikṣaṃ yajuṣā divameva sāmnā tasmādyasyaikā
vidyānūktā syādanvevāpītarayornirmitaṃ vivakṣetemameva lokamṛcā
jayatyantarikṣaṃ yajuṣā divameva sāmnā |” (Satapatha Brahmana 4:6:7:2)
“By the Rik he conquers this world, by the Yagus the air, and by the Sâman the sky. Therefore whosoever has learnt one of these sciences, let him endeavour to learn also what is contained in the two others: by the Rik, forsooth, he conquers this world, by the Yagus the air, and by the Sâman the sky”.

Now, Indra asks Vishnu to stay by his side and Vishnu agrees. This is indeed needed since only after kundalini ascends beyond Rudragranthi Rudra imparts the divine wisdom and awards liberation.So, when Rudra (Indra) raised his thunderbolt at Vritra, that demon of Avidya gave up the three worlds.

“sa ha viṣṇumuvāca | vṛtrāya vai vajram prahariṣyāmyanu mā tiṣṭhasveti tatheti ha
viṣṇuruvācānu tvā sthāsye prahareti tasmā indro vajramudyayāma sa
udyatādvajrādvṛtro bibhayāṃ cakāra |” (Satapatha Brahmana 5:5:5:2)
“He said to Vishnu, ‘I will hurl the thunderbolt at Vritra, stand thou by me!’–‘So be it!’ said Vishnu, ‘I will stand by thee: hurl it!’ Indra aimed the thunderbolt at him. Vritra was afraid of the raised thunderbolt”.

“sa hovāca | asti vā idaṃ vīryaṃ tannu te prayacāni mā tu me prahārṣīriti tasmai
yajūṃṣi prāyacattasmai dvitīyamudyayāma |” (Satapatha Brahmana 5:5:5:3)
“He said, ‘There is here a (source of) strength: I will give that up to thee; but do not smite me!’ and gave up to him the Yagus-formulas. He (Indra) aimed at him a second time”.

“sa hovāca | asti vā idaṃ vīryaṃ tannu te prayacāni mā tu me prahārṣīriti tasmā ṛcaḥ
prāyacattasmai tṛtīyamudyayāma |” (satapatha Brahmana 5:5:5:4)
“He said, ‘There is here a (source of) strength: I will give that up to thee; but do not smite me!’ and gave up to him the Rik-verses. He aimed at him a third time”..

“asti vā idaṃ vīryaṃ tannu te prayacāni mā tu me prahāṣīriti tasmai sāmāni
prāyaca |” (Satapatha Brahmana 5:5:5:5)
“’There is here a (source of) strength: I will give that up to thee; but do not smite me!’ and gave up to him the Sâman-hymns (or tunes)”.

What it means means by three worlds is already known to us, they are within the regions of Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi within our Sushumna. And these worlds are constituted with five elements. This is why Krishna says in Mahabharata about Vritra as follows.

“vṛtreṇa pṛthivī vyāptā purā kila narādhipa | dṛṣṭvā sa pṛthivīṃ vyāptāṃ gandhasya viṣaye hṛte | dharā haraṇadurgandho viṣayaḥ samapadyata | śatakratuś cukopātha gandhasya viṣaye hṛte |vṛtrasya sa tataḥ kruddho vajraṃ ghoram avāsṛjat |” (MBH 14:11:7-8)
“In ancient times the Prithivi (earth), O king, was encompassed by Vritra, and by this abstraction of earthly matter, the seat of all odour, there arose bad odours on all sides, and the Performer of a hundred sacrifices (Indra), being much enraged by this act, hurled his thunderbolt at Vritra”.

And when struk by thunderbolt Vritra left Earthand entered into waters. When this happens then the Yogi gains mastery over the earth element and the Yogi never dies on earth as stated below. In fact, we should understand it as Yogi gains his realization that he is the very same Brahman who cannot be killed on earth.

“dhaarayetpa~nchaghaTikaaH pR^ithiviijayamaapnuyaat.h | pR^ithiviiyogato mR^ityurna bhavedasya yoginaH |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 86-87a)
“When one performs Dharana [at the region of earth] there for a period of two hours. He (Yogi) then attains mastery over the earth. Death does not trouble him, since he has obtained mastery over the earth element”.
Now Krishna says the Vritra entered into waters and destroyed its property.


“sa vadhyamāno vajreṇa pṛthivyāṃ bhūri tejasā | viveśa sahasaivāpo jagrāha viṣayaṃ tataḥ | vyāptāsv athāsu vṛtreṇa rase ca viṣaye hṛte | śatakratur abhikruddhas tāsu vajram avāsṛjat |” (MBH 14:11:9-10)
“And being deeply wounded by the thunderbolt of mighty Indra, Vritra entered into the (waters), and by doing so he destroyed their property. The waters being seized by Vritra, their liquid property left them. At this Indra became highly enraged and again smote him with his thunderbolt”.
Now when vritra leaves the water element a Yogi Gains mastery over water element and he never dies in water as stated below. It means Yogi learns that he is the very same Brahman (tat twam asi) who cannot die in waters.

“dhaarayetpa~nchaghaTikaaH sarvapaapaiH pramuchyate | tato jalaadbhaya.n naasti jale mR^ityurna vidyate |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 90)
“By practicing Dharana there (in the region of Apas) for a period of two hours, he is freed from all sins. Then there is no fear for him from water and he does not meet his death in water”.

When Vritra was struck with thunderbolt in the region of water, he fled away and entered iinto the region of fire and destroyed its property as stated below by Krishna.

“sa vadhyamāno vajreṇa salile bhūri tejasā | viveśa sahasā jyotir jagrāha viṣayaṃ tataḥ |
vyāpte jyotiṣi vṛtreṇa rūpe ‘tha viṣaye hṛte | śatakratur abhikruddhas tatra vajram avāsṛjat |” (MBH 14:11:11-12)
“And he (Vritra) smitten by the thunderbolt by the most powerful Indra betook himself to the Jyoti (luminous matter) and abstracted its inherent property. The luminous matter being overwhelmed by Vritra and its property, colour and form being thereby lost, the wrathful Indra again hurled his thunderbolt at him”.

When Vritra flees from fire element the Yogi gains the superiority over the fire element and death never happens for him in fire. Again it means that Yogi understand sthat he is unkillable Brahman and is beyond the strength of fire.

“dhaarayetpa~nchaghaTikaa vahninaasau na daahyate |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 93)
“Practicing Dharana there (in the region of Tejas) for a period of two hours, he is not burnt by fire even though his body enters the fire-pit”.

Then Vritra having smitten by thunderbolt flees and enters into the region of wind as stated below.

“sa vadhyamāno vajreṇa subhṛśaṃ bhūri tejasā | viveśa sahasā vāyuṃ jagrāha viṣayaṃ tataḥ | vyāpte vāyau tu vṛtreṇa sparśe ‘tha viṣaye hṛte | śatakratur abhikruddhas tatra vajram avāsṛjat |” (MBH 14:11:13-14)
“And thus wounded again by Indra of immeasurable power, Vritra entered all on a sudden into the Vayu (gaseous matter). and thereafter made away with its inherent property. And this matter being overpowered by Vritra and its property, viz., touch being lost, Indra became again filled with wrath and flung his thunderbolt at him”.

When vritra get smashed in the region of Vayu and flees away the Yogi gains supremacy over the Vayu element and death never happens in air for him. Again here the realization of Brahman shines.

“dhaarayetpa~nchaghaTikaa vaayuvadvyomago bhavet.h .|
maraNa.n na tu vaayoshcha bhayaM bhavati yoginaH |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 96-97a)
“Practicing Dharana there (in the region of Vayu) for two hours, he enters Vayu and then Akasa.The Yogin does not meet his death through the fear of Vayu”.

Then Vritra entered the Akasa (Sky) and destroyed that property of sound.

“sa vadhyamāno vajreṇa tasminn amitatejasā | ākāśam abhidudrāva jagrāha viṣayaṃ tataḥ | ākāśe vṛtra bhūte ca śabde ca viṣaye hṛte | śatakratur abhikruddhas tatra vajram avāsṛjat |” (MBH 14:11:15-16)
“And wounded therein by the mighty (Indra), he overwhelmed the Akasa (ether), and took away its inherent property, and the Akasa being overwhelmed by Vritra, and its property, sound being destroyed, the god of a hundred sacrifices highly incensed, again smote him with his thunderbolt”.

Then Yogi gains siddhi over the Ether and does not die even at the time of deluge of Brahma. Now, he understands fully that he cannot die even if Brahma dies, because he is not merely a Jiva rather he is Shiva in true form.

“aakaashadhaaraNaattasya khecharatvaM bhaved{}dhruvam.h | yatrakutra sthito vaapi sukhamatyantamashnute | eva.n cha dhaaraNaaH pa~ncha kuryaadyogii vichakshaNaH | tato dR^iDhashariiraH syaanmR^ityustasya na vidyate | brahmaNaH pralayenaapi na siidati mahaamatiH |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 101-103)
“By practising Dharana in the region of Akasa, he obtains certainly the power of levitating in the Akasa (ether).Wherever he stays, he enjoys supreme bliss. The proficient in Yoga should practice these five Dharanas.Then his body becomes strong and he does not know death. That great-minded man does not die even during the deluge of Brahma”.

Finally Vritra entered into the body of Indra himself. Indra represents Ahamkara element, and then Indra killed him using his invisible thunderbolt and finally Vritra died.

In this manner Indra killed Vritra. This means Yogi attained divinity and supremacy over the world itself.This happened when Rudra removed Yogi’s Avidya and Uma (Kundalini) imparted him knowledge of his true powers by revealing him his true nature as Brahman (tat twam asi).

Entire Kundalini Yoga is called as ‘Maha Yoga’ and it comprises of four sub-divisions viz. Mantra Yoga, Laya Yoga, Hatha Yoga, and Raja Yoga. Hatha Yoga is nothing but regulation and reversal of Prana through Ida and Pingala nadis. Due to which, when Kudalini ascends upwards, all evils of mind as well as the mind itself (read Vritra) are destroyed. Here is evidence that supports my analysis.

“haThena grasyate jaaDya.n sarvadoshhasamudbhavam.h | kshetraj~naH paramaatmaa cha tayoraikya.n yadaa bhavet.h | tadaikye saadhite brahma.nshchitta.n yaati viliinataam.h |” (Yoga Shikha Upanishad 134-135a)
“Due to Hatha Yoga, the idiocy which is the cause of all doshas (draw backs) is swallowed. When the merging of Jeevatma and Paramatma takes place, mind melts and vanishes”.

Now, we are left with two points one of which is – why Vishnu strode with Indra’s energy!  We have understood this entire game as Kundalini awakening process where Vishnu is nothing but an epithet to address Uma and Indra is an epithet to call Rudra. Now, during Kundalini rising process, she doesn’t rise alone. She rises along with Pranas (vital breaths), and making ‘hamsa’ her locomotive.  Pranas boost her uprise processs when Yogi Breathes in and out through pranayama. Therefore the locomotive hamsa which takes her up that locomotive moves with pranas. And Pranas are verily Rudra’s sons (Rudras). Therefore Kundalini rises up sustaining on Rudras as stated below. This is the secret why Vishnu is called to stride with the energy of Indra.

“bhAvayedUrdhvagatyarthaM prANApAnasuyogataH |
eSha yogo varo dehe siddhimArgaprakAshakaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:40)
“He should try to go up by the union of Prana and Apana. This most important Yoga brightens up in the body the path of Siddhis”

“udAnamUrdhvaga.n kR^itvA prANena saha vegataH |
bandho.aya.n sarvanADInAmUrdhva.n yAti nirodhakaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:44)
“If with Prana is made to rise up soon Udana, this Bandha checking all Nadis goes up”.


“nADInAmAshrayaH piNDo nADyaH prANasya chAshrayaH | jIvasya nilayaH prANo jIvo ha.nsasya chAshrayaH | ha.nsaH shakteradhiShThAna.n charAcharamida.n jagat.h | nirvikalpaH prasannAtmA prANAyA.n samabhyaset.h |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:54-55)
“To the Nadis, the body is the support (or vehicle); to Prana, the Nadis are the support; to Jiva, Prana is the dwelling place; to Hamsa, Jiva is the support; To Sakti, Hamsa is the seat and the locomotive and fixed universe. Being without distraction and of a calm mind, one should practice Pranayama”.
Finally we are left with the last point which is – what is the meaning of Indra releasing floods of waters by creating a hole in the mountain inside which in a cave Vritra hid the waters of the universe. I need not explain this because after knowing that Indra who killed Vritra (Avidya) as Rudra everyone would have easily understood that this release of waters is nothing but the release of Soma – the nectar of immortality from Sahasrara and the hole which is talked about is the Brahmarandhra. This supreme state of liberation beyond births and deaths (hence immortality) remains unknown to Jiva till the time he remains under the influence of vritra (Avidya); and once the Avidya (Vritra) gets killed, he gains liberation and drinks Soma – the nectar of immortality. And who awards it? It is known already from previous sections that the god who confers ths immortality is Bhagawan Rudra alone! This is the true meaning of Indra releasing waters from Vritra’s captivity – i.e., Rudra releasing the nectar of immortality from Sahasrara post death of Vritra.

“indrasya nu vīryāṇi pra vocaṃ yāni cakāra prathamāni vajrī | ahannahimanvapastatarda pra vakṣaṇā abhinat parvatānām |” (Rig Veda 1:32:1)
“I WILL declare the manly deeds of Indra, the first that he achieved, the Thunder-wielder.
He slew the Dragon, then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents”.

Only Rudra grants liberation / immortality from the cycle of births and deaths. This is the reason why Vedas have prayed only to lord Rudra for liberation. In all the Vedas there is no other god who has ever been prayed to confer liberation except for Bhagawan Rudra. The famous Mrityunjay mantra which is addressed to Mahadeva is a prayer seeking immortality which is as follows.

“tryambakaṃ yajāmahe sughandhiṃ puṣṭivardhanam | urvārukamivabandhanān mṛtyormukṣīya māmṛtāt |” (Rig Veda 7:59:12)
“Tryambaka we worship, sweet augmenter of prosperity. As from its stem the cucumber, so may I be released from death, not reft of immortality”.

This is the meaning of Rudra protecting the secret name of the cows in the lofty station. The secret cows are nothing but he – Rudra himself, who is Soma and gives immortality. He hides himself till the Maya exists (till Tirodhana remains in place); he reveals himself when Maya ceases and he confers Anugraham (grace) on the aspirant of liberation. Soma is generally considered as some intoxicating drink but it is not any ordinary milk, it is in fact the milk of ‘Brahma jnanam (Brahman knowledge)’ that Rudra as Ardhanareeshwara gives through Uma to the seeker.  We’ll study this matter in detail below.

Rig Veda poses an inquiry as follows – it asks where the extreme limit of this world is? What is the center of this world? What is the origin and creative power of all the existence, and where is the highest heaven where speech resides?

“pṛchāmi tvā paramantaṃ pṛthivyāḥ pṛchāmi yatra bhuvanasyanābhiḥ |
pṛchāmi tvā vṛṣṇo aśvasya retaḥ pṛchāmi vācaḥ paramaṃ vyoma |” (Rig Veda 1:164:34)
“I ask thee of the earth’s extremest limit, where is the centre of the world, I ask thee.
I ask thee of the Stallion’s seed prolific, I ask of highest heaven where Speech abideth”.

The same Veda in the next verse clearly answers these questions as mentioned below. Note that we have already seen in our above analysis that the altar is nothing but entire universe, sacrifice happens within our inner self. Note the below given answer carefully.

“iyaṃ vediḥ paro antaḥ pṛthivyā ayaṃ yajño bhuvanasya nābhiḥ |
ayaṃ somo vṛṣṇo aśvasya reto brahmāyaṃ vācaḥparamaṃ vyoma |” (Rig Veda 1:164:35)
“This altar is the earth’s extremest limit; this sacrifice of ours is the world’s centre.
The Stallion’s seed prolific is the Soma; this Brahman highest heaven where Speech abideth”.

The above verse clarifies that the stallion’s seed which is the origin of all origins is Soma within which speech (vAk) resides. This soma is also the highest Brahman who resides in highest heaven (Sahasrara). Remember these points; SOMA is NOT an easily understandable term, we need to discuss more about SOMA after visiting few more verses. For the time being just remember that here Stallion’s SEED (retah=Semen) is called as SOMA. Also, here SOMA is called BRAHMAN

Atharva Veda glorifies cow as follows. Cow is heaven and earth and she is Vishnu. In below verses note that the sAdhyas (enlightened spirits) who have drunk her milk, pay adorations to her milk, note that here MILK is called SOMA. Note another point that the merit of giving a cow to that high-souled person who understands the real meaning of these verses, goes to the third region of the sky (viz. Sahasrara).


“vaśā́ dyáur vaśā́ pr̥thivī́ vaśā́ víṣṇuḥ prajā́patiḥ | vaśā́yā dugdhám apibant sādhyā́ vásavaś ca ye | vaśā́yā dugdháṃ pītvā́ sādhyā́ vásavaś ca ye | té vái bradhnásya viṣṭápi páyo asyā úpāsate | sómam enām éke duhre ghr̥tám éka úpāsate | yá eváṃ vidúṣe vaśā́ṃ dadús te gatā́s tridiváṃ diváḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:10:30-32)
“The Cow is Heaven, the Cow is Earth, the Cow is Vishnu, Lord of Life. The Sādhyas and the Vasus have drunk the out-pourings of the Cow. When these, Sādhyas and Vasus, have drunk the out-pourings of the Cow, They in the Bright One’s dwelling-place pay adoration to her milk. For Soma some have milked her: some worship the fatness she hath poured. They who have given a cow to him who hath this knowledge have gone up to the THIRD region of the sky”.

Well, the above verses call cow as Vishnu, but here also these verses are again esoteric expressions to mean that cow is verily Aditi (Uma) and again that Uma has been sung under the name of Vishnu. Now, comparing the above verse on cow with the below verses on Aditi we can clearly understand that a cow is verily Uma and Vishnu is just her pseudonym.
Aditi is the cow who downpours her milk. Satapatha Brahmana (14:2:1:7) clearly says “gauraditirhi”, which means “the cow is Aditi”. Also, Rig Veda supports it as follows.

“pīpāya dhenuraditirṛtāya janāya mitrāvaruṇā havirde |“ (Rig Veda 1:153:3)
“O Mitra-Varuṇa, Aditi the Milch-cow streams (milk) for the rite, for folk who bring oblation”,

Aditi is the earth, heaven and atmosphere.

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣam|” (Rig Veda 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air”.

“aditir asyAm eva pratisHThAyAnu paHyati |” (Yajur Veda VI:1:5:3)
“Aditi indeed is this earth; verily taking his stand on it he sees”.

Comparing these Vedic verses with the aforementioned verse on cow we know that Aditi (Uma) is the heaven & earth and it is she who is the cow whose MILK is SOMA and she is being called under the pseudonym ‘Vishnu’.

Now, let’s come back to the discussion on SOMA. ‘Soma’ is a complex term and has always been a matter of contradicting thoughts. Soma has the following meanings as noted from above verses –
•    SOMA is called as the ‘Seed (rEtah = SEMEN)’
•    SOMA resides in highest heaven where speech (VAk = Saraswati) resides
•    SOMA is also the milk of the Uma (called as cow)
•    SOMA is also the name of Shiva who is the Brahman residing in highest heaven

How can Soma be semen, milk, and Shiva at the same time? What does it mean when it says speech (Saraswati) dwells in Soma?

Answer is there in the below verse.

We know that Vedas esoterically call Rudra by the name Agni as evident from Yajurveda (V:5:7) which says, “rudro vA esHa yad agnis |”, meaning, “Agni is verily Rudra”. Mahabharata (13:14:157) calls Rudra as “grāhyāṇāṃ govṛṣaś cāsi bhagavāṁl lokapūjitaḥ |”, which means, “Among all domestic animals, thou (Rudra) art the bull that is worshipped by all people”. Keeping these points in mind, read the following verse carefully! Satapatha Brahmana states that Agni (Rudra) as Bull unites with cow (Aditi) and cow’s milk is nothing but Agni’s seed hence it remains resplendent as Agni and always remains white and warm in her udder.

“tāmu hāgnirabhidadhyau | mithunyanayā syāmiti tāṃ sambabhūva tasyāṃ retaḥ
prāsiñcattatpayo ‘bhavattasmādetadāmāyāṃ gavi satyāṃ śṛtamagnerhi retastasmādyadi
kṛṣnāyāṃ yadi rohiṇyāṃ śuklameva bhavatyagnisaṃkāśamagnerhi
retastasmātprathamadugdhamuṣṇam bhavatyagnerhi retaḥ |” (Satapatha Brahmana 2:2:4:15)
“Now, Agni coveted her: ‘May I pair with her,’ he thought. He united with her, and his seed became that milk of hers: hence, while the cow is raw, that milk in her is cooked (warm); for it is Agni’s seed; and therefore also, whether it be in a black or in a red (cow), it is ever white, and shining like fire, it being Agni’s seed. Hence it is warm when first milked; for it is Agni’s seed”.

This explains that the SEED of Lord Soma (Shiva) which is called as SOMA gets transformed as SOMA in goddess Uma’s breasts and flows as MILK which is again called Soma.  Within this milk of goddess Uma resides goddess of wisdom viz. Saraswati. This has been clearly stated in Adi Shankara’s Soundarya Lahari hymn as follows. Adi Shankara’s hymns are not some random verses, they always contain deep Vedic meanings.

“Twa stanyam manye dharanidhara kanye hridhayatha |
Paya paraabhaara parivahathi saaraswathamiva |
Dhayavathya dhattham dravida sisu raaswadhya thava yat |
Kaveenam proudana majani kamaniya kavayitha |” (Soundarya Lahari, stanza 75)
“Oh daughter of the king of mountains, I feel in my mind,That the milk that flows from your breast, Is really the goddess of learning, Sarswathi,In the form of a tidal wave of nectar.For , milk given by you ,who is full of mercy,Made the child of Dravida*,The king among those great poets,Whose works stole one’s mind”.
*Child of Dravida refers to Shankara himself in an indirect way.

This is why our scriptures have numerous examples where whosoever drank the breast milk of goddess Bhavani became great scholars and poets. Thirugyana Sambandar a Tamil Shaivite saint, when he was three years old, one day he cried watching at the temple gate calling for mother and father. Shiva and Parvati appeared before him and Shiva asked Amba to feed him milk. That mother of all took that crying child in her lap and breast fed him. On drinking her milk he became filled with all wisdom, and in that small age itself he composed a great hymn on Shiva. Later on he became a great scholar who explained the philosophy called as ‘Shaiva Siddhanta’.

Similarly, Adi Shankaracharya also became such a great seer because of the power of wisdom contained in the milk of Ambika. In his childhood, one day Shankara was instructed by his father to worship goddess in her temple in his absence like what he always used to do. After worshiping within his limits, he innocently put a cup of milk in front of Ambika and offered it as ‘naivedyam’ to her expecting her really to come and drink. When goddess didn’t come and milk container didn’t get emptied, he cried asking her why she was not taking the offered drink. He had a false impression that usually she drinks that when his father used to worship and that’s how that sacred stuff used to be called as ‘prasadam’ for everyone else. Seeing his heights of innocence goddess appeared in person and drank that cup of milk entirely. He again started crying. On being asked about the reason by the goddess, he told her that she drank entirely instead of leaving some portion as prasadam for him and his family. Goddess explained him that consumed milk cannot be given back hence he needs to forget it. He cried and said if his father came to know about it that goddess drank entirely, he would think Shankara himself had consumed it and lied about goddess. Seeing the heights of innocence that goddess Bhavani pressed her breast and poured her breast milk in that cup and gave to Shankara for drinking. It is because of that milk which Shankara drank, he became such a great seer whom world calls as Jagadguru. Shankara hints about this incidence in his hymn on goddess titled ‘Soundarya Lahari stanza 75’ as stated above.

Therefore from these stories it is clear that Goddess Bhavani’s breast milk contains supreme wisdom (Brahmagyanam).  We have understood how Shiva’s seed becomes milk in Uma and flows as Soma the drink of wisdom and liberation from Sahasrara. Now we are left with understanding how Soma can be a God (Shiva) also. Soma means ‘sa + uma’ which means ‘that god who remains with uma’, viz. Shiva. Therefore Soma when talked about as a God, he is Shiva. This is why this Soma is the father of all gods and is the support of heaven and earth in the form of the Jwala-Linga (Skhambha) as stated below. He is the well armed Rudra.

“svāyudhaḥ pavate deva induraśastihā vṛjanaṃ rakṣamāṇaḥ |
pitā devānāṃ janitā sudakṣo viṣṭambho divo dharuṇaḥ pṛthivyāḥ |” (Rig Veda 9:87:2)
“Soma, the well-armed God, is flowing onward, who quells the curse and guards from treacherous onslaught, Father, generator of the Gods, most skilful, the pillar (Linga) of the heavens and earth’s supporter.

We have seen from verses of Rig Veda that the Brahman is termed as ‘Soma’ and he dwells in highest heaven (Sahasrara). This Soma dwelling in Sahasrara is Shiva only along with Uma hence called as SOMA. In this connection, Chandogya Upanishad says clearly that in the region of Akasa (Sahasrara) Brahman resides, or in other words, Sahasrara which is the region of Akasa is the abode of Brahman.

“atha yadidamasminbrahmapure daharaM puNDarIkaM veshma daharo.asminnantarAkAshastasminyadantastadanveShTavyaM tadvAva vijij~nAsitavyamiti |” (Chandogya Upanishad VIII-I-1)
“Om. Now, in this city of Brahman, there is a mansion in the shape of a small lotus; in it is a small inner Akasa. What is within that – that should be sought; that indeed, one should desire to understand”.

The above verse states that region of Akasa is the abode of Brahman. Now, the following verse clarifies who that Brahman is residing in that region of Akasa.

“aakaashe vaayumaaropya hakaaropari sha~Nkaram.h |
binduruupaM mahaadeva.n vyomaakaara.n sadaashivam.h |
shuddhasphaTikasa~Nkaasha.n dhR^itabaalendumaulinam.h |
pa~nchavaktrayuta.n saumya.n dashabaahu.n trilochanam.h |
sarvaayudhairdhR^itaakaara.n sarvabhuushhaNabhuushhitam.h |
umaardhadeha.n varada.n sarvakaaraNakaaraNam.h |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 98b-101a)
“Raising the breath along the region of Akasa, he should contemplate on Sadashiva in the following manner, as producing happiness, as of the shape of Bindu, as the great god (Mahadeva), as having the shape of Akasa, as shining like pure crystal, as wearing the rising crescent of moon on his head, as having five faces, ten hands and three eyes, as being of a pleased countenance, as armed with all weapons, as adorned with all ornaments, as having Uma (the goddess) in one-half of his body, as ready to grant favours and as the cause of all the causes”.

Note that in Sahasrara Uma and Shiva remain in the form of Ardhanareeshwara (one body shared by both) as given in above verse. Uma-Rudra are always one and the same, this is thereason Rig Veda calls Agni (Rudra) as a bull as well as a milch-cow dwelling in highest heaven as follows.

“asacca sacca parame vyoman dakṣasya janmannaditerupasthe |
aghnirha naḥ pra thamajā ṛtasya pūrva āyuni vṛṣabhaścadhenuḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:5:7)
“Not Being, Being in the highest heaven, in Aditi’s bosom and in Dakṣa’s birthplace,
Is Agni (Rudra), our first-born of Holy Order, the Milch-cow and the Bull in life’s beginning”.

Therefore comparing both the upanishadic verses and Rig veda’s verse it should be clear to even an infant that the lord of Uma (Soma) viz. Rudra is the Brahman residing in the region of Akasa viz. Sahasrara which is his own abode where from – his seed, which is also called Soma, drips in the form of milk of liberation ‘Soma’ from Uma’s breasts for the Yogi who achieved Kundalini awakening and that Soma is nothing but the Brahma-Jnanam flowing in the form of milk from Uma (Shiva’s left side). So, this liquid Soma (Brahma-Jnanam) is nothing but Shiva himself hence he himself is the seeding stallion as well as the milk giving cow-Uma who is his left portion and is the origin of this nectar. Therefore the secret name of the cow what Rudra guards is – ‘Rudra as Ardhanareeshwara’!

If you remember, I had made a comment earlier that – the description of sacrifices and piling up of fire altar kind of descriptive texts of Vedas are not karma-Kanda sections; rather they are Jnana-kanda sections only; and it is purely the incompetency of the so called scholars who fail to discern the internal meanings of the sacrifices. Here is a description of a fire altar section which summarizes about the stuff that we analyzed so far. What the below text describes should be understandable based on the extensive discussion what we carried out earlier.

“bahur vai bhavato bhrAtrvyas | bhavatIva khalu vA esha yo’gnim cinute vajry ashvah pratUrvann ehy avakrAmann ashastIr ity aha vajrenaiva pApmAnam bhrAtrvyam ava krAmati rudrasya gAnapatyAd ity aha raudrA vai pashavo rudrAd eva | (Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita 5:1:2:3)
“Many are the foes of the man who waxes great, he waxes great as it were who piles the fire, the steed has a thunderbolt; ‘hastening come hither, trampling the enemy’, he says; verily he tramples with the thunderbolt on the evil foe; by saying, ‘from the lordship of Rudra’; cattle are connected with Rudra; verily having begged from Rudra cattle he acts for his own interest”.

So, let’s summarize now. The secret name of the cow is again ‘Rudra’. This Soma (Rudra) who is the origin of all origins remains hidden due to Tirodhana and reveals himself by doing Anugraha. This is what is meant by Rudra protecting the secret name of the cows (means hiding himself) in Vishnu’s abode. We have analyzed that the so called Vishnu’s abode is Sahasrara the original abode of Rudra. And we have also learnt that the nectar of immortality flows from that supreme station when Kundalini successfully reaches Sahasrara. We have also analyzed and learnt that this nectar of immortality is released by Rudra (whom Vedas secretly called by a pseudonym as Indra) from the captivity of Avidya (Vritra) after killing it, and we have also learnt that this milk of immortality viz. Soma is generated from Rudra’s seed and transformed as Uma’s milk. Uma and Rudra being in the androgynous form of half-Male and Half-female in Sahasrara the stallion is also Rudra (right half) and the milk giving cow is also Rudra as Uma (his left side). Therefore the secret name of the cow of immortality is Bhagawan Rudra as Ardhanareeshwara.  This is the secret which he reveals once a Yogi gets realization. After imbibing that milk of divine wisdom a Yogi gets self realization and identifies his real self to be identical with Shiva (Brahman). This revelation of true self and awarding of deathlessness is called Anugraha which ONLY lord Rudra does. That is why Vedas pray ONLY and ONLY to Bhagawan Rudra asking him to liberate (Maha Mrityunjay Mantra from Rig Veda and Yajurveda). Yes, there is no other god whom Vedas have requested to confer immortality (liberation).

3. Analyzing other miscellaneous verses on Vishnu from Vedas



Let’s see few more secrets of Uma maheshwara as hidden in Vedas under the name – Vishnu.

3.1. What’s the meaning of Rudra deriving strength from Vishnu?


“asya devasya mīḷhuṣo vayā viṣṇoreṣasya prabhṛthe havirbhiḥ |
vide hi rudro rudriyaṃ mahitvaṃ yāsiṣṭaṃ vartiraśvināvirāvat |” (Rig Veda 7:40:5)
“With offerings I propitiate the branches of this swift-moving God, the bounteous Viṣṇu.
Hence Rudra gained his Rudra-strength: O Aśvins, ye sought the house that hath celestial viands”.

Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, this verse of Rig Veda says, Rudra derives his strength from Vishnu. However same Rig veda also says it clearly that Rudra is self-dependent as follows.

“imā rudrāya sthiradhanvane ghiraḥ kṣipreṣave devāya svadhāvne |
aṣāḷhāya sahamānāya vedhase tighmāyudhāya bharatā śṛṇotu naḥ |” (Rig Veda 7:46:1)
“To Rudra bring these songs, whose bow is firm and strong, the self-dependent God with swiftly-flying shafts,The Wise, the Conqueror whom none may overcome, armed with sharp-pointed weapons: may he hear our call”.

The verse (Rig Veda 7:40:5) also is an esoteric expression and does NOT talk about Vishnu. Here also Vishnu refers to goddess Uma alone. And Rudra and Uma being non-dual, they being one body shared half by each other, their true form being the Ardhanareeshwara form, Rudra derives his strength from his shakti-Uma and because she is nothing but Rudra’s left half, which is his own self, therefore Rudra is self-dependent god.
A detailed article on this has been written by me which is titled “Tatwam Behind Rudra Deriving Strength From Vishnu (Rig Veda 7.40.5)”, one may read it fully to understand this logic in more detail.
Conclusion:- Rig veda once again sings the glory of Bhavani under the pseudonym called ‘Vishnu’.

3.2. Did Vishnu really generate Sun and Agni kind of Gods?


Rig Veda states that Vishnu generated the gods like Surya and Agni as stated below.
“uruṃ yajñāya cakrathur ulokaṃ janayantā sūryam uṣāsam aghnim |
dāsasya cid vṛṣaśiprasya māyā jaghnathur narā pṛtanājyeṣu |” (Rig Veda 7:99:4)
“Ye have made spacious room for sacrificing by generating Sūrya, Dawn, and Agni. O Heroes, ye have conquered in your battles even the bull-jawed Dāsa’s wiles and magic”.


Commentary with Reasoning & Analysis:

Here this verse calls Vishnu as the one who generated Sun, dawn and Agni. This is again clear cut evidence that it’s not Vishnu’s glory that has been sung here. Let’s see the evidence for my claim.
Vishnu himself is the son of Aditi (Uma). Aditi generated all Adityas among which Surya (Sun) and Vishnu are one of them.

“ṛtena putro aditer ṛtāvota tridhātu prathayad vi bhūma |” (Rig Veda 4:42:4)
“By Law the Son of Aditi, Law Observer, hath spread abroad the world in threefold measure”.

Similarly, Aditi is also the mother of all Vasus among which Agni is one of them. Under the name of ‘Prishni’ again this Aditi is the mother of all Rudras as well. All these facts have been summed up in the following verse of Upanishad.

“saishhaashhTau vasavaH | saishhaikaadasha rudraaH | saishhaa dvaadashaadityaaH | saishhaa vishvedevaaH somapaa asomapaashcha | saishhaa yaatudhaanu asuraa rakshaa.nsi pishaachayakshaaH siddhaaH | saishhaa sattvarajastamaa.nsi | saishhaa prajaapatiindramanavaH | saishhaa grahaa nakshatrajyotii.nshhi kalaakaashhThaadikaalaruupiNii | taamahaM praNaumi nityam.h |” (Devi Upanishad-18 from Atharva Veda)
“She, here, is the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Adityas, She is the all-gods, (those) who drink Soma and (those) who do not; she is the goblins, the demons, the evil beings, the ghosts; she also, beings super-human, the semi-divine. She is Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. She is Prajapati, Indra and Manu. She is the planets, stars and luminous spheres. She is the divisions of time, and the form of primeval Time. I salute Her ever”.

Now, let me again remind you that Aditi (Uma) and Rudra are not two – they are always one and the same. Only for the purpose of creation or some divine sport that which is best known only to them, they appear as two – mother and father. Therefore, let’s see how Aditi (Uma Tripurasundari) gives birth to Vishnu, Agni, Surya and everyone else.

This Soma (Rudra) lays his germ (seed) upon the womb of his consort Aditi (Uma the Mula-Prakriti) and she produces this world. Means she brings the existence into picture. Therefore she is the mother of universe and Soma (Shiva) the father. This has been explained below.

“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam |
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe |” (Rig Veda 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the lap (womb) of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.

Soma (Rudra) is thegenerator of all gods (which include Agni, Surya, Dawn, Indra, Vishnu and everyone). Soma (Rudra) is the pillar (Skhambha) that supports heaven and earth also.

“svāyudhaḥ pavate deva induraśastihā vṛjanaṃ rakṣamāṇaḥ |
pitā devānāṃ janitā sudakṣo viṣṭambho divo dharuṇaḥ pṛthivyāḥ |” (Rig Veda 9:87:2)
“Soma, the well-armed God, is flowing onward, who quells the curse and guards from treacherous onslaught, Father, generator of the Gods, most skilful, the pillar (Linga) of the heavens and earth’s supporter.

Now, here is the evidence that it is Rudra (Soma) who is the actual generator of Surya, Agni including Vishnu.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

Since we have already seen how extensively Vedas use Vishnu to glorify goddess Tripurasundari’s deeds, here in this verse which we are currently analyzing; when Veda says Vishnu generated Surya, Dawna dn Agni, it should be taken as Tripurasundari (Aditi) generating them. Of course one may also take this verse as applicable on Rudra doubtlessly because Rudra and Aditi (Tripurasundari) are not two, they are ALWAYS one and the same. So, it is left to the faith of the devotee, whether he/she likes to glorify the mother aspect or the father aspect. Personally I always see all glories belonging to Ardhanareeshwara; however, because I have perceived Vedas hiding Uma’s deeds under the name of Vishnu, I would go with this particular verse as being applicable on mother Bhavani.

Conclusion:  Once again it’s proven that Vedas sing goddess Tripurasundari’s glories under the pseudonym ‘Vishnu’.

Now, the question arises, why does Vishnu imitate goddess Uma so closely? Why do Vedas hide Uma’s glories under the name of Vishnu? In fact, not only Vedas but all Puranas also narrate goddess Uma’s glories extensively and Lord Maheshwara’s glories occasionally under the mask called ‘Vishnu’. However, before studying all these hidden truths of Puranas let us first finish studying Vishnu from Vedas. Let’s do a deeper analysis of lord Vishnu from Vedas now.

4. Explaining Vishnu’s Origin and his relationship with Uma-Maheshwara


Well, to explain Vishnu’s origin and his relation with Uma and Maheshwara in further details I need to elaborate some topics of creation from Vedas , puranas and relate them. It might look a bit off topic and might look as if I am deviating away from the focus of this article, but believe me, without touching those points if I simply conclude what I want to state, that wouldn’t make the facts clear; and I always prefer digging deeper and doing detailed analysis before putting the final conclusion because gone are those days when people used to invest trust on others’ words and believe. The world today wouldn’t believe statements, they believe on statements supported with analysis and evidences, which is by god’s grace my default style to prove my points! Therefore, believe me,your time invested in reading this apparent off-topic wouldn’t go fruitless. Let’s continue.
Vishnu is one among the Adityas; he is a son of Aditi as evident from the below verses.

“sa yaḥ sa viṣṇuryajñaḥ sa sa yaḥ sa yajño’sau sa āditya |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 14.1.1.6)
“Now he who is this Vishnu is the sacrifice; and he who is this sacrifice is yonder Âditya (son of Aditi)”

The below verse talks about Vishnu, who is called as one who strode the world in three steps and is the law observer (Protector of Dharma) as the son of Aditi.

“ṛtena putro aditer ṛtāvota tridhātu prathayad vi bhūma |” (Rig Veda 4:42:4)
“By Law the Son of Aditi, Law Observer, hath spread abroad the world in threefold measure”.

Many learned people have been found to misinterpret Vishnu in Vedas as Vamana because Vedas call Vishnu as an Aditya and extol Vishnu for his three mighty strides with which he is said to have spanned the whole universe. Of course in his Vamana Avatara he spanned the universe, but in Vedas that Vamana form of Vishnu is NOT praisedas we have learnt from our extensive analysis in previous sections. Also Vamana as per most Puranas, spanned the universe in two steps which made there no room for his third foot hence it falsified Bali’s promise thereby he was sent to nether worlds; and I have already highlighted my argument earlier that in no Purana it has ever been narrated that Vishnu strode the universe on the command of Indra during the Vritra slaying process. And since Rig Veda narrated Vishnu’s strides relating to Vritra slaying and not with Bali’s story; it is a clear cut refutation to the misunderstanding that Vedas narrate Vamana’s strides. Hence when Vedas describe Vishnu as a son of Aditi, it is a designation of Vishnu himself and not that of Vamana.

Well, there is a deeper meaning which revolves around the term ‘Aditi’.

Lord Shiva is the Brahman and Tripurasundari (Uma) is his supreme Maya (Moola Prakriti). They are indeed one, but for the purpose of creation, they show up as two as – Uma (Prakriti) and Shiva (Purusha). That one nun-dual Tripurasundari Devi (Goddess Uma) is given threefold name by Vedas for creation. She is one indeed. She in the heavenly region is called as Aditi and creates Adityas. She is called as Prishni in Antariksha (Intermediate space) and creates Rudras. She is called as Prithvi at the lowest regions and creates Vasus, all the flora, fauna, and living beings.

Mind you! This Aditi, who is the mother of Vishnu in Vedas, is NOT the Aditi – the daughter of Daksha (and the wife of Kashyapa) who gave birth to Adityas in Puranas. However, the same Aditi (Uma) manifested again as all the daughters of Daksha thereby the wife of kashyapa is also the same Aditi (Uma), but here note it firmly that in this present context I am talking with respect to Vedic Aditi. I’ll also touch the topic of Puranic Aditi (Kashyapa’s wife) shortly.

Well, Aditi (Uma) gave birth to Adityas (including Vishnu) BEFORE she became the daughter of Daksha. In fact Aditi gave birth to Daksha also. This is evident from the below verses.

The below verse says that Aditi gave birth to Adityas before she became Daksha’s daughter.

“aditirhyajaniṣṭa dakṣa yā duhitā tava |
tāṃ devāanvajāyanta bhadrā amṛtabandhavaḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:72:5)
“For Aditi, O Dakṣa, she who is thy Daughter, was brought forth [by you] after [when, from] her were born the blessed Gods sharers of immortal life.

And the below verse confirms that even Daksha was given birth by Aditi and Daksha is one among the Adityas.

“imā ghira ādityebhyo ghṛtasnūḥ sanād rājabhyo juhvā juhomi |
śṛṇotu mitro aryamā bhagho nastuvijāto varuṇo dakṣo aṃśaḥ |” (Rig Veda 2:27:1)
“THESE hymns that drop down fatness, with the ladle I ever offer to the Kings Ādityas.
May Mitra, Aryaman, and Bhaga hear us, the mighty Varuṇa Dakṣa, and Aṁśa”.

Later the same Aditi (Durga) manifested herself as Daksha’s daughter in various forms which we read in Puranas like Aditi, Sati, Surabhi, Diti, Kadru, Vinata, Sarama etc., as supported by the following verse.

“bhūrjajña uttānapado bhuva āśā ajāyanta |
aditerdakṣoajāyata dakṣād vaditiḥ pari |” (Rig Veda 10:72:4)
“Earth sprang from the Productive Power the regions from the earth were born.
Dakṣa was born of Aditi, and Aditi was Dakṣa’s Child”.

On the same lines all the other Adityas (Gods in celestial plane) viz. Indra, Mitra, Surya, Vishnu etc. everyone of them are born to Aditi BEFORE she became the daughter of Daksha. Therefore, please register this carefully in your mind that – in Vedas the INDRA is NOT the son of Puranic KASHYAPA; and likewise in Vedas VISHNU is not the dwarf-son (Vamana) of Puranic KASHYAPA.

Also, now a question may arise in the minds of the readers – How could Daksha be Aditi’s child when all Puranas state that Daksha was born from the toe of Lord Brahma? Yes, the question is valid and there is no contradiction actually; let me explain this. Puranas explain the creation as the children of Brahma, and Brahma is nothing but this entire universe shaped into an egg form which is called ‘Hiranyagarbha (golden womb)’. And the creation actually happens within this Hiranyagarbha (gross universe). Vedas have clearly given the process of how this creation happens. Hiranyagarbha who is called as Brahma in Puranas for simplicity of understanding is nothing but the Golden-Womb of Aditi (Durga), which she gains when Soma (Rudra) lays his seed upon her womb (references of this we have seen in above sections, so not repeating them to save space and time). And within that womb of Aditi (viz. Hiranyagarbha) lord Rudra takes various forms and manifests himself as various deities and creatures. It is Bhagawan Rudra who became all kinds of ‘Prajapati’ (Kashyapa, Daksha, Manu et al) for the continuity of creation within this gross universe (Hiranyagarbha); therefore Aditi and Rudra are the parents of daksha, and at the same time, since Hiranyagarbha (Universe) is seen as a deity called Brahma, Puranas call Daksha as Brahma’s child. So, there is no contradiction there. Here, the below verse from Vratya-Rudra Suktam from Atharva Veda clearly states that Rudra manifested as Prajapati. So, daksha is verily Aditi’s child.

“sá yát prajā́ ánu vyácalat prajā́patir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat prāṇám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:11)
“He (Rudra), when he went away to creatures, went away having become Prajāpati and having made vital breath an eater of food”.

In Vedas the deities are NOT the manifest puranic deities. These Gods like Indra, Varuna, Surya/Savitar, Daksha, Viswakarman, etc. are the direct aspects / forms assumed by Rudra through Aditi (Uma) who is his Maya. These manifestations are identical withRudra; let’s call them as Blue-Prints created for further creation. Creation happens at two levels – original creation and creation for continuity.Vedas are eternal in nature and are NOT related to a single Kalpa. However Puranas narrate various stories belonging to the Kalpa and various Manvantaras.  Originally Rudra and Aditi (Uma) appeared into various original blue-prints, and after that from those various blue-prints (which are not different from Rudra), take birth these Puranic deities in every cycle of Kalpa. Let me put some calculations here.One day of Hiranyagarbha is called as 1 Kalpa. 1 Kalpa is equivalent of 14 Manvantaras. And in each Manvantara one new Manu and one new Indra gets appointed. This means, in a day (only day, don’t count night) of Hiranyagarbha, 14 Indras get throned and dethroned. This implies, in a life time of Hiranyagarbha (100 divine years) 5,04,000 Indras get throned (created) and dethroned (dissolved).

In Vedas thedeities like Indra, Agni, Savitar et al, are not the Puranic figures. They are verily Mahadeva’s various potencies (blue-prints) described by various names. Later on, from these potenciesvarious Gods the actual classes of deities (demi-gods in modern language) of heaven get manifested carrying same names as original forms (of Rudra) through some divine parents in the lineage of Brahma’s children to continue creation in every manvantara and Kalpa.

Indra in Vedas represents the supremacy, lordship, rulership aspect of Bhagawan Rudra because Indra is the ‘Aham (Ego)’ of Rudra. And all the supremacy or praises what Vedas sing of Indra are all the glories of Rudra only sung under the name ‘Indra’. This Lordship element which is required to function as the ruler manifested as a deity ‘Indra’ by taking birth from Kashyap and his wife Aditi at a later stage,and in every Kalpa this lower-Indra dies and gets dethroned fourteen times and in every next Kalpa this lower-Indra takes birth or gets enthroned fourteen times again. Similarly, ‘Chandrama (moon)’ is the ‘manas (mind)’ of Veda Purusha-Rudra who sprang from Rudra himself, and later manifestsin an embodied form as deity by becoming the son of Atri and Anusuya.  This is the reason why in Vedas the primordial Indra is a supreme deity as compared to Puranas. Primordial Indra of Vedas is highly heroic, commands Vishnu, and Vishnu praises Indra’s deeds and sings his glories. This is because Indra in Vedas is Rudra alone, where the name ‘Indra’ is just an epithet to call Bhagawan Rudra only. On the other hand, Indra of Puranas is a son of kashyapa and is just another class of living being as like as humans. In fact anyone who represents the lordship of Swargaloka Is called Indra. We humans and deities of heaven are almost same class of creatures. And in Puranas that lower-order Indra suffers from humanlike qualities – is cowardice, gets defeated by demons easily, needs Vishnu or Shiva’s help to get protected, is of sinful conduct (he desires others’ wives), and gets humiliated, cursed and humbled by Sages, Gods and Krishna also. This is the difference between Vedic Indra (who is verily Rudra) and Puranic Indra (a deity). Not knowing this difference many so called learned men beat about the bush, and try to narrate some cock & bull stories to explain this simple difference and still fail miserably.

Therefore, let me repeat my statement which I always state in my articles – Vedas sing the glory of only Bhagawan Rudra under various names. A good example we have already seen in above section on Vritra slaying deed where Indra is called as Vritra slayer but same Vedas clarified saying it was Rudra who was called as the Vritra slaying Indra.

Practically speaking, the Puranic stories should never be read superficially. Puranas are written to explain the complex matters in common man’s level of understanding. That’s the reason; they describe same one goddess Aditi (Uma) as various goddesses viz. – Aditi, Surabhi, Vinata, Kadru et al. In fact, the same supreme goddess Aditi (who is Uma), became the child of Daksha to re-manifest the various Gods and other creatures from the blueprints which she and Rudra had created already. All the daughters of Daksha viz. Aditi, Surabhi, Vinata, Diti, Kadru, Matangi etc. are the various aspects of the supreme goddess Shakti only.  This is the reason why Shruti declares the same truth in the below verse very clearly.

“pu.nli~Nga.n sarvamiishaana.n striili~NgaM bhagavatyumaa  |
umaarudraatmikaaH sarvaaH grajaaH sthaavaraja~NgamaaH  |” (Rudra hridayopanishad 1:9-10)
“The masculine gender is Lord Siva. The feminine gender is Sri Bhavani Devi. All the mobile and immobile creation of this universe is filled up with Uma and Rudra”.


This universal fact is elaborated in Mahabharata in the following verse. Complete Sanskrit verses aren’t available with me for this passage therefore here is an extract furnished from the English translation of Mahabharata by Kisari Mohan Ganguly.
All creatures bear the signs that mark Mahadeva and his spouse. Hence, all creatures must be regarded as belonging to Maheswara. All creatures of the feminine sex, have sprung from Ulna’s nature as their cause, and hence it is they bear the mark of femininity that distinguishes Uma; while all creatures that are masculine, having sprung from Siva, bear the masculine mark that distinguishes Siva. That person who says that there is, in the three worlds with their mobile and immobile creatures, any other cause than the Supreme Lord, and that which is not marked with the mark of either Mahadeva or his spouse should be regarded as very wretched and should not be counted among the creatures of the universe. Every being with the mark of the masculine sex should be known to be of Isana, while every being with the mark of the feminine sex should be known to be of Uma”. (MBH 13:14)


The same truth is even reiterated in Harivamsa Parva which is an appendix to Mahabharata as follows.
“yalli~NgA~NkaM tryambakaH sarvamIsho bhagali~NgA~Nkam yaddhyumA sarvadhAtrI |
nAnyattR^itIyaM jagatIhAsti ki~nchitmahAdevAtsarvasarveshvaro.asau |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-72-60)
“All bodies in the world with masculine gender are forms of three eyed lord shiva. All bodies in the world with feminine gender are forms of universal mother uma. There is nothing else in the world other than these two. Lord Shiva is the lord of all”.

In the same Harivamsa lord Krishna also prays to lord Rudra by stating the same fact as follows.

“yalli~NgA~NkaM yachcha loke bhagA~NkaM | sarvaM soma tvaM sthAvaraM ja~NgamaM cha | prAhurviprAstvAM guNinaM tattvavij~nA-stathA dhyeyAmambikAM lokadhAtrIm |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-74-32)
“O the great lord accompanied by umA! The fixed and movable entities of this world marked by masculine and feminine genders, are the manifestations of both of you. The wise brahmins, knowledgeable about the principles, call you the one with qualities and worship ambikA, as the mother of the world”.

Even this fact is also detailed in Shiva Purana. When Puranas state stories inline and insync with the Vedas without contradicting Shruti, those stories must be accepted. In Chapter 3 of the Uttarardhaof the Rudra Samhita of the Shiva Mahapurana there is a conversation between Nandi and Sanatkumara which is as follows – Nandi narrates the story of ‘Maithuni Srushti’ (Creation with the help of intercourse) to Sanatkumara. Nandi tells him that once upon a time at the beginning of creation, Brahma created his mind born sons through great penances. However those mind born sons didn’t show interest in creation and went away becoming celibates. Seeing this failure of his creation Brahma became thoughtful and sad;then he heard a divine voice saying “Create through the union of Man and Woman”; Brahma again did penance but failed to create woman. He finally sought the grace of lord Shiva and prayed for him when Shiva pleased with Brahma’s devotion appeared in front of him in an androgenous form (half male-half female) as Ardhanareeshwara where Shiva’s left portion of body was occupied by his Shakti. Brahma prayed to the lord and expressed his inability to create a woman and requested goddess Shakti (Uma) to create females for his creation to continue. Goddess accepted his wish and manifested as various female deities.

That’s how goddess Prasuti manifested from Brahma and became the wife of Daksha and helped him in further creation. In this connection Mahabharata says –


“dakṣas tv ajāyatāṅguṣṭhād dakṣiṇād bhagavān ṛṣiḥ | brahmaṇaḥ pṛthivīpāla putraḥ putravatāṃ varaḥ |vāmād ajāyatāṅguṣṭhād bhāryā tasya mahātmanaḥ |” (MBH 1:60:9-10)
“The illustrious Rishi Daksha, of soul in complete peace, and of great asceticism, sprung from the right toe of Brahma. And from the left toe of Brahma sprang the wife of the high-souled Daksha”.

Therefore even Daksha is a manifestation of Mahadeva and his wife Prasuti is a manifestation of Bhavani alone. Now, Shiva Purana again narrates a story that even daksha prayed to goddess Uma and requested her to be born in her lineage, and Shiva Purana emphasizes only on Satias her incarnation. However that is NOT a contradiction, rather, that should be considered as an omission! Shiva Purana focuses more on Shiva and his story, therefore emphacizes on Sati. However since we know from Brahma’s request Uma agreed to manifest as females in this creation/universe, therefore correlating Brahma’s prayer together with Daksha’s prayer to Uma it gets proved that even all the female children of Daksha were Uma’s manifestations. Also, if you logically look at it – Goddess Sati is NOT the eldest of Daksha’s daughters, she manifested after many daughters of Daksha were born. So, if you say that only Sati is Shakti’s form and others aren’t then that would itself contradict the boon of Goddess to Brahma where Brahma requested her to manifest as the females since Brahma was incapable of creating women. If Brahma was incapable of creating women and if Goddess Shakti only could manifest herself as women, and if Daksha also prayed to Shakti for manifesting s his daughter and she agreed, and if you still say only Sati was Shakti then who were Aditi, Surabhi, Diti, Vinata, Kadru, Surasa  etc? How could Daksha create them? Did you understand the logical fallacy of considering only Sati as Shakti and not others? Moreover, if only Sati was goddess Shakti and not others then Puranas and even Ramayana and Mahabharata which talk about creation of cows, trees, dogs, deites, etc through kashyapa and his wives should become FALSE because Vedas clearly state that it is Rudra who created the entire creation through his wife Uma. Therefore open your blindfolds and read between the lines of Puranic stories then you would understand the inner meanings!

Now, this conclusion is true because it is in sync with what Shruti (Rudra hridayopanishat) and Itihasa (Mahabharata and Harivamsa) stated.

Since all the progenitors of races viz. Dharma, Daksha, Manu, Kashyapa et al whosoever comes under the category of ‘Prajapati’ everyone is a manifestation of Rudra, it is again this Rudra and Uma who create the Puranic embodiment of Vedic blue-prints in every Manvantara and Kalpa. The below verse explains who all were the couples and had how many wives (Note all these male folks were Rudra’s and all females were Uma’s manifestations).

“tasyāṃ pañcāśataṃ kanyāḥ sa evājanayan muniḥ | tāḥ sarvās tv anavadyāṅgyaḥ kanyāḥ kamalalocanāḥ |putrikāḥ sthāpayām āsa naṣṭaputraḥ prajāpatiḥ | dadau sa daśa dharmāya sapta viṃśatim indave | divyena vidhinā rājan kaśyapāya trayodaśa |” (MBH 1:60:10-12)
“And the Muni (Daksha) begat upon her (Prasuti) fifty daughters; and all those daughters were of faultless features and limbs and of eyes like lotus-petals. And the lord Daksha, not having any sons, made those daughters his Putrikas (so that their sons might belong both to himself and to their husbands). And Daksha bestowed, according to the sacred ordinance, ten of his daughters on Dharma, twenty-seven on Chandra (the Moon), and thirteen on Kasyapa”.

For having more profound knowledge of this concept, let’s see how Rudra himself has become Kasyapa-Prajapati. We have seen a while ago a reference from Atharva Veda that it is Rudra who becomes Prajapati (for the sake of continuing the races). And that same Rudra (who is the Prajapati) becomes a Tortoise (called Kashyapa), and generates the race.

“sa yatkūrmo nāma | etadvai rūpaṃ kṛtvā prajāpatiḥ prajā asṛjata
yadasṛjatākarottadyadakarottasmātkūrmaḥ kaśyapo vai kūrmastasmādāhuḥ sarvāḥ
prajāḥ kāśyapya iti |” (Satapatha Brahmana 7:5:1:5)
“And as to its being called ‘kûrma’ (tortoise);Pragâpati, having assumed that form, created living beings. Now what he created, he made; and inasmuch as he made (kar), he is (called) ‘kûrma;’ and ‘kûrma’ being (the same as) ‘kasyapa’ (a tortoise), therefore all creatures are said to be descended from Kasyapa”.

This is why Shruti further declares the following.

“sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA |” (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“He (Rudra) is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

Therefore the Sage kashyapa is none other than a manifestation of Bhagawan Rudra alone. In another way there is again a hidden meaning to Kashyapa. In the name ‘Kashyap’ when you mutually interchange the first letter and the last letter it becomes ‘Pashyak’ which means ‘Witnesser / Observer’; which is nothing but lord Rudra who is the supreme witnesser because Rudra is the changeless Brahman and whatever exists is just a play of his Maya (Uma). Rudra (Brahman) is the supreme consciousness who doesn’t engage himself into action directly; he just watchesand witnesses as a spectator and only through his Shakti he becomes active and Shakti acts as the agent for all mobility. So, the Puranas also describe the same truth as Vedas and just state the same story in a simple “humanly” manner. Now we have understood that kashyap is Rudra’s manifestation, let’s understand how all his wives viz. Aditi, Diti, Vinata, Surabhi, Kadru etc represents the various aspects of mother Uma only. 
Rig Veda states how Maruts (rudras) were born as follows.

“ajyeṣṭhāso akaniṣṭhāsa ete sam bhrātaro vāvṛdhuḥ saubhaghāya |
yuvā pitā svapā rudra eṣāṃ sudughā pṛśniḥ sudinā marudbhyaḥ |” (Rig Veda 5:60:5)
“None being eldest, none among them youngest, as brothers they have grown to happy fortune. May their Sire Rudra, young and deft, and Pṛśni pouring much milk, bring fair days to the Maruts”.

“pra ye me bandhveṣe ghāṃ vocanta sūrayaḥ pṛśniṃ vocanta mātaram |
adhā pitaram iṣmiṇaṃ rudraṃ vocanta śikvasaḥ |” (Rig Veda 5:52:16)
“Princes, who, when I asked their kin, named Pṛśni as their Mother-cow,
And the impetuous Rudra they, the Mighty Ones, declared their Sire”.

We know from Rig Veda that Rudras (called as Maruts) are the sons of Rudra and his consort Prishni. Goddess Prishni of Rig Veda is nothing but the same goddess Aditi termed as Prishni in the intermediate space; and Rig Veda identifies Prishni as a cow and also Aditi is identified as a cow. Aditi and Prishni are same in fact. Well, coming back to the point – Rudras (maruts) are the sons of Rudra and Prishni as per Vedas. What are meanyt by maruts/Rudras in Vedas? The Maruts (rudras) in Vedas are nothing but the ‘Pranas’ of Rudra (who is the Atman), and these Rudras as Pranas (life breaths) exist within we all (who represent micro universe) sustaining us from within. They manifested as gross Puranic children from Kashyapa where Prishni is called Surabhi and as dicussed above Kashyap is nothing but Shiva manifested as a progenitor-sage. This is the reason why all Puranas state that goddess Surabhi (wife of Kashyapa) did penance for lord Shiva and through his boons she gave birth to Rudras. Is this clear now who are Surabhi-Kashyapa? Yes, Surabhi of Puranas is just a representation of goddess Uma only. Surabhi means Uma and Kashyap means Rudra. This is evident from the following verses from Harivamsa Purana. Shiva Purana has a detailed story where Surabhi does penance for lord Shiva and gives birth to eleven Rudras through Kashyapa by the boon of Shiva.

“amR^itaM brAhmaNA gAvo rudrAshcheti chatuShTayam |surabhyapatyamityetatpurANe nishchayo mahAn |etadvai kashyapApatyaM |” (Harivamsa Parva 3:36:50-51)
“The ancient histories confirm that, the amR^ita (nectar), the brAhmaNas, the cows and rudras are the children of surabhi. These are the children of kashyapa”.

“surabhI kashyapAt rudrAn ekAdasha vinirmame | mahAdeva prasAdena tapasA bhAvitA satI |”  (Harivamsa Parva 1:3:49-50 )
“Hallowed by her own ascesis and by the grace of mahadeva, the daughter of daskha prajApati, and the wife of kashyapa prajApati, lady surabhi, moulded eleven rudrA-s”.

Again on similar lines, we know from Vedas that it is Lord Shiva who through the help of his Prakriti (Uma) became this entire creation including – one footed animals (snakes), two footed animals (humans and gods), winged creatures (Birds), four footed creatures (cows, elephants, etc.) and plants & trees. Now, if you read Puranas they depict this very same fact of entire creation of Rudra and Uma through various charecters of mythology as follows. Puranas state that – all cows, buffaloes, horses and other quadrupeds were created by Kashyapa through his wife Surabhi; all gods (two footed) were created by Kashyapa through his wife Aditi; all winged creatures (eagles and birds) like Garuda, Aruna were created by Kashyapa through his wife Vinata; all demons (two footed negative forces) were created by Kashyapa through his wife Diti; all one footed creatures (snakes) were created by Kashyapa through his wife Kadru; all four footed elephants were created by Kashyapa through his wife Matangi; all beautiful Apsaras (celestial damsels) were created by Kashyapa through his wife Muni; all Gandhervas and Kinnaras who were of the class of celestial musicians were created by Kashyapa and his wife Arishta; and all the plants and trees were created by Kashyapa through his wife Ira; all wild animals were the progeny of Kashyapa through his wife Tamra, and all dogs (again four footed class of creatures) were the progeny of Kashyapa’s wife Sarama .

Just now we read from Harivamsa a verse stating that all rudras were the children of Surabhi. Here is another verse from Valmiki Ramayana which says all Rudras (and all 33 categories of Gods) were from Aditi. It should not confuse us now because this is a greatest proof that all the various female children of Daksha were indeed one, and hence each scripture calls their names differently but when it comes to meaning, it remains same that entire creation is from Uma and Rudra through their various manifestations.

“adityaam jaj~nire devaaH trayaH tri.mshat ari.ndama | aadityaa vasavo rudraa ashvinau ca para.mtapa |” (Valmiki Ramayana 3-14-14)
“Aditi gave birth to twelve Aditya-s, the Sun-gods, eight Vasu-s, the Terrestrials-gods, eleven Rudraa-s, the Fury-gods, and two Ashvinis, the medicine-gods, total thirty-three of them”.

Sum and substance of this analysis is that primordial-Aditi (Uma-daksha’s mother) is herself goddess Aditi (Daksha’s daughter), Surabhi, Diti, Vinata, Kadru, Sarama, Tamra, Sati etc. In fact entire female folk is none other than goddess Uma and entire male species is none other than Rudra as confirmed by another verse from Shruti in the following verse.

“rudro nara umaa naarii tasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishad 1:17)
“Rudra is man. Uma is woman. Prostrations to Him and Her.”


So, hopefully now my logic is clear to the readers.

Therefore Puranas, Ramayana and Mahabharata do not contradict what Vedas and Upanishads state about Kashyapa and his wives, but only thing is that Puranas and other texts do not fully explain this concept and leave us to analyze that with our own brains which we have done now and understood that Kashyapa is a manifestation of Rudra and all his wives names are nothing but the names of same goddess Aditi (Uma) represented as various manifestations. They created the various beings on the material plane of existence through the original Vedic blueprints.
This is the reason why we have Daksha of Vedas as the son of Aditi (an Aditya), and then one single Aditi (Uma) became his daughters (Aditi, Diti, Surabhi etc.) but essentially all these are the various aspects of the same supreme goddess Uma only.

Now it should have been clear that the Primordial-Vishnu of Vedas who is the son of the primordial-Aditi is Vedas, he should not be equated with the Puranic son of the Aditi (daksha’s daughter) who was called Vamana; however this Vamana is a manifestation (incarnation) of that primordial Vishnu.

To explain this single statement I had to explain pages and pages of creation secrets!

4.1. Elaborating the Origination of Vishnu and other Vedic deities


All Vedic blue-prints (Indra, Vishnu, Agni, Surya etc.) are direct forms of Rudra and Uma; and from those blue prints Rudra and Uma manifest the secondary level forms in the secondary creation (for continuity). Therefore Primordial Vishnu is none other than Rudra (Vishnu’s relation with Uma will be discussed shortly), and all the Puranic incarnations of Vishnu (Rama, Krishna, Vamana) are the manifestations of the blue-print (Vishnu). Let’s see how Rudra himself exists as the primordial Vishnu, Primordial Indra and other Gods. The below verses are from Vratya-Rudra Suktam of Atharva Veda.
Rudra became Indra (this is the aspect of lordship & sovereigntyof Rudra):

“sá yád dákṣiṇāṃ díśam ánu vyácalad índro bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad bálam annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:2)
“He, when he went away to the southern region, went away having become Indra, and having made Strength an eater of food”.

Rudra became VISHNU (This is the aspect of all pervasiveness of Rudra):

“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad virā́jam annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:5)
“He, when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu and having made Virāj an eater of food”.

Rudra became Varuna (This is the aspect of fertility and life support manifested from Rudra as waters sustain this cosmos from within and without):

“sá yát pratī́cīṃ díśam ánu vyácalad váruṇo rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad apò ‘nnādī́ḥ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:3)
“He, when he went away to the western region, went away having become King Varuna, and having made the Waters eaters of food”.

Rudra became King Soma (This is the aspect of immortality which manifested from Rudra):

“sá yád údīcīṃ díśam ánu vyácalat sómo rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat saptarṣíbhir hutá ā́hutim annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:4)
“He, when he went away to the northern region, went away having become King Soma and having made the Seven Rishis’ oblation an eater of food”.

Rudra became Yama (This is the aspect of death manifested from Rudra who later became the son of Sun-god in secondary creation):

“sá yát pitr̥̄́n ánu vyácalad yamó rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat svadhākārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́|” (Atharva Veda XV:14:7)
“He, when he went away to the Fathers, went away having become King Yama and having made the exclamation Svadhā an eater of food”.

Rudra became Agni (This is the aspect of fire which later manifested as a deity in Puranic stories of secondary creation):

“sá yán manuṣyā̀n ánu vyácalad agnír bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat svāhākārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́|” (Atharva Veda XV:14:8)
“He, when he went away to men, went away having become Agni and having made the exclamation Svāhā an eater of food”.

Rudra became Brihaspati (This is the aspect of a Guru (teacher-Dakshinamurty) which became manifested as Angirasa’s son Brihaspati in secondary creation and became the preceptor of all deities):

“sá yád ūrdhvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad bŕ̥haspátir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad vaṣaṭkārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́|” (Atharva Veda XV:14:9)
“He, when he went away to the upper region, went away having become Brihaspati and having made the exclamation Vashat an eater of food”.

And so on… In fact all forms are Rudra’s forms only

“tadevaagnistadaaditya stadvaayustadu chandramaaH |
tadeva shukra.n tad.h brahma tadaapastat.h prajaapatiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:02)
“That Supreme Self (Rudra) is Agni (Fire); it is Aditya (Sun); it is Vayu (Wind); it is Chandrama (Moon). That Self is the luminous stars; it is Hiranyagarbha; it is water; it is Virat”.

All the gods are contained inside lord Rudra only.

“yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge sárve samā́hitāḥ |
skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:13)
“Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha He in whose body are contained all three-and-thirty Deities?”

In fact there is none who exists other than Rudra. It is due to low intelligence that people discriminate between Gods, but all forms are the forms of Mahadeva only. Mahabharata again supports this fact and explains in a very elaborative manner as given below. I don’t have the Sanskrit verses with me hence as reference, citing the extract from Kisari Mohan Ganguly’s translation of Sanskrit version of Vyasa Mahabharata.

“Bhava assumes the forms of Brahma and Vishnu and the chief of the celestials of the Rudras, the Adityas, and the Aswins; and of those deities that are called Viswadevas. He assumes the forms also of men and women, of Pretas and Pisachas, of Kiratas and Savaras, and of all aquatic animals. That illustrious deity assumes the forms of also those Savaras that dwell in the woods and forests. He assumes the forms of tortoises and fishes and conches. He it is that assumes the forms of those coral sprouts that are used as ornaments by men. He assumes also the forms of Yakshas, Rakshasas and Snakes, of Daityas and Danavas. Indeed, the illustrious god assumes the forms of all creatures too that live in holes. He assumes the forms of tigers and lions and deer, of wolves and bears and birds, of owls and of jackals as well. He it is that assumes the forms of swans and crows and peacocks, of chameleons and lizards and storks. He it is that assumes the forms of cranes and vultures and Chakravakas. Verily, he it is that assumes the forms of Chasas and of mountains also. O son, it is Mahadeva that assumes the forms of kine and elephants and horses and camels and asses. He assumes also the forms of goats and leopards and diverse other varieties of animals. It is Bhava who assumes the forms of diverse kinds of birds of beautiful plumage”. (MBH13:14)

However, Vishnu and Brahma are Rudra’s superior manifestations. All other Vedic personalities were actually the potencies of Rudra and the blue prints created for further manifestation; whereas Vishnu and Brahma were the only true Supreme gods created by Rudra and Uma. Brahma (hirayagarbhA) and Vishnu (the lord who is virAt and protector of all gross bodies) were created as Gods from the beginning itself. They didn’t require a re-manifestation; this is why Brahma and Vishnu take superior positions compared to other deities (of Puranic origin).  This is why Mahabharata (MBH 13:17:96) praises Rudra as “ūrdhvaretā jale śayaḥ |” which means, “Thou ownest for thy offspring, beings higher than men and deities (viz., Brahma and Vishnu). Thou art inthe form of that Vishnu who floats on the waters after the universal dissolution”.

Harivamsa Parva states again the same truth that Brahma and Vishnu are the superior forms of Rudra when compared to the secondary manifestations as Puranic deities.

“dhAmno yasya hariragro.atha vishvo brahmA putraiH sahitashcha dvijAshcha |
parAbhUtA bhavane yasya somo juShatveSha shreyase sAdhu goptA |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-72-58)
“For our benefit, let lord shiva along with uma be pleased with us, whose splendour’s main parts are lord viShNu and brahma, along with his sons, the sages such as sanaka, marIcha, whose abode they are unable to enter and who protects the good men”.

Now, let us go into detail how did Vishnu manifest from Rudra

4.2. Vishnu originated from LEFT side of Rudra hence he is Uma’s male form

 

It is Rudra who takes the form of Vishnu as clearly stated in the below verses of Vedas.“namo girishaya cha shipivishhtaya cha |” (Yajurveda iv.5.5.f)
“Salutations to the Lord who dwells in mount Kailas and who assumes the form of Vishnu”.

Rig Veda also states the same that Soma (Sa + Uma = Lord with Uma = Shiva) beget Vishnu

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and VISHNU”.

Even Atharva Veda speaks the same truh about Rudra manifesting himself as Vishnu.

“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad virā́jam annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:5)
“He, when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu and having made Virāj an eater of food”.

In fact, In Mahabharata Vyasa clearly expounds the same truth saying that Kesava (Vishnu / Krishna) sprang from Rudra himself.

“sa eṣa rudra bhaktaś ca keśavo rudra saṃbhavaḥ |sarvabhūtabhavaṃ jñātvā liṅge ‘rcayati yaḥ prabhum | tasminn abhyadhikāṃ prītiṃ karoti vṛṣabhadhvajaḥ |” (MBH 7:172:89-90)
“Kesava is that devoted worshipper of Rudra who has sprung from Rudra himself. The Lord Kesava always worshippeth Siva in the phallic emblem as the origin of all creatures. The God having the bull for his mark cherisheth greater regard for Kesava”.

Now, it is interesting to note where from Vishnu sprang from Rudra. This is significant because only this point is the basis for Vishnu being the form of Uma. Let’s see one direct verse from Mahabharata which supports what Shruti says, however to understand the verses from Upanishad this verse from Mahabharata would be highly useful.

“yo ‘sṛjad dakṣiṇād aṅgād brahmāṇaṃ lokasaṃbhavam | vāmapārśvāt tathā viṣṇuṃ lokarakṣārtham īśvaraḥ | yugānte caiva saṃprāpte rudram aṅgāt sṛjat prabhuḥ |” (MBH 13:14:183)
“Thou art he that hadst created from thy right side the Grandsire Brahma, the Creator of all things. Thou art he that hadst created from thy left side Vishnu for protecting the Creation. Thou art that puissant Lord who didst create Rudra (the destroyer deity Kalagni-Rudra) when the end of the Yuga came and when the Creation was once more to be dissolved”.

In Harivamsa Parva lord Sri Krishna himself states the following fact while praying to lord Rudra.

“ahaM brahmA kapilo yo.apyanantaH | putrAH sarve brahmaNashchAtivIrAH |
tvattaH sarve devadeva prasUtA | evaM sarveshaH kAraNAtmA tvamIDyaH |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-74-34)
“O the lord of lord! Myself (Krishna/ Vishnu), brahma, kapila, ananta (sheSha), all the valiant sons of brahma who conquered over the internal enemies – all are created from you. Hence you are the lord of all. Hence you, the lord of all, are worthy of praise”.

Rudra is of the aspect of fire (hotness) and Uma is of the aspect of Amritam (coolness also), from Rudra’s aspect of Agni manifested Brahma, the three types of Agni and Sun;whereas from the cooler aspect of Uma manifested Vishnu, and Moon (Soma).

Since Rudra and Uma are one and the same, it means, from Rudra’s right portion manifested Brahma, Sun, and Agni whereas from Rudra’s left portion (which is Uma) manifested Vishnu and Moon.

“sarvadevaatmako rudraH sarve devaaH shivaatmakaaH |
rudrasya dakshiNe paarshve ravirbrahmaa trayo.agnayaH |”(Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:04)
“Rudra is the embodiment of all Devas. All devas are merely different manifestations of Sri Rudra Himself. On the right side of Rudra, there is the sun, then the four-headed Brahma, and then three Agnis (fires).”

The below verse clearly states that Vishnu is a form of Uma (Vishnu manifested from the left portion of Rudra and left portion of Rudra is nothing but Uma).

“vaamapaarshve umaa devii vishhNuH somo.api te trayaH |
yaa umaa saa svaya.n vishhNuryo vishhNuH sa hi chandramaaH |”(Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:05)
“On the left side, there exist Sri Umadevi, and also Vishnu and Soma (moon). Uma Herself is in the form of Vishnu. Vishnu Himself is in the form of the moon”.

Rudra’s right side creatd Brahma and since Rudra’s right side is of the form of fire aspect Brahma is also of the form of fire aspect. The below verse also tells that Rudra is full of Brahma and Vishnu because Brahma is Rudra’s right side (which is again Rudra) and Vishnu is Rudra’s left side (which is Uma). Therefore Rudra is full of Brahma and Vishnu implies that Brahma and Vishnu are nothing but Rudra and Uma respectively. And since Rudra is of the aspect of fire and Uma is of the aspect of nectar / Amrita (Soma which representing the cooler aspect); entire universe is of the form of Agni and Soma (implying Rudra and Uma).

“yo rudraH sa svayaM brahmaa yo brahmaa sa hutaashanaH |
brahmavishhNumayo rudra agniishhomaatka.n jagat.h |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:08-9)
“Rudrahimself is in the form of Brahma and Brahma Himself is in the form of Agni. Rudra is full of Brahma and Vishnu. The whole world is full of Agni and Soma”.

Same has been stated in harivamsa Parva as well for Rudra and Vishnu (who is actually Uma).

“rudramagnimayaM vidyAdviShNuH somAtmakaH smR^itaH |
agnIShomAtmakaM chaiva jagatsthAvaraja~Ngamam |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-125-35)
“Remember that rudra has the aspect of fire and viShNu has the aspect of soma (nectar, moon). All the world including the fixed and movable beings have the combined aspects of fire and soma (shiva and viShNu)”.

Well, Uma is nothing but Rudra’s left portion and is identical with Rudra. Therefore we can also say Rudra’s left portion belongs to both Rudra and Uma equally because it is a combination or merger of Uma with Rudra. This is the reason why the below verse further clarifies that Vishnu is a combination of Uma and Rudra.

“umaa sha~Nkarayogo yaH sa yogo vishhNuruchyate |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:11)
“The combination of Uma and Sankara is Vishnu”.

Therefore the great lord Vishnu is a son of Rudra and Uma since Vishnu is an Aditya the son of Aditi (Uma) engendered by Rudra.

Also, the same Upanishad speaks further about the fact that Vishnu is none other than Rudra’s form and Lakshmi is none other than Uma’s formas follows.

“rudro vishhNurumaa lakshmiistasmai tasyai namo namaH |”(Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:18)
“Rudra is Vishnu. Uma is Lakshmi. Prostrations to Him and Her”.

This is also confirmed in Mahabharata also. We have already studied above that all female forms are from Uma’s manifestations. Therefore Lakshmi who originated from Brahma is also a manifestation of mother Bhavani alone as stated below.

“dvau putrau brahmaṇas tv anyau yayos tiṣṭhati lakṣaṇam | loke dhātā vidhātā ca yau sthitau manunā saha | tayor eva svasā devī lakṣmīḥ padmagṛhā śubhā | tasyās tu mānasāḥ putrās turagā vyoma cāriṇaḥ |” (MBH 1:60:49-50)
“And Brahman had two other sons, viz., Dhatri and Vidhatri who stayed with Manu. Their sister is the auspicious goddess Lakshmi having her abode amid lotuses. And the spiritual sons of Lakshmi are the sky-ranging horses”.

The same narration about manifestation of Lakshmi is found in Satapatha Brahmana also as follows.Goddess Sri (lakshmi) the goddess of fortune manifested from Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha- the visible universe) as shown in below verse.

“prajāpatirvai prajāḥ sṛjamāno’tapyata tasmācrāntāttapānācrīrudakrāmatsādīpyamānā |
bhrājamānā lelāyantyatiṣṭhatāṃ dīpyamānām bhrājamānāṃ lelāyantīṃ devāabhyadhyāyan |” (Satapatha Brahmana 11:4:3:1)
“Pragâpati was becoming heated (by fervid devotion), whilst creating living beings. From him, worn out and heated, Srî (Fortune and Beauty) came forth. She stood there resplendent, shining, and trembling. The gods, beholding her thus resplendent, shining, and trembling, set their minds upon her”.

Since before these above verses we analyzed Vishnu as Uma’s form and now we learnt that Vishnu is Rudra’s formand it is Lakshmi who is Uma, if it has confused you, then let me clarify the confusion by reiterating the fact that, all masculine forms are Rudra and all feminine forms are Uma. So, based on this rule Vishnu is Rudra and Lakshmi is Uma. However, raise yourself from the dualistic levels of mind and note this point carefully in your mind that Rudra and Uma are one body shared half by each. They are ALWAYS one. So, because Vishnu sprang from Rudra’s left side, even though he is masculine god and is a form of Rudra, it is not at all wrong to consider Vishnu as a male form of Uma since Rudra’s left side is Uma. Lakshmi is always Uma since all females and Shaktis are Uma’s forms only (and if you choose to consider Lakshmi as Rudra’s female manifestation that is also correct). If you understand that Rudra and Uma are one and the same, confusions would never arise! If you want to dig even deepr into this subject then let me shut down all doors of duality and state that all forms whether they are males, females, whether they are in infancy, or in youth or in old age every form is a form fo Rudra. There is nothing that exists which is not a form of Mahadeva as confirmed in below verses.

“nama uganabhyastrihatibhyashcha vo namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-4)
“Salutations to you, O Rudra, who are in the form of the superior female deities and the fierce vengeful and powerful Goddesses”.

“tváṃ strī́ tváṃ púmān asi tváṃ kumārá utá vā kumārī́ |
tváṃ jīrṇó daṇḍéna vañcasi tváṃ jātó bhavasi viśvátomukhaḥ |” (Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:03)
“Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youth and maiden too. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff; it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms”.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ |
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:8:28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child.As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

Now, this below verse should be enough for showing us the oneness of Rudra and Uma (Aditi). Whatever we have read above about Rudra, same has been stated about Aditi as follows. Note that Aditi is father, son, mother and everything.

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ
viśve devā aditiḥ pañca janā aditirjātamaditirjanitvam ” (Rig Veda 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born”.

That is why Rig Veda clearly says that when you tend to be inclined towards Bhagawan Rudra with your devotion; when you try to sing his praises; Aditi confers Rudra’s grace on you. Isn’t this enough to understand that they are not two, but rather they are one and the same? (That’s where Ardhanareeshwara principle comes into picture).

“kad rudrāya pracetase mīḷhuṣṭamāya tavyase | vocema śantamaṃ hṛde |
yathā no aditiḥ karat paśve nṛbhyo yathā ghave | yathā tokāya rudriyam |” (Rig Veda 1:43:1-2)
“WHAT shall we sing to Rudra, strong, most bounteous, excellently wise, That shall be dearest to his heart? That Aditi may grant the grace of Rudra to our folk, our kine, Our cattle and our progeny”.

This is the same reason why Lalita Astottaram of goddess Tripurasundari calls her be the name “Chandrashekhara bhaktaarti bhanjanaayai namah”, which means, “Salutations to that Goddess who removes all the pains of the devotees of Chandrasekhara”.

Let’s analyze another interesting fact here. The same Rudra hridayopanishad says that Rudra is Avyakta (unknowable, beyond the levels of comprehension because he is beyond Turiya as the Brahman), and Uma is the Vyakta (knowlable or visible) as follows.

“vyakta.n sarvamumaaruupamavyakta.n tu maheshvaram.h |”(Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:10)
“The Vyakta is Sri Uma, and the Avyakta is Lord Siva”.

But the below verse from Devi Upanishad apparently contradicts it. Itsays Devi (Uma) is beyond comprehension and is Avyakta. Why such contradiction? (There is no contradiction! We’ll analyze).

“yasyaaH svaruupaM brahmaadayo na jaananti tasmaaduchyate.aGYeyaa | yasyaa anto na vidyate tasmaaduchyate anantaa | yasyaa grahaNa.n nopalabhyate tasmaaduchyate.alakshyaa | yasyaa janana.n nopalabhyate tasmaaduchyate.ajaa | ekaiva sarvatra vartate tasmaaduchyata ekaa . ekaiva vishvaruupiNiitasmaaduchyate naikaa |ata evochyate.aGYeyaanantaalakshyaajaikaa naiketi |” (Devi Upanishad 1:26)
“Brahma and others know not Her essence; so is she called the Unknowable. She has no end; so is she called the Endless. She is not grasped and so is she called the Incomprehensible. Her birth is not known and so is she called the Unborn. She alone is present everywhere, and so is she called the One. She alone wears all forms, and so is she called the Many. For these reasons is she called the Unknowable, the Endless, the Incomprehensible, the Unknown, the One and the Many”.

Well, logically speaking, Rudra and Uma being one and the same, who share one body and are identical with each other, it cannot be true that Rudra (the right half) is Avyakta (beyond comprehension) and Uma (the left half) is Vyakta (within comprehension). So, why did Rudra Hridayopanishad state that Rudra is Avyakta and Uma is Vyakta? Hold on! There is no fault in this Upanishad. It speaks truth only.  Uma is also Avyakta as like as Rudra. However she becomes manifest (vyakta) as this entire universe, and through her masculine form Vishnu she becomes Vyakta in this material plane. Secondly her masculine form Vishnu is her son through whom she displays her deeds.

Further the Upanishad states the following facts.

“agniishhomaatka.n jagat.h |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:08-9)
The whole world is full of Agni (Rudra) and Soma (nectar=Uma).

So, this world is a combination of Agni (Rudra) and Amruta (Uma). And what is that world is in reality? It is Vishnu as stated below. This is why the name ‘Vishnu’ itself means ‘that god who pervades in every anu (atom) of this Vishwam (universe) is Vishnu’. Also, Vishnu Sahasranama’s very beginning name starts with ‘VishvaM’.  This implies outwardly that this entrie universe is Vishnu, and a deeper meaning is to say that entire universe is a combination of Uma and Rudra.

“umaa sha~Nkarayogo yaH sa yogo vishhNuruchyate |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:11)
“The combination of Uma and Sankara is Vishnu”.

This implies that, this entire creation (jagat) is a manifested form of Uma and Rudra and is identical with Vishnu. And because Vishnu is created from left portion of Rudra hence he is called as combination of Uma and Shankara, however, left portion being Uma, we arrive at the final conclusion that Vishnu is the manifested (Vyakta) form of Uma. This proves that both Uma is Avyakta (unknowlable) being beyond Turiya she becomes Vyakta as Vishnu.  This is why all the deeds of Uma (Kundalini rising etc.) are praised under the name of ‘Vishnu’ in Vedas as what we have already studied in this article.

Note: Know that I didn’t mention Parvati as Tripurasudnari’s manifestation because she is NOT a manifestation she is rather Tripurasudnari herself. You shouldn’t consider Parvati different from that tripurasudnari because just for being closer to we children she became Vyakta as a mother in the form of daughter of Himavan (Parvati) however if you go by scriptures, the same Parvati showed her universal cosmic form of Tripurasudnari to Himavan in Devi Gita and said there is none superior to her and she is identical with Brahman (Rudra). This should suffice to make you understand that Parvati is NOT a mere manifestation, rather she is Tripurasundari herself but in her visible and easily accessible form which she took to be closer to her children.

Conclusion: -Vishnu is the masculine form of Uma and whatever qualities are displayed by Uma in spiritual plane; Vishnu imitates her nature & activities anddisplays them in the material plane.

4.3. Uma assuming the form of Vishnu is attested even by Puranas


Well, before you proceed reading this section, let me make a note very clear to everyone. I am known as the one who doesn’t trust Puranas at their entirety because they have been largely interpolated and corrupted (I can prove this but that is out of scope for this article).  However, wherever any portion of any Purana supports Vedas and Upanishads, then such portions should be considered as authentic Puranic excerpts, and I do trust such portions.  In this section, I’ll discuss few Puranic excerpts and references which are in fact inline with Shruti, therefore I consider them as trustworthy excerpts.
The science of Sri Vidya is totally identical and dependent on Kundalini rising, and we have seen in this article above, how this supreme Kundlaini Yoga which is the basis of Sri Vidya is hidden in Vedas under the pseudonyms of Vishnu and Indra. The celebrated text ‘Lalita Sahasranama Stotram’ is founded on this science alone. Therefore even though that exists in Purana, it is not unauthentic because it is the hidden science of Vedas. So, I’ll be touching this topc in this section based on related Puranic connections.

There was a great saint by name ‘Sri Bhaskararaya Makhin’ whose commentary on Lalita Sahasranama Stotram is considered to be the most authentic commentary by the followers of Sri Vidya tradition of Lalitambika. This said is said to have direct connection with that great goddess and in his lifetime he had shown various miracles by the grace of that goddess. It is said in his biography that once some scholar challenged him to explain “mahachatusHasHtikOti yoginIgaNa sEvita” and tell the names of the 64 crores of yoginis who remainas the associates of Lalitambika serving her in her abode. And it is said that the scholars beheld Lalitambika herself seated on his shoulder and reciting the names of those all yoginis. Whatever it may be the point here is Bhaskararaya’s commentary on Lalita Sahasranama is the most authentic work on Devi in Sri Vidya tradition.

His commentary has been translated into English by “R. A. Sastry, in the book titled ‘Lalita-Sahasranama’published by ‘The Adyar Library and Research Centre’, Madras, 1988”. There some interesting facts have been mentioned as translated from original commentary of Bhaskararaya.

Goddess Lalita Tripurasundari is hidden in Vedas and hailed in Upanishads. She is identical with Supreme Brahman (Shiva). And everything is a form of that Brahman alone.

“satyamekaM lalitAkhyaM vastu tadadvitIyamakhaNDArthaM paraM brahma |” (Bahvricha Upanishad-5 from Rig Veda)
“The sole Truth is the thing named ‘Lalita (the Beautiful)’. It is the non-dual, integral, supreme Brahman”.

Lalita Sahasranama Stotram mentions clearly that Lalitambika assumes the form of Vishnu and protects the worlds as stated below.

“goptri govindarupini |” (Lalita Sahasranama Stotram 1:63)
“[Lalitambika] assumes the form of Govinda for the task of protection”.

“vishnurupini |” (Lalita Sahasranama Stotram 1:166)
“Who is herself in the form of Vishnu”.

The above facts are in sync with what Upanishad says as follows.

“yaa umaa saa svaya.n vishhNuh |”(Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:05)
“She who is called Uma, sheHerself is in the form of Vishnu”.

Therefore these excerpts are not discardable. Hence let’s see what this Stotram further says.

“Karanguli nakhotpanna narayana dashakrutih | Mahapashu patastragni nirdagdhasura sainika |” (Lalita Sahasranama Stotram 1:32)
“Lalita – who out of her finger nails re-created all the ten Incarnations of Vishnu to destroy the Asuras slain by Him in His incarnations and now recreated magically by demon-Bhanda out of a missile of his. She again burned to death the armies of demons with the fire of the great missile maha-pashupata”.

While doing commentary on these verses a beautiful reference has been cited from Brahmanda Purana as follows.

“mamiva pauruShaM rUpaM gopikAjanamohanam | kadAchidAdyA lalitA puMrUpA kR^iShNavigrahA | veNunAdavinodena vivashIkurute jagat |”
“[Devi says] My male form as Krishna is bewildering the milk-maids. Krishna the manifestation of Lalita is beguiling entire jagat by his flute”.

Also, the same section of that book also mentions few more references from Puranas as follows.Vishnu says to Virabhadra in Brahmanda Purana.

“ekaiva shaktiH parameshvarasya | bhinnA chaturdhA viniyogakAle |
bhoge bhavAnI samareShu durgA | kopeShu kALI puruSheshu viShNuH |”
“The ancient Sakti of the Lord (Parameshwara)appearsin four forms; that Sakti becomes Bhavani in her bhoga form, in battle she takes the form of Durga; in anger that of Kali; and she is present in her male form as me (Vishnu).”

In the Kurma Purana, when Himavan praises Devi he says,

“sahastramūrdhānamanantaśaktiṃ |
sahastrabāhuṃ puruṣaṃ purāṇam |
śayānamantaḥ salile tathaiva |
nārāyaṇākhyaṃ praṇato ‘smi rūpam ||” (kUrma PuraNa 1:11:245)
“I salute thy form called Narayana, O Lalita, which has a thousand heads, which is of infinite energy, having a thousand arms, the ancient Person, reclining on the waters”.

(The above quote has also been referenced in Soubhagya Bhaskara, a commentary on Lalita Sahasranama Stotram by the illustrious sage Bhaskararaya Makhin).

5. Vedas most of the times pray to Uma under the name of ‘Vishnu’


Let’s see few more areas where Vedas prostrated to mother Bhavani under the pseudonym – Vishnu!

5.1. Yajurveda’s nArAyaNa sUktam is actually the hymn to Tripurasundari


Well, it should not surprise them who have already read my analysis and article on nArAyaNa sUktam, however for those who haven’t read that article, let me summarize the theme of that article.

nArAyaNa sUktam which exists in Taittiriya Aranyaka of Yajurveda is popularly considered as a hymn to Narayana (VishnU), however the truth is otherwise! That hymn sings the glories of ONLY and ONLY Tripurasundari alone. The name ‘nArAyaNa’ can be applied on various personalities and is not at all a copyright protected name of Vishnu alone.

Hiranyagarbha (Brahma) being the first born god who floated on waters (nara), hence he can also be called as Narayana. Vishnu is that god who sleeps (ayana) on waters (nara), hence he is called Narayana. However this Suktam applies ‘Narayana’ neither on Brahma nor on Vishnu. Tripurasundari devi whose ‘ayala (goal / direction) of movement is directed towards ‘nara (purusha = Shiva)’ via the sushumna nerve along the spine as Kundalini is called as ‘nArAyaNa’. And this is the meaning that has been used to glorify Tripurasundari in the hymn ‘nArAyaNa sUktam’.

One may read that article titled “NARAYANA SUKTAM – A hymn to Tripurasundari Devi” from my list of articles.

5.2. Yajurveda’s Chamakam invoking Agni and Vishnu


Yajurveda’s Chamakam portion of Sri Rudram hymn begins with invoking Agni and Vishnu as
“Agnaa Vishnu sajosh semaa vardhanthu vaam gira | Dyumnai vajebi raagrutham |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam)
“Oh Lord who is fire and who is Vishnu, both of you bepleased,to show love towards me, let these words which praise you, Grow for ever and you both, Should bless me with food and all wealth”.

Many Vaishnavites claim that Chamakam invokes Vishnu hence this entire hymn is actually addressed to Vishnu. As you might know with this assumption again they start bashing Mahadeva calling him as subordinate to Vishnu. However, my dear friendslet me tell you that –

“It’s not what you see with your eyes is true;
It’s true what your inner eyes show you!”

Shruti declares that entire universe is a combination of Agni and Soma.

“agniishhomaatka.n jagat.h |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:08-9)
The whole world is full of Agni and Soma.

Where, Agni is Rudra because Rudra is of the aspect of heat and Soma is Uma because Uma is the aspect of nectar. Therefore, Vedas esoterically calls the universe to be composition of Agni and Soma but the actual meaning is that theywant to state that entire universe is a combination of Uma and Rudra. This is why same Upanishad further states that entire universe is full of Uma and Rudra as follows.

“agniishhomaatka.n jagat.h |umaarudraatmikaaH sarvaaH grajaaH sthaavaraja~NgamaaH | (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:09-10)
“The whole world is full of Agni and Soma. All the mobile and immobile creation of this universe is filled up with Uma and Rudra”.

You know what? This is also not the final truth. It can also be further analyzed to get on to the final conclusion. Uma and Rudra are never two; they are always inseparably one, sharing one body where Rudra’s left half is Uma Devi.Rudra being of the aspect of heat he blazes with RED aura in his right side, and because Uma is of the aspect of Amruta (Soma) she blazes with BLUISH hue. And because they both share same body, Rudra alone shines with a hue of Red and Blue. That’s why Rudra is also called as -“neela-lohitah”.

Therefore “agniishhomaatka.n jagat.h” (The whole world is full of Agni and Soma) is another way to state that “neelalohitAtmakaM jagat.h |” (The whole world is full of lord neelalohita). This is the finest truth which cannot be further analyzed. This is why Vedas clearly state about this entire universe to be composed ONLY of Rudra as follows.

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutations.”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu | Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaaviveshatasmai rudraya namo astu” (Yajur Veda 5:5:9:i or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

So, did you understand that when Shruti calls the entire universe to be composed of Agni and Soma it means to say entire universe is composed of Rudra and Uma. And since Rudra and Uma are one as Neelalohitah entire universe is infact this ‘Neelalohita’ alone.

Now, coming to Chamakam topic, there when Agni and Vishnu are invoked it is again to convey praise to Agni and Soma apart from whom there is nothing in his universe. In that Chamakam verse Agni is an epithet to Rudra and Vishnu is an epithet to address Uma as we can understand from below verses.

“rudramagnimayaM vidyAdviShNuH somAtmakaH smR^itaH |
agnIShomAtmakaM chaiva jagatsthAvaraja~Ngamam |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-125-35)
“Remember that rudra has the aspect of fire and viShNu has the aspect of soma (nectar, moon). All the world including the fixed and movable beings have the combined aspects of fire and soma (shiva and viShNu)”.

And the same fact is stated in Shruti as follows. Note that it is Uma who is present in the form of Vishnu.

“vaamapaarshve umaa devii vishhNuH somo.api te trayaH |
yaa umaa saa svaya.n vishhNuryo vishhNuH sa hi chandramaaH |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:05)
“On the left side, there exist Sri Umadevi, and also Vishnu and Soma (moon).  Uma Herself is in the form of Vishnu. Vishnu Himself is in the form of the moon”.

Therefore the name ‘Vishnu’ in Chamakam is an esoteric pseudonym to call Uma and Agni is a pseudonym to call Rudra. So, finally the Chamakam verse in truth becomes as follows.

“RudraUma sajosh semaa vardhanthu vaam gira | Dyumnai vajebi raagrutham |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam)
“Oh Lord Rudra and Uma, both of you be pleased, to show love towards me, let these words which praise you, Grow for ever and you both, Should bless me with food and all wealth”.

Conclusion: No doubt Chamakam invokes many other gods and asks them to bless the Jyotishthoma, Soma kind of yajnas; because those all are deities installed in sacrifice, and the opening verse praying to Agni and Vishnu is not very special there. However, if you notice it carefully in the light of above analysis – It is again praying to Uma-Maheshwara only. Agni is nothing but Rudra, and Vishnu is Amruta-Swarupa Uma. And entire jagat and everytihing is a combination of Agni and Soma (agnisomAtmakam jagat). So, here again it is clear that the invocation is not to Vishnu but it is to Uma under the pseudonym called ‘Vishnu’.

 

5.3. Why do Vedic chantings begin with ‘harih Om’?


Well, in a forum in orkut.com a Vaishnavite friend stated a loosely coupled logic and wanted to establish Vishnu’s superiority above OMKARA as well. He said, “All Vedic chantings begin with ‘Harih Om’, it means when you keep chanting ‘Om’ you’ll go to the abode of Hari”.
What a great logic it was! Assuming that there would be many more such friends out there who would believe that as true; let me put my two cents on this topic as well.

First of all Sanskrit is NOT Urdu that we should read it right to left. Therefore even if we assume his logic as correct it should mean to say when you chant Hari’s name it would lead you to Omkara (Brahman) and not the other way round. Well, let’s see what the meaning of Hari is.

The names ‘Hari’ and ‘Hara’ both have their origin from the root word ‘hru’, which means ‘to withdraw or deliver’. Therefore both the names Hari and Hara meanwithdrawal/deliverance. What do they withdraw? Hara withdraws all your sins and also the entire creation at the end of the time. That’s why Rudra is called as Hara.  Vishnu delivers you of all your sins therefore he is Hari. This is only outer menaing.

In Hinduism generally all female deities derive their names from their male counterparts. If we go by that rule, Bhava-Bhavani, Shiva-Shivani, Rudra-Rudrani, Kapardi-Kapardini, Maheshwara-Maheshwari, Parameshwara-Parameshwari… and likewise when Rudra is called as Hara, it is equally true that Bhavani can be called with the feminine sound of the word ‘hara’ as Hari. In fact it is Bhavani who delivers every one of sins as attested by the following verse from shruti.

“prapadye sharaNa.n devii.n du.ndurge durita.n hara |
taa.n durgaa.n durgamaa.n devii.n duraachaaravighaatiniim.h |
namaami bhavabhiito.aha.n sa.nsaaraarNavataariNiim.h |” (Devi Upanishad 1:28)
“Beyond Her is nothing; renowned is she as Durga; feared of life,I bow to Durga,Bulwark against all sins; the Pilot whoSteers me across the sea of worldly life”.

Therefore since Durga (Uma) delivers you through the sea of samsara by burning all your sins, she being the consort of Hara she is qualified to be called as HARI. So, ‘Hari’ is actually the name of Uma. Hope you understood now why Bhagawan Rudra has a name “hari-vallabha”, which means, “consort of Hari”.

Now, let’s see what shruti says about Omkara.

“atha hainaM bhaaradvaajaH paprachchha yaaj~navalkya.n ki.n taaraka.n ki.n taarayatiiti |” (Ramatapini Upanishad-Poorvopanishat 6.2)
“Sage Bharadwaja enquired Yajnyavalkya – ‘What is Taraka? What is the one which liberates?”

Yajnyavalkya replied:

“akaaraH prathamaaksharo bhavati ukaarodvitiiyaaksharo bhavati. makaarastR^itiiyaaksharo bhavati. ardhamaatrashchaturthaaksharo bhavati binduH pa~nchamaaksharo bhavati naadaH shhashhThaaksharo bhavati . taarakatvaattaarako bhavati |” (Ramatapini Upanishad-Poorvopanishat 6.3)
“That which has ‘A’ as the first syllable, ‘U’ as the second syllable, ‘M’ the third syllable, half-note is the fourth syllable, dot is the fifth syllable, and sound is the sixth syllable; that is called the Taraka”.

This Pranavam (Omkara) which is Taraka mantram is none other than Rudra alone as attested by following verses.

“nama staraya cha” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8)
“Salutations to Him (Rudra) who is the TARAKA (Pravana mantra – Om)”.

Rudra is the Omkara because he alone delivers people from sins to liberation.

“namah paryaya chavaryaya cha | namah prataAranaya chottaranaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.

Further, the following verse states that there is no other way to liberation than knowing Rudra.

“sa eva sarvaM yadbhuutaM yachcha bhavyaM sanaatanam.h
j~naatvaa taM mR^ityumatyeti naanyaH panthaa vimuktaye “(Kaivalya Upanishad 9)
“He (Rudra) alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him (Rudra), one transcends death; there is no other way to liberation”.

So, finally we came to a point that it is Uma who is called by the name ‘HARI’ and it is Rudra who is ‘the ‘Omkara’. Therefore ‘Harih Om’ is another way to remember Bhavani-Shankara and is identical to say “Om Uma Maheshwarabhyam Namah”. And is also a way to remember the phrase “agnii somaatkmakam jagat”. Therefore Vedic seers remember ‘Uma and Maheshwara’ before beginning their Vedic works.

The names of Vishnu are always used as masks to cover goddess Tripurambika’s glories. It is because Vishnu is a manifestation of that Ambika. So, at bhoutika level we may read Vishnu’s glories as those of Vishnu, but when we look deeper and observe the tatwika level meanings, we would see only Bhavani eulogized under the pseudonym called ‘Vishnu’.

Conclusion: -If you have discerning eyes and are blessed by Uma-Rudra, you would see ONLY Uma-Maheshwara in every scripture. Abandoning them if you want to see anyone else, you would see only darkness of ignorance.

6. Vishnu who is the masculine manifestation of Uma imitates her actions through his deeds


Let’s see how closely Vishnu imitates his mother Uma in his deeds.

6.1. Uma spans the inner world as Kundalini and Vishnu imitates her as Vamana in gross world


We have done extensive analysis in this article and understood how Vedas praise the deeds of the Avyakta Uma under the pseudonym ‘Vishnu’ associating all her deeds as the actions performed by Vishnu. From that analysis it is crystal clear that Vishnu’s three steps described in Rig Veda are NOT his three steps in reality; rather, they are the mislestones achieved by goddess Uma the tripurasundari during her upward ascension as Kundalini within this microcosm (inner worlds).

And from Puranic scriptures and Epics (Mahabharata and Ramayana) we know how closely lord Vishnu imitates goddess Uma in his dwarf incarnation as Vamana. Every Purana has slight differences in rendition of Vamana Incarnation story, however Padma Purana interestingly narrates Vamana’s story exactly matching the Kundalini process. It states that Lord Vamana with one step covered earth, with next step he covered all the abodes in the sky and his step hit the roof of the universe (brahmanda) and there became a hole through which the water (Akasa Ganga) flowed down through that hole. There was no space for the third foot so Bali’s promise became falsified and he was sent to nether worlds.

What did you understand by that narration? Since the Brahmanda within the Pindanda (body) is exactly same as the brahmanda outside us, he created Brahmarandhra in the universe and brought down the nectar of immortality flowing from that brahmarandhra. How beautifully Vishnu imitates his mother Uma!

Do you think this is the only deed that Vishnu imitated from Uma? No! Vishnu imitates his mother viz. Uma the supreme Tripurasundaru in every action of his. We’ll study them in detail now.

6.2. Mohini Devi Tatwam – Understanding Goddess Mohini the female form of Vishnu


Valmiki Ramayana describes how Vishnu transformed himself as the supreme enchantress viz. Mohini to deceive demons.
“yadaa kshayam gatam sarvam tadaa viSNuH mahaabalaH |
amR^itam saH aharat tuurNam maayaam aasthaaya mohiniim |”(VR 1-45-42)
“When everything is wading into annihilation then that omnicompetent Vishnu swiftly impounded Amrita, the Divine Elixir, by assuming his illusory power of Mohini”.

Same has been stated in Mahabharata as well as given below.

“athāvaraṇa mukhyāni nānāpraharaṇāni ca | pragṛhyābhyadravan devān sahitā daityadānavāḥ | tatas tad amṛtaṃ devo viṣṇur ādāya vīryavān | jahāra dānavendrebhyo nareṇa sahitaḥ prabhuḥ |” (MBH 1:17:1-2)
‘Then the Daityas and the Danauas equipped with first-class armours and various weapons attacked the gods. In the meantime the valiant Lord Vishnu in the form of an enchantress accompanied by Nara deceived the mighty Danavas and took away the Amrita from their hands.


“vihāya bhagavāṃś cāpi strī rūpam atulaṃ hariḥ | nānāpraharaṇair bhīmair dānavān samakampayat |” (MBH1:17:9)
“Then Narayana quitting his enchanting female form and hurling many terrible weapons at the Danavas, made them tremble”.

Epics narrated this story of Mohini incarnation of Vishnu only in the context of Milky Ocean churning. However, Puranas state that by seeing Vishnu’s mohini form which was extremely bewitching and enchanting Bhagawan Shiva’s heart became agitated with Lust and he embraced her. Due to such a conjugal action a child was born who is named as ‘shAshThA’.  Later on in south Indian folklore this ‘shAshThA’ got a more popular name as ‘Ayyappa’ (which means ‘Ayya’ + ‘Appa’ where both these words mean ‘father’ in Tamil) because he was a son born from two male gods (Shiva and Vishnu). He is also popular as ‘manikanTha’ in Tamil scriptures.

Before explaining the greatness of my mother Mohini Devi, it becomes mandatory for me to refute and criticize two bogus propagandas which are spreading like an epidemic in today’s religion.

In few forums in orkut.com I observed that anti-hindu people (Muslims) were spreading pointless arguments. I read them accusing Shiva and Vishnu of homosexual relationships and their logic was based on the fact that Mohni was after all a male God viz. Vishnu. To such all men of wicked souls my answer is – What do you understand about Mohini-tatwam? Please speak only if you have substance in your mind’s scriptural knowlegebase. With half baked knowledge do not spread illogical and absurd statements on those two great Gods!

Well, before explaining Mohini tatwam I want to bash another group of people for their incorrect understanding of Shiva. Unfortunately this second group of people happens to be Hindus! I have seen my own Hindu bretheren from Vaishnavite sects abusing Lord Shiva saying – “Even though Lord Shiva had burnt Kama (god of love), nothing can stand when Supreme personality of god head tests. That’s why even such an exhalted demigod Shiva became lustful on seeing the bewildering form of Vishnu as Mohini and overcome by lust embraced her without hesitation even though goddess Uma was standing by his side“. Even in their commentary/purport on Bhagawatam (SB 8:12:31) they mentioned “Lord Siva cannot be victimized by maya. Therefore it is to be understood that Lord Siva was being thus harassed by Lord Vishnu’s internal potency. Lord Vishnu can perform many wonderful activities through His various potencies. Since Lord Siva was being harassed by the woman, it is to be understood that this was being done not by a woman but by Lord Vishnu Himself”.

These wicked minded ‘shiva-abusing-vishnu-devotees’ are self-proclaimed scholars who just want any small excuse, any chance to pounce on Shiva and start bashing him! What’s the use of their Vishnu-Bhakti when they do not understand Vishnu and his pastimes in reality?I am going to prove here that their understanding of mother Mohini is totally baseless.

To both such groups of idiotic peope let me enlighten them by Mahadeva’s grace and let me sow seeds of ‘tAtwika-gyAnam’ (knowledge of hidden meanings) in their barren, uncultivable brains.  I wish to do this hoping that may be my genuine efforts someday would succed in raising one small sapling of Shiva-tatwam intheir barren brains!

Well, we know that in Puranas there is only one god who has been shown unaffected by Kamadeva’s five infallible arrows of cupidity – the one lord Mahadeva without a second. It is only mahadeva who had burnt that invincible god of love to ashes.
This Bhagawan Rudra is called as Kameshwara because he is the primordial desire from whose desire this entire creation emerged.In Rig Veda 10th mandala there is a hymn on creation popularly known as ‘nAsAdiya sUktam’. It says there was no existence in the beginning.

“nāsadāsīn no sadāsīt tadānīṃ nāsīd rajo no vyomāparo yat |” (Rig Veda 10:129:1)
“THEN was neither non-existent nor existent: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it”.

Amidst that void only one Brahman (Shiva) existed breathing without air. He alone existed.

“ānīdavātaṃ svadhayā tadekaṃ tasmāddhānyan na paraḥ kiṃ canāsa |” (Rig Veda 10:129:2)
“That One Thing, breathless, breathed by its own nature: apart from it was nothing whatsoever”.

Within him arose the primordial desire of creation / multiplication, and thereby sprang this cosmos into existence.

“kāmastadaghre samavartatādhi manaso retaḥ prathamaṃ yadāsīt |” (Rig Veda 10:129:4)
“Thereafter rose‘kāma (Desire)’ in the beginning, kāma, the primal seed and germ of Spirit”.

Atharva Veda has a detailed hymn for this primordial lord Kameshwara (Shiva) which prays to him for protection as like as Yajurveda Sri Rudram sings. This hymn clearly calls Kama as Ishana and Ugra which are the two names of Rudra as given in Vedas.

“duṣvápnyaṃ kāma duritáṃ ca kamāprajástām asvagátām ávartim |
ugrá ī́śānaḥ práti muñca tásmin yó asmábhyam aṃhūraṇā́ cíkitsāt |” (Atharva Veda IX:2:03)
“Kāma, do thou, O ugrá!, O ī́śāna!, let loose ill dream,misfortune, want of children,Homelessness, O Kāma! Utter destitution, upon the sinner who designs my ruin”.

Fools are they who think Mahadeva can be influenced with lust without his will. The primordial desire who is the origincal cause of all causes is this Maheshwara and due to his Kama being the pillar of our existence, he is called Kameshwara. And these illiterate self proclaimed scholars think Vishnu can bewilder that Ishana without his own will? I’ll explain about Mohini shortly and that should remove the curtain of ignorance from your eyes.


A portion of this Supreme Rudra the Supreme God of Love (Kameshwara) manifested as ‘Kamadeva’ (the deity of desire) for the continuity of creation. Even though that kamadeva is just a deity he is so powerful that even greatest personalities failed when struck by his arrows. Vishwamitra succumbed to Lust when Kamadeva’s arrows of desire struck his heart on seeing ‘Menaka’. Sage Vyasa couldn’t control his seed from issuing out when struck by desire on seeing ‘Grhitachi’ and that’s how his son was born celebrated under the name ‘Suka’. The all time celibate Narada who became proud thinking he has succeeded in winning over lust fell in love with ‘Srimati’ and wanted to marry her; Lord Vishnu humbled his pride by marrying Srimati and revealing later that she is another form of Lakshmi. Similarly king Yayati, the celestial preceptor Brhihaspati, the god Chandra, the king of gods Indra, the illustrious demon Ravana and many more celebrated figures exist as examples in our scriptures who were supremely mighty in their merits of penances and austerities but kneeled down when struck by the infallible arrows of Kamadeva.

Who in the entire Hinduism exists who is said to be “smarAri” (killer of smarA means Kama) except Mahadeva? Who is seen in scriptures as remaining unaffected even after being pierced by those five infallible flowery arrows of that god of love except Maheshwara? It is ONLYand ONLY Bhagawan Rudra whom Vedas and Epics call as ‘UrdhvarEta” which means “That person who has his semen raised up” meaning to indicate on strict celibacy! There is no other god who is ever praised with the attributes of being in all the four ashramas. Sri Rudram of Yajurveda to Mahabharata every scripture calls Rudra as a Brahmachari (celibate), as a Gruhastha (house holder), as a Vanaprastha (forest recluse) and a Sanyasi (renunciate).

And without understanding the greatness of Mahadeva these stupid self-proclaimed scholars within their limited capacity try to mock on that illustrious god Bhava for whom even Vedas expressed their inability to comprehend his three-fourth of his nature!

Therefore understand that Lord Shiva getting bewildered on seeing Mohini is just based on his wish for a divine reason and not merely out of wild lust and animal behavior.Skanda Purana and Brahmanda Purana gives the details of that divine reason clearly. They say that Mahishi a demoness obtained a boon that only a child born from Hari and Hara would be able to kill her, she thought that would be impossible because both are males. However, whose intellect can perceive that divine Hari and Hara who rule over the intellect? Therefore that Mahadeva acted lustfully towards Mohini (Vishnu’s female form) and produced a child named ‘mahA sAshThA’. That child is popularly known in Tamil literature as ‘Ayyappa’.  Therefore even though the name ‘Ayyappa’ doesn’t exist in Puranas and it is of recent origin, yet, the original name of that god ‘mahA sAshThA’ exists in Brahmanda purana associated with Mohini and Shiva.

Now, after having explained Mahadeva’s reason behind his lust for Mohini  let me now explain the true tatwam (secret) of mother Mohini devi (Vishnu).

The name ‘Mohini’ means ‘enchantress’ who bewildered the demons during Ocean churning as well as in Bhasmasura episode she belildered Bhasmasura. Goddess Uma is called as Tripurasundari because she is the pinnacle of beauty in this entire universe. There is no one more beautiful than goddess Tripurasundari – the consort of lord Shiva. In all the Puranas many demons have been found to get bewildered by the beauty of goddess Uma and tried to marry her.  Such is the beauty of my divine mother Lalitambika! For instance mahishasura and his associates got enchanted by Durga’s beauty and wanted to posses her as a wife. There is no one more beautiful that my mother goddess Tripurasundari!

When the supreme enchantress Tripurasundari herself is the consort of lord Shiva how can any other inferior beauty try to enchant his mind? Mahadeva wouldget enchanted only with his consort viz. Tripurasundari. Therefore both Mohini and Tripurasudnari are one and the same. Yes, you read it correctly; Mohini is none other than Tripurasundari. She was NOT an incarnation of Vishnu in reality.

‘Mohini’ is another synonym to mean ‘Tripurasundari’. This is why Shruti declaes goddess Tripurasundari as ‘Vishwa mohini’ (supreme enchantress of the universe). Refer to below evidence from Shruti.

“eshhaatmashaktiH | eshhaa vishvamohinii paashaaN^kushadhanurbaaNadharaa | eshhaa shriimahaavidyaa | ” (Devi Upanishad 1:15)
“This is the power of Self, ‘vishwa-mohini’ (enchanting the universe), armed with the noose, the hook, the bow and the arrow. This is the great and holy Science”.

It is that Bhavani the consort of Bhagawan Shambhu who holds a noose, goad, five arrows of desire, and sugarcane bow. Her form is depicted in above verse from upanisahd and is identical to what has been depicted in lalita Sahasranama Stotram as follows.

“arunam karuna tarangi takshim dreta pashan kusha pushpa bana chapam |
animadibi ravrutam mayuke ra mityeva vibavaye bhavanim |”. (Brahmanda Purana:Lalitopakhyana:Lalita Shasranama Stotram)
“I mediate on the great Empress Bhavani who is light red in color, whose eyes are full of compassion, who has in Her hands the noose, the goad, the bow and the flowery arrow and who is surrounded on all sides by powers, such as ‘anima,’ like rays, as if She is the Self within me “.

Now, a question might arise – If Mohini is Tripurasundari herself, then how could Vishnu assume that form? Before explaining this let me state another point here. Usually scholars consider Krishna alone as full incarnation of Vishnu and other incarnations are partial ones. They also list Mohini as one of Vishnu’s “incarnations (avatara)”. However, I would NOT consider Mohini as an “incarnation (avatara)”, rather mohini was totally Vishnu himself. Even I do not consider mohini as any partial incarnation because Vishnu totally transformed himself as Mohini and that form didn’t sprang from some portion of Vishnu. Therefore when complete Vishnu appeared as Mohini, she has to be FULLY Vishnu only, no partial form.

We have read from a verse from Shruti which says that it is Tripurasundari herself whosemanifestation as a male is Vishnu.

“yaa umaa saa svaya.n vishhNuH |”(Rudra Hridayopanishad 1:05)
“She who is Uma, she herself is in the form of Vishnu”.
This is the reason Vedas always associate Uma’s deeds and glories with Vishnu. We have seen numerous examples in earlier sections; let me present another evidence supporting this fact. Atharva Veda also esoterically calls Uma under the name of Vishnu. It is Uma (Aditi) who is the cow – the universal mother who nourishes all creatures .

“vaśā́ dyáur vaśā́ pr̥thivī́ vaśā́ víṣṇuḥ prajā́patiḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:10:30)
“The Cow is Heaven, the Cow is Earth, the Cow is Vishnu, Lord of Life”.

The above verse is again an esoteric expression to mean that cow is verily Aditi (Uma) and again that Uma who transcends the fourth state (turiya) has been sung under the name of Vishnu who is none other than her masculine form which is Vyakta (revealed).

Now, comparing the above verse on cow with the below verses on Aditi we can clearly understand that a cow is verily Uma and Vishnu is just her name.

Aditi is the earth, heaven and atmosphere.

“aditir asyAm eva pratisHThAyAnu paHyati |” (Yajur Veda VI:1:5:3)
“Aditi indeed is this earth; verily taking his stand on it he sees”.

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son”.

Also Satapatha Brahmana (14:2:1:7) clearly says“gauraditirhi”,which means “the cow is Aditi”.Also, Rig Veda (1:153:3) states clearly, “pīpāya dhenuraditirṛtāya janāya mitrāvaruṇā havirde | “which means, “O Mitra-Varuṇa, Aditi the Milch-cow streams (milk) for the rite, for folk who bring oblation”,

And Aditi being none other than Uma she couples with Rudra (also called as Soma which means Shiva) alone. And Vedas esoterically call Rudra by the name Agni as evident from Yajurveda (V:5:7) which says, “rudro vA esHa yad agnis |”, meaning, “Agni is verily Rudra”. And that’s why Satapatha Brahmana states that Agni (Rudra) unites with cow (Aditi) and cow’s milk is nothing but Agni’s seed hence it remains resplendent as Agni and always remains white and warm in her udder.

“tāmu hāgnirabhidadhyau | mithunyanayā syāmiti tāṃ sambabhūva tasyāṃ retaḥ
prāsiñcattatpayo ‘bhavattasmādetadāmāyāṃ gavi satyāṃ śṛtamagnerhi retastasmādyadi
kṛṣnāyāṃ yadi rohiṇyāṃ śuklameva bhavatyagnisaṃkāśamagnerhi
retastasmātprathamadugdhamuṣṇam bhavatyagnerhi retaḥ |” (Satapatha Brahmana 2:2:4:15)
“Now, Agni coveted her: ‘May I pair with her,’ he thought. He united with her, and his seed became that milk of hers: hence, while the cow is raw, that milk in her is cooked (warm); for it is Agni’s seed; and therefore also, whether it be in a black or in a red (cow), it is ever white, and shining like fire, it being Agni’s seed. Hence it is warm when first milked; for it is Agni’s seed”.

Now, when Uma who is Tripurasundari, transformed herself into a male form she is called Vishnu. What would happen if that male form undergoes a reverse transformation into the original female form? I am sure you would have guessed it correctly by now, that Vishnu’s transformation into female (mohini) is nothing but an esoteric way to stating that Vishnu displayed his original form as Tripurasundari which bewildered demons and he became successful of taking away ambroisia. And because Brahma’s boon to Mahishi (demoness) was that only a son of Hari and Hara would be able to kill her, Shiva instead of directly producing a child from Uma (as he did in the case of Tarakasura by begetting a son Skanda), he had to opt for the alternate approach which was to make Vishnu transform back into her original form as Mohini (Uma) and then embrace her and beget a child. This way not only did Shiva succeed to keep Brahma’s boon unbroken, but also he maintained his chastity of being faithful to his own wife viz. Tripurasundari!


This is the hidden tatwam O foolish shiva-abusing demons of Kaliyuga! At least now make an attempt to beg pardon from Mahadeva for all your sins; I am sure that most benevolent lord would wipe out all your vices!
If you are still not convinced with my analysis, then let me hit the nail on its head rightaway. Brahmanda Purana agrees with my logic. Before proceeding ahead let me show how near our god remains to our heart. Whether you believe it or not, this entire article whose central theme is to say that Vishnu is a male form of Uma, took its birth as a thought in my mind.  That thought was very firm, and made me to do research further, and to my astonishment with every new learning it increased my happiness to know that what I felt in my mind was becoming more like a firm faith. And this Mohini Devi also was a belief in the beginning which on researching further became a fact now. I have never said that all these are my own glories, all I want to convey is – if you firmly hug the almighty, it is that God who feeds logic and thoughts in your brain, he becomes your teacher from within, and also leads you to right references from scriptures to transform your vague thoughts into a universal truths. That’s why I would request everyone to always follow God. Means may vary, names and forms are immaterial, it is the faith that counts at the end. I pity those fellows who take pride in saying God doesn’t exist and call themselves as Atheists! Also, I humbly request everyone never to abuse Mahadeva because if he doesn’t exist then god really doesn’t exist, all forms are his forms and he is the original cause of all causes. Worship him in your favorite form as Rama, Krishna or whatever, but by abusing Mahadeva if someone thinks that he can reach Krishna’s feet then that’s purly an imagination and not reality.


Well, as I said, Brahmanda Purana attests my logic and states what I analyzed above. Mohini Devi is none other than Tripurasundari Devi.

Brahmanda Purana says, when the pot of nectar emerged from ocean churning to possess it there started a fierce battle between deities and demons. Seeing that Vishnu transformed himself as a female enchantress as we read in Ramayana and Mahabharata and also the same is mentioned in all Puranas. However Brahmanda Purana clarifies it even further and says the following.

“EtasminanantarE vishNuh sarvalokaikarakshakah |samyagArAdhayAmAsa lalitAm svaikyarUpiNIm |” (Brahmanda Purana: Lalitopakhyana: 2:04)
“Meanwhile, Vishnu began to meditate on Sri Lalita Mahatripurasundari, who washis very own Self”.

“bhagavAnapi yogIndrah samAradhya mahEshvarIm |tadEkadhyAnayogEna tadrUpah samajAyat | sarvasammOhinI saa tu sAkshAt shrungAranAyika |sarvashrungAraveshAdhya sarvAbharaNabhUshitA | surANAmasurAnAM cha nirvAya raNamadbhutam |mandasmitEna daitEyAn mOhayantI jagAd cha |”(Brahmanda Purana: Lalitopakhyana: 2:8-10)
“By completely identifying himself with Maheshwari, Vishnu manifested himself in her form. She looked as if she were the very personification of the sentiment of erotica. Decorated with all kinds of ornaments, she appeared in the battlefield and brought the battle to a sudden halt. Enchantingthe demons with a smile”.
Now let’s see her appearance aspects also which are identical to Lalitambika.


“sImantarEkhavinyastasindUrasHrENi bhAsurA |sphurachhandrakalOTamsA madAllOlavilOchanA |” (Brahmanda Purana: Lalitopakhyana: 2:67)
“The parting of her hair was decorated with a vermilion mark. Her crown wasdecorated with the half-moon. Her eyes were filled with intoxication”.
The above verse clearly says that Mohini Devi’s crown had a half-moon. Who is that goddess who wears a crescent on her head as like as her consort? Everyone knows her to be Bhavani alone. Another important aspect that we need to learn from here is, the above verse clearly states that Mohini Devi’s parting hair had a vermillion mark. Vermillion on the head between the hair partitions is symbolic to marriage. A virgin would never apply that. Mohini mata’s head with vermillion indicates that she was married. That great goddess who is ‘nitya sumangali’, and is called as ‘sarva-mangala’ is none other than Mahadevi alone! And any supreme goddess of Hindu pantheon has never been shown to be copulating with anyone else apart from her husband. Moreover, Tripurasundari who is also called as Durga is called as the highest chaste women in scriptures.

Mahabharata [Book-4 (Virata Parva)-Section-6] praises Devi Ambika saying, “Thou art the only female in the universe that possesses the attribute of purity”. Even Adi Shankara in his hymn Soundarya Lahari states that Tripurasundari is the only chaste goddess as follows.

“Kalathram vaidhathram kathi kathi bhajante na kavayah| Sriyo devyah ko va na bhavati pathih kairapi dhanaih | Mahadevam hithva thava sathi sathinam acharame | Kuchabhyam aasangah kuravaka-tharor apyasulabhah ” (Verse 96-Soundarya Lahari)
“Many poets reach the Goddess of learning, The wife of the creator, By composing soulfull poems. Many who search and attain riches, Are termed as the Lord of the Goddess of wealth.Oh, first among chaste woman, Except Lord Shiva your consort; Your breasts have not even touched, The holy henna tree”.

So, here we clearly understand that Goddess Lalita (Uma) is ranked always as the First among the chaste women. How could she submit to Lord Shiva’s lust if she was not his consort? Therefore Mohini trying to attract lord Shiva and Shiva embracing her and producing a son is nothing unlawful because they both are eternal couples.

If we read that section of Purana entirely, we would know that Mohini Mata’s appearance was identical to what Lalitambika’s appearance is. Mohini is said to have three folds of skin around her navel because of the weight of her breasts. The same is described about Lalita in her hymn (Stana-bhara dalanmadhya patta-bandha-valitraya). Mohini is said to be chewing beetel leaves which is the attribute of tripurasundari as stated in her hymn (tAmboola poorita mukhIm). Mohini Devi wore a nose ring which shone with more brilliance than a star, same exists in Lalitambika’s hymn as (Thara kanthi thiraskari nasabharana bhasura), and many more…

Here is the reason why Shiva had to play himself as lustful for Mohini. It was for the birth of the mighty Shashtha!

“punargruhItvA tAmIsHah kAmam kAmavasHIkrutah |AshrilshyadativEgEna tadvIryam prachyutam tada | tatah samudito dEvo mahAsHasta mahAbalah |anEkakOti daityEndra garvanirvApaNakshamah |” (Brahmanda Purana: Lalitopakhyana: 2:70-71)
“Filled with desire, Shiva followed her and taken her into his embrace, as aresult of which he ejaculated his semen. Immediately, an immensely powerful god named‘Maha-Shaasta’, who was capable of destroying crores of demons, originated from Shiva’s semen”.

Conclusion: – So, what did we understand from this analysis? Vishnu is a son of Uma and Maheshwara who manifested from Shiva’s left side which is nothing but Uma, therefore Vishnu is a manifestation of goddess Uma in male form. Mohini Devi was NOT Vishnu’s incarnation, but rather Vishnu meditated on Uma and transformed himself back into her form which is the supreme enchanting form. We also understood that there is no one else apart from Shiva’s own consort lalitambika who can ever enchant Shiva and Shiva became lustful for Mohini only because he had to deliver ‘Maha Shashtha’ from Mohini who was his own consort in reality.

Hopefully, I believe the readers have understood how cruel are our own Hindu folks who try to tarnish the image of Mahadeva of spotless deeds. When we have such fools among our own religion, it’s not a matter of surprise to hear meaningless comments from folks of other religions. May my father Mahadeva and mother Vishva-mohini-Lalitambika enlighten them!

6.3. Vishnu as Padmanabha imitates his mother Uma


Vishnu’s famous iconography shows him as sleeping on his serpent Sesha and Lord Brahma seated on a lotus emerging from Vishnu’s navel. Because of this Vishnu is called as Padmanabha (lord having a lotus sprouted from his navel) and Brahma is treated as a son of Vishnu (which is incorrect in reality, I’ll tell why shortly)
All Vaishnava Puranas state that at the beginning of Kalpa after the great deluge, Brahma sprouted from Vishnu’s navel.And it states that from Brahma Rudra was born. So, these Puranas call Brahma as Vishnu’s son and Rudra as Brahma’s son. However all these stories are esoteric in nature.

These stories belongs to beginning of new Kalpa. Brahma’s life span is of 100 divine years where each year of Brahma comprises of 14 manvantaras and is called one kalpa. This means, after every day of Brahma a minor deluge/dissolution happens where Brahma and Vishnu are not withdrawn. The worlds get dissolved and then the next day of Brahma begins with creation again. This entire creation is just minor in nature and is not the original creation where first tme Brahma sprang into existence.

At the very beginning there was only non-existence as Brahman (Shiva), there was not even water or air, from where existence sprang into picture. That original creation originated from Shiva and Aditi (Uma). However every new Kalpa begins after a deluge wherehuge expance of water remains covering everything.

The vaishnavite puranas talk from the frame where Vishnu is shown as sleeping and Brahma sprouting from his navel. However they never tell what happened before even Vishnu existed. They never state what was there when even that water didn’t exist.

The fact is, it is NOT Vishnu who is the father of Brahma. In fact Brahma and Vishnu both were created by Uma and Rudra equally. Brahma is neither a son of Vishnu in reality nor Vishnu has ever engendered Brahma. That father-son relation is just an agreement between them and is a wordly relation. This is detailed in Linga Purana.  But before I step into the story from Linga Purana let me show how Brahma originally sprang into existence.

It is Bhavani and Rudra who created Hirayagarbha as stated below.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

Because Rudra and Devi are one and the same, Shruti also declares it as follows.

“devI hyekAgra evAsIt.h | saiva jagadaNDamasR^ijat.h |” (Bahvricha Upanishad-1 from Rig Veda)
“The Goddess was indeed one in the beginning. Alone she emitted the world-egg (Hiranyagarbha)”.

Brahma (Hiranyagarbha) was born from the infinite pillar of cosmic fire of consciousness viz. Skhambha which is the infinite linga of Rudra.

“hiraṇyagarbhám paramám anatyudyáṃ jánā viduḥ |skambhás tád ágre prā́siñcad dhíraṇyaṃ loké antarā́|” (Atharva veda X:7:28)
“Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha (pillar/Jwala-linga) poured (i.e., gave birth) that Hiranyagarbha”.

Now let’s come back to original point. Why is Brahma called as sprouted from Vishnu’s navel and designated as his son? Answer is given in Linga Purana which looks very logical and correct (This is why I fail to understand how Shaiva Puranas can be rated as Takasik when they contain many excerpts of truths!).

Here is an excerpt from Linga Purana which should explain how Brahma became son of Vishnu.

“Lomaharshana recounted the following story.

Many years ago, at the end of a cycle of destruction, there was water everywhere in the universe and the universe was shrouded in darkness. Vishnu slept on the water in his form of Narayana.
Brahma discovered Vishnu sleeping thus and woke him up. Failing to recognize Vishnu, he asked, “Who are you and what are you doing here?”
Vishnu woke up and noticed Brahma standing there. He smiled and said, “How are you, Brahma? Is everything well with my son?’
“How dare you call me your son?’ demanded Brahma. “I am Brahma, the lord of everything. I am the creator of the universe. How dare anyone call me his son?”
“You seem to have forgotten everything,” said Vishnu. “I am Vishnu and you were born from me. That is the reason why I addressed you as my son.”
Brahma did not accept this and started to argue with Vishnu
“But why did Vishnu address Brahma as his son?” asked the sages. “Please explain that.”
Lomaharshana told them the following story from the kalpa known as padma kalpa.
At the time of the destruction that came at the end of the earlier kalpa, there was water everywhere in the universe and Vishnu slept on this water. Vishnu felt slightly bored. So he made a gigantic lotus sprout out of his navel and started to play with it. The stalk of the lotus was made of diamonds and it shone with radiance like the sun.
While Vishnu was thus playing with the lotus , Brahma appeared.
“Who are you?” asked Brahma. “What are you doing here?”
“I am Vishnu,” replied Vishnu. “I am the lord of everything. But who are you and where have you come from?”
“I am Brahma,” responded Brahma. “I am the lord of everything in the universe. Every object that will be created in the universe is already present in embryonic form, inside my body. If you don’t believe me, why don’t you enter my stomach and see for yourself?”
Vishnu entered Brahma’s body through the mouth. He marvelled to discover the fourteen regions (lokas) of the univerise and the beings who would populate them all, inside Brahma’s stomach. Vishnu wandered around for a thousand yeards, but could find no end to the vast expanse of Brahma’s stomach. Finally, he emerged through the mouth and told Brahma, “I am completely bowled over by what I have seen. But I can also show you wonders. There are many worlds inside my body as well. Enter for yourself and see.”
Brahma agreed to this and entered Vishnu’s body through the mouth. Inside Vishnu’ stomach, he saw many worlds. He wandered around for a thousand years, but could not find the extremities of the stomach. Meanwhile, Vishnu had closed all the points of exit and Brahma could find no way of coming out. He eventualy came out through the lotus that sprouted out of Vishnu’s navel and seated himself on the lotus. Since padma means lotus and yoni means place of birth, Brahma thenceforth came to be known as Padmayoni. And since Brahma emerged out of Vishnu’s body, he came to be regarded as Visnu’s son
Now let us understand the tAtwika ardham (inner meaning of Padmanabha dn Hiranyagarbha). Let’s see the beauty of Vishnu’s deed and understand hwo closely he imitates his mother Uma.Brahma is called Hirayagarbha which means ‘Golden womb/foetus’. A stalk from Vishnu’s navel supports a lotus on top of which Hirayagarbha remains joined (seated). What does this imply? A foetus when develops within the mother’s body, it always remains connected to the mother’s umbilical cord and through that cord it get’s its life sustaining materials. Brahma is the golden-foetus who is connected to Vishnu’s navel through an umbilical cord called as lotus-stalk. And Vishnu being the sustainer of the universe (which is same as Hirayagarbha), he protects and sustains that Hirayagarbha on his lotus stalk. Madhu and Kaitabha demons attacked Hirayagarbha; Vishnu killed those demons protecting Brahma. On similar lines, whenever there is chaos within Hirayagarbha, Vishnu takes incarnations and protects the worlds contained within Hiranyagarbha. What does all this mean? Goddess Uma sustained this Hiranyagarbha within her womb before creation (bringing forth), and after bringing forth, it is Vishnu who imitates her mother and protects that golden germ named Hirayagarbha.

Isn’t it such a beautiful imitation by Vishnu of his mother? Now tell me who else exists who is such a great follower of Uma and Maheshwara other than Vishnu?

6.4. Madhu Kaithabha Killing


Mahabharata [Book 9 (Shalya Parva)-chapter 49] states, “Vishnu himself, having in days of yore slain the Asuras, Madhu and Kaitabha”.

Whereas, Mahabharata [Book 6 (Bhishma Parva)-chapter 23] states, I bow to thee that art fond of battle! O Uma, Sakambhari, O thou that art white in hue, O thou that art black in hue, O thou that hast slain the Asura Kaitabha”.

So, we cannot ignore the fact that Goddess Durga became instrumental in killing Madhu and Kaitabha. This story is detailed in Shakta Puranas like Devi Bhagawatam and Markandeta Purana (Devi Mahatmayam), where it is mentioned that when Vishnu couldn’t kill those demons even after 5000 years of continuous battle, then that Devi as Mahakali of eighteen hands helped and inspired Vishnu to trick them by asking them to give him a boon of killing those demons. She enveloped those demons under her Maya and then they agreed and Vishnu killed them on his thigh. So, if you see it is that Devi who just became the cause from the backstage, whereas actual killing was done by Vishnu, but still then scriptures call her as slayer of Madhu and Kaitabha.

This is again because even if Vishnu kills demons, the glory would go to Durga because it is she whose masculine manifestation is Vishnu, and with her help he destroys. She always helps Vishnu in various forms – Mahakali, Yoga Maya etc. Hence all glories of Vishnu are the glories of Maheshwari. This is the reason even Sri Adi Shankara has sung in his Mahishasura mardini Stotram Devi’s glory as-

“Madhu-Madhure Madhu-Kaittabha-Gan.jini Kaittabha-Bhan.jini Raasa-Rate
Jaya Jaya He Mahissaasura-Mardini Ramya-Kapardini Shaila-Sute |” (Mahishasuramardini Stotram)
“Who is as Sweet as Honey, Who Subdued the Pride of the Demons Madhu and Kaitabha and destroyed them, indulging in the Din and Uproar of the Great Battle. Victory to You, the Destroyer of the Demon Mahishasura, Who has Beautiful Locks of Hair and Who is the Daughter of the Mountain”.

7. Demystifying ‘Vishnu’ from Vishnu-Purana


Those who think Vishnu Purana is a Purana which glorifies lord Vishnu are really under the thick blanket of my mother Bhavani’s Maya.  There is no scripture of Hinduism which eulogizes any other god(s) except Uma and Maheshwara, it’s only under the darkness of ignorance that people fail to read between the lines; and this is why today we have a very pathetic situation of Hinduism where we have too many sects and cults. We have less no. of devotees and more no. of fanatics.
Before discussing excerpts from Vishnu Purana let me briefly discuss the origin of this universe. This is a huge topic however; I would limit my discussion to only the significant aspects only. As per Vedas creation happened only from Bhagawan Rudra and Uma. Let’s see how it happens. When there was nothing, that time also Bhagawan Rudra existed in the form of infinite pillar of fire of consciousness (Jwala-linga). This is the same infinitely extending column of fire Skhambha which Vishnu and Brahma couldn’t measure.

From this Skhambha in the beginning sprang Hiranyagarbha. This Hiranyagarbha is the shining visible universe which contains all the galaxies, planets, all abodes and all creatures within it. People incorrectly consider Hirayagarbha as Brahma. However, in fact, Brahma is the presiding deity of Hirayagarbha (as like as Vishnu is the presiding deity of Virat), which means Brahma is the presiding deity of this universe.  Hiranyagarbha [= Hiranya (gold) + garbha (womb)], which means golden womb. Whose womb is that? The answer is – Goddess Uma’s womb is this universe within which she engenders this entire creation. Even the thousand named hymn of goddess Mahalakshmi (she is Tripurasundari, and not to be confused with lotus goddess Lakshmi-devi) from Skanda Purana calls her as “brahmanda garbhini” in 774th name, which means “She who keeps the universe in her womb”.

When Rudra remains changeless as Brahman his Prakriti (Uma | Maya) remains hidden in him, for creation when Rudra (Brahman) becomes active, his Prakriti becomes active and looks distinct. Then Soma (Skhambha-Rudra) casts his seed upon the womb of his Prakriti (Aditi), and she engenders that seed in the form of her womb (Hiranyagarbha). Within that womb, Rudra enters and manifests himself as Brahma, all other deities (including Vishnu) and all creatures. He himself also appears within the Hiranyagarbha (Universe). Fools are they who do not understand that Mahadeva was there even before the universe, just by seeing Mahadeva’s manifestation within Hiranyagarbha (whom Puranas depict as Brahma and Rudra as Brahma’s son) wicked and idiotic Vaishnavas say “Because Rudra is born from Brahma, he cannot be supreme god since he has a birth; therefore Vishnu is supreme”. Should I laugh or cry seeing the stupidity of those Vaishnava fanatics? Let me show here that IN REALITY all gods including VISHNU are born except Mahadeva. Yes, you read it correct, Vishnu is NOT unborn. He is a manifestation of Rudra. We had already learnt this earlier, but for the purpose of contrast between vedas and Vishnu Purana in order to analyze the concept I am repeating some of the concepts.

Rudra is the Purusha described in Purusha Suktam of Vedas. Here is how Veda Purusha Rudra manifests himself within the universe as this entire creation. From Rudra his Shakti manifests herself as Viraj, within her womb Rudra casts his seed, she engenders it as her womb and within that womb (which is this universe), Rudra enters and manifests as this entire creation.

“tasmād virāḷ ajāyata virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:90:5)
“From him (Purusha-Rudra) virAj was born; again Puruṣa from Virāj was born”.

How Rudra takes birth again from Prakriti? Answer is below. Rudra casts his seed in his Prakriti (Aditi)

“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe ” (Rig Veda 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the womb of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.

Soma (Rudra) is the generator of all gods (which include Agni, Surya, Dawn, Indra, Vishnu and everyone). Soma (Rudra) is the pillar (Skhambha) that supports heaven and earth also.

“svāyudhaḥ pavate deva induraśastihā vṛjanaṃ rakṣamāṇaḥ |
pitā devānāṃ janitā sudakṣo viṣṭambho divo dharuṇaḥ pṛthivyāḥ |” (Rig Veda 9:87:2)
“Soma, the well-armed God, is flowing onward, who quells the curse and guards from treacherous onslaught, Father, generator of the Gods, most skilful, the pillar (Linga) of the heavens and earth’s supporter.

Now, here is the evidence that it is Rudra (Soma) who is the generator of Surya, Agni and VISHNU.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

Atharva Veda gives a very good and detailed narration. Rudra existed even before the universe, and fathered universe. Within the universe he manifested himself.

“hiraṇyagarbhám paramám anatyudyáṃ jánā viduḥ |
skambhás tád ágre prā́siñcad dhíraṇyaṃ loké antarā́ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:28)
“Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha (Jwala Linga form of Shiva) poured (gave birth to) that gold”.

Same is stated in Svetaswatara Upanishad as follows.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Swetaswatara Upanishat 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

Within that hiranyagarbha this Rudra again manifested himself and assumed various forms.  He became the first born (Brahma), he became all the other Gods including Vishnu also. He entered the universe and manifested various gods and entire creation from himself. In fact he himself became entire creation including gods.


“sa jātoatyaricyata paścād bhūmimatho puraḥ |”  (Rig Veda 10:90:5)
“As soon as he (Purusha-Rudra) was born he spread eastward and westward over the earth”.
He became Brahma (Parameshthin) within the universe- means he projected his form as Brahma.


“sá yát sárvān antardeśā́n ánu vyácalat parameṣṭhī́ bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:12)
“He (Vratya-Rudra), when he went away to all the intermediate spaces, went away having become Parameshthin and having made Devotion an eater of food”.
He manifested Vishnu from himself.

“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad|” (Atharva Veda XV:14:5)
“He, when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu”.

Likewise entire creation is Rudra’s own form. This is why Veda clearly states the following.

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat |
sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Yajurveda Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu | Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“That Rudra who has even entered into and pervaded fire, the waters, vegetation, and all the worlds, let my salutations be to that Rudra”.

With this depiction of creation, let me now move towards Vishnu Purana. Yes, this Purana is indeed by the name of Vishnu but that again is a scripture which is esoteric in nature. Vishnu Purana esoterically sings the glories of Uma and Rudra under the name of Vishnu and Lakshmi.  We have seen just now how Rudra became Vishnu and in earlier sections we had discussed how all female goddesses are Uma’s forms including Sri Lakshmi also. With these concepts in memory let’s now proceed with analyzing some interesting verses from Vishnu Purana.

Vishnu Purana states the following in chapter two.

“pradhAnapurushavyaktakAlAnAm paramam hi yat |
pashyanti sUrayah shuddham tadvishNOh paramam padam |” (Vishnu Puran 1:2:16)
“That Supreme Being transcends pradhana (lower form of Prakriti), purusha (all living beings), vyakta (manifest), and kala (time), and that place which is visible only to the learned yogis is called as the lofty station of Vishnu”.

Let’s not discuss again about the supreme abode of Vishnu which we have already analyzed at length and now we know that it is actually the abode of Shiva. Let’s see what this Purana states further.

“tatastu tatparambrahma paramAtmA jaganmayah | sarvagah sarvabhUtEshah sarvAtmA paramEshwarah | pradhAnapurushO vApi pravishyAtmEchHayA harih |
kshobhayamAsa samprAptE sarvakAlE vyayAvyayO |” (Vishnu Purana  1:2:28-29)
“Then that supreme brahman, the supreme soul of universal form, who is all pervading, who is lord of all creatures, who is the soul of all beings, – that Parameshwara by his will entered into the Pradhana (lower prakriti) and Purusha (all entities having conciousness) and agitated them”.

As discussed earlier, the entire universe is actually awomb and is covered by a sheath, it contains the fluids of the womb within it. Same is depicted in below verses from Vishnu Purana.

“purushAdHishtHitatvAshcha pradhAnAnugrahENa cha | mahadAdyA vishEshAntA hyAndamutpAdayanti te | tatkramENa vivrudhhaM sajjalabudbudavatsamam | bhUtEbhyONdam mahAbuddhE mahatdudakEshayaM | prAkrutam brahmarUpasya vishNoh sthAnamanuttamam | tatrAvyaktaswarUpOsou vyaktarUpO jagatpatih | vishNubrahmaswarUpENa swayamEva vyavastitah |  mErurulbamabhUtasya jarAyushcha mahIdharAh | garbhOdakam samudrAshcha tasyAsansumahAtmanah | sAdridweepasamudrAscha sajyOtirlOkasangrahah | tasminnaNdEbhavidvipra sadEvAsuramAnushah |” (Vishnu Purana  1:2:44-48)
“With the assistance of prakriti, from mahat to vishesha all these elements of prakriti when pervaded by purusha it formed a universal egg (brahmanda). O you of great intelligence listen! Then it started increasing its size like a water bubble and became a huge oval-shaped entity. This which is called as Hiranyagarbha (golden womb) is an awesome form of Vishnu. Inside that golden womb (hiranyagarbha), that unmanifest lord of the universe viz. Vishnu manifested himself as Brahma. That Hiranyagarbha [which is the golden womb] consisted of Sumeru and other mountains were the jarayu (the skin which covers the embryo), and the oceans were the fluids of the womb. O learned sage Maitreya! within that womb (hiranyagarbha) all the mountains, all the islands, planets, all celestial abodes, all deities, all demons, humans and all other cratures got manifested”.

Now, how esoterically Parashara narrated those verses you would understand when you read the following verses from Mahabharata which is an epic and the following sections very well match with Vedas hence are authentic beyond doubt.

“bhIshma UvachA | asakthoham gunAn vakthum mahadevasya dhImatha | yO hi sarva gatho na cha sarvathra drusyathe | brahma vishNu surEsAnAm srushtA cha prabhureva cha | brahmAdaya pisachAntha yam hi deva upasathe | prakruthInAm parathwena purushasya cha ya para | chinthyathe yo yogavidhbhi rishibhi Thathwa darshibhi | aksharam para Brahma asacha sadasacha ya | prakruthim purusham chaiva kshobhayithwa tswathejasa | brahmana masrujath thasmad Dheva dheva prajapathi |” (MBH 13:14:3-6)
“BhIshma said.’I am quite incompetent to recite the virtues of Mahadeva of highest intelligence. He pervades all things in the universe and yet is not seen anywhere.  He is the one who created Brahma, Vishnu and other devas, He is their master. All the deities, from Brahma to the Pisachas, adore and worship him. He transcends both Prakriti (Pradhana) and Purusha, he is being meditated upon by great sages who know the truth. He is indestructible and Supreme Brahman. He is both existent and non-existent.  Agitating both Prakriti and Purusha by means of His energy, He created therefrom the universal lord of creatures, viz., BRAHMA”.

Now, let’s see another esoteric statement made by Vishnu purana.

“srisHtistHityantakaraNI brahmavishnushivAtmikAm |
sa sangyAm yAti bhagavAnEka eva janArdanah |” (Vishnu Purana  1:2:66)
“That god Janardana alone assumes the forms of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra (destroyer deity) for the tasks of creation, maintenance and destruction”.

When Vedas are clear enough to state that Janardana emerged from Shiva, it’s pointless to consider Vishnu Purana on face value. You need to know that Vishnu purana esoterically singles the glories of shiva under the names of Vishnu. Let’s see a direct verse from Mahabharat which maches with Shruti.

“brahmā viṣṇuś ca rudraś ca skandendrau savitā yamaḥ | varuṇendū manur dhātā vidhātā tvaṃ dhaneśvaraḥ |” (MBH 13:16:22)
“Thou art the Grandsire Brahma, thou art Rudra (deity of destruction), thou art Vishnu, thou art Skanda, thou art Indra, thou art Savitri, thou art Yama, thou art Varuna, Soma, thou art Dhatri, thou art Manu, thou art Vidhatri and thou art Kuvera, the Lord of treasures”.

Also, Mahabharata (13:14) states clearly the same thing as – “’Bhava assumes the forms of Brahma and Vishnu and the chief of the celestials of the Rudras, the Adityas, and the Aswins; and of those deities that are called Viswadevas”. Also, since I have already discussed about Brahma and Vishnu’s manifestation from Rudra as stated in vedas, I am not elaborating them again. This should be sufficient to know that the above verse from Vishnu Purana is again an esoteric statement where Parashara sang the glories of Shiva under the name of Vishnu.


Earlier in this same section we have seen that Yajurveda Taittiriya Aranyaka (10:24:1) and Sri Rudram from Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita (5.5.9.3) clearly state that entire creation is Rudra himself. Now, the same fact Parashara conveyed in Vishnu Purana under the pseudonym called ‘Vishnu’ but the glory actually applies on Mahadeva alone!

The following verse from Vishnu Purana esoterically states that entire creation is Vishnu that is why he is the creator, he gets created, he is the protector, he gets protected, and he is the destroyer, he gets destroyed.

“sa eva srujyah sa cha sargakartAh | sa eva pAlyanti cha pAlyate cha | brahmAdyavastHabHirsHEshamUrtir | vishNurvarishTHo varado varENyah |” (Vishnu Purana  1:2:70)
“That god who is present in every form, who is the best and giver of boons, who is worthy of worship, that god Vishnu only creates as Brahma and he himself gets created, he alone protects and he is the one who gets protected, and he alone destroys everyone and it is again he alone who gets destroyed”.
It further says that whatever exists and doesn’t exist everything is Hari.

“sUryadayO grahastArA nakshatrANyakHilam jagat |
mUrtAmUrtamadrushyam cha drushyam cha purushOttama |
yadyOktam yadya navivOktam mayAtra paramEshwara |
tatsarvam twam namastubhyam bhUyO bhUyO namonamah |” (Vishnu Purana  1:4:23(b)-24)
“[O Hari] Thou art the sun, the planets, the stars, constellations, and entire universe are you alone. O Purushottama! O Parameshwara! the manifest, unmanifest, visible, invisible and everything that I said and everything that i didn’t say about you everything is you alone. Salutations to you who are such, Salutations!”

Not only this, let’s see some very interesting verses from Vishnu Purana. With these verses even a school boy should understand now how esoterically this Purana sings the glory of Uma-Maheshwara under the name of Vishnu and Lakshmi.

Look at at this interesting verse. It says all males are the forms of Vishnu and all females are the forms of Lakshmi.  What other big proof you need to understand how Parashara tried to euologize the same almighty Rudra and Uma under the pseudonyms – Vishnu and Lakshmi?

“kim chAtibahunOktEna sankshEpENEdamuchyatE |
dEvatiryakmanushyAdOu punnAmA bhagawAn harih |
strInAmnI shrIshcha vigyEyA nAnayOrvidhyatE param |”(Vishnu Purana  1:8:34-35)
“What else can I tell you about their forms? In summary, among all the deities, creatures and humans, all the beings of masculine gender are Hari’s forms and all the beings of feminine forms are Lakshmi’s forms. There is nothing else in this world apart from these two”.

Read the above verse carefully. Proofs for word to word you’ll see in below verses. The attributes discussed in above verse are actually the ‘trademark-copyrighted-signature styled’ attributes of Uma-Maheshwara alone. No other god or goddess can infringe the copyright of Uma-Maheshwara on their attributes. See the below proofs from authentic scriptures – Shruti and Itihasa.


“pu.nli~Nga.n sarvamiishaana.n striili~NgaM bhagavatyumaa  |
umaarudraatmikaaH sarvaaH grajaaH sthaavaraja~NgamaaH  |” (Rudra hridayopanishad 1:9-10)
“The masculine gender is Lord Siva. The feminine gender is Sri Bhavani Devi. All the mobile and immobile creation of this universe is filled up with Uma and Rudra”.

This universal fact is elaborated in Mahabharata (chapter 14 of book 13) in the following verse. Complete Sanskrit verses aren’t available with me for this passage therefore here is an extract furnished from the English translation of Mahabharata by Kisari Mohan Ganguly.
All creatures bear the signs that mark Mahadeva and his spouse. Hence, all creatures must be regarded as belonging to Maheswara. All creatures of the feminine sex, have sprung from Ulna’s nature as their cause, and hence it is they bear the mark of femininity that distinguishes Uma; while all creatures that are masculine, having sprung from Siva, bear the masculine mark that distinguishes Siva. That person who says that there is, in the three worlds with their mobile and immobile creatures, any other cause than the Supreme Lord, and that which is not marked with the mark of either Mahadeva or his spouse should be regarded as very wretched and should not be counted among the creatures of the universe. Every being with the mark of the masculine sex should be known to be of Isana, while every being with the mark of the feminine sex should be known to be of Uma”. (MBH 13:14)

The same truth is even reiterated in Harivamsa Parva which is an appendix to Mahabharata as follows.

“yalli~NgA~NkaM tryambakaH sarvamIsho bhagali~NgA~Nkam yaddhyumA sarvadhAtrI |
nAnyattR^itIyaM jagatIhAsti ki~nchitmahAdevAtsarvasarveshvaro.asau |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-72-60)
“All bodies in the world with masculine gender are forms of three eyed lord shiva. All bodies in the world with feminine gender are forms of universal mother Uma. There is nothing else in the world other than these two. Lord Shiva is the lord of all”.

In the same Harivamsa lord Krishna also prays to lord Rudra by stating the same fact as follows.

“yalli~NgA~NkaM yachcha loke bhagA~NkaM | sarvaM soma tvaM sthAvaraM ja~NgamaM cha | prAhurviprAstvAM guNinaM tattvavij~nA-stathA dhyeyAmambikAM lokadhAtrIm |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-74-32)
“O the great lord accompanied by umA! The fixed and movable entities of this world marked by masculine and feminine genders are the manifestations of both of you. The wise brahmins, knowledgeable about the principles, call you the one with qualities and worship ambikA, as the mother of the world”.

This is not the end, let me show you more verses from Vishnu Purana which takes the verses from Shruti (Upanishads) about Uma-Maheshwara and states the same under the name of Vishnu-Lakshmi. I am sure that had Parashara done this in today’s time, he would have been charged with huge penalty or would have been kept behind the bars for plagiarism, copyright infringement kind of crimes. He narrated Uma-Maheshwara’s glories under the pseudo names of Vishnu Lakshmi.

Shruti (Upanishad) says,

“rudro.artha aksharaH somaa tasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:23a)
“Rudra is the meaning and Uma is the word, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana applies the same and says,

“arthO vishNuriyam vANI |” (Vishnu Purana  1:8:18b)
“Vishnu is the meaning and Lakshmi  is the word”

Shruti (Upanishad) says,

“rudro vahnirumaa svaahaa tasmai tasyai namo namaH |”  (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:21a)
“Rudra is Agni and Uma is Swaha, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana applies the same and says,

“swahA lakshmIrjagannAthO vAsudEvO hutashanah | (Vishnu Purana  1:8:22b)
“Lakshmi is Swaha and lord of the world viz. Vasudeva is Agni”

Shruti (Upanishad) says the following which is correct as per Vedas and we analyzed this in detail.

“rudro vishhNurumaa lakshmiistasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:18b)
“Rudra is Vishnu and Uma is Lakshmi, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana modifies the same mythically and says,

“shankarO bhagawAnchHourIgourI lakshmIrdwijottama |” (Vishnu Purana  1:8:23a)
“O best of the brahmana! Vishnu is Shankara and Lakshmi is Gowri”

Shruti (Upanishad) says,

“rudraH suurya umaa chhaayaa tasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:19a)
“Rudra is Sun and Uma is dawn, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana applies the same and says,

“maitrEya kEshavah sUryastatprabhA kamalAlayA |” (Vishnu Purana  1:8:23b)
“O Maitreya! Keshava is the sun and lotus goddess Kamala is the Dawn”.

Shruti (Upanishad) says,

“rudraH soma umaa taaraa tasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:19b)
“Rudra is Moon and Uma is Tara, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana applies the same and says,

“shashAnkah shrIdharah kAntih shrIshthaivAnapAyinI |” (Vishnu Purana  1:8:24a)
“Vishnu is the moon and Lakshmi is the light (symbolic of Tara)”

Shruti (Upanishad) says,

“rudro vR^iksha umaa vallii tasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:22a)
“Rudra is the tree and Uma is the creeper, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana applies the same and says,

“latAbhUtA jaganmAtA shrIvishNurdrumasangitah |” (Vishnu Purana  1:8:30b)
“Vishnu is the tree and Lakshmi is the creeper”.

Shruti (Upanishad) says,

“rudro divaa umaa raatristasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudra hridayopanishat 1:20a)
“Rudra is the day and Uma is the night, prostrations to him and her”.

Vishnu Purana applies the same and says,

“vibhAvarI shrIrdivasO dEvaschakragadAdharah |” (Vishnu Purana  1:8:31a)
“Vishnu is the day and Lakshmi is the night”.

Finally the crux of the analysis is summed up by Shruti in the below verse very clearly. It clearly says that those who worship Vishnu are actually worshiping Shiva. It also warns people saying that those who hate Mahadeva are hating Vishnu.

“ye namasyanti govinda.n te namasyanti sha~Nkaram.h |
ye.archayanti hariM bhaktyaa te.archayanti vR^ishhadhvajam.h |
ye dvishhanti viruupaaksha.n te dvishhanti janaardanam.h |
ye rudra.n naabhijaananti te na jaananti keshavam.h |” (Rudra Hridayoanishat 1:6-7)
“Those who adore Govinda, are adoring Sankara. They, who worship Hari with devotion, are worshipping the bull-bannered deity in reality. Those who hate the three eyed lord, they are hating Janardana, and those who do not understand Rudra do not understand Kesava”.

Therefore one should understand the fact that – in one’s job or workplace one may be addressed as “Officer, Sir, Head, Lead, Captain, boss and so on”. The same person when at home; is called as “father” by his children. The same person is fondly addressed as “Son” by his parents and old people. The same person is called by his name by his close peers and friends. Did you see how a person’s name changes according to the designation he carries? In the same way, the same god Bhagawan Rudra and our mother Uma are glorified in all scriptures under various names of their aspects. When Vishnu is Rudra’s own manifestation, the names – ‘Vishnu, Janardana, Hari etc.’ all names are Rudra’s names alone. All the names of Vishnu are the qualities of Rudra, e.g. – Vishnu means all pervasive, it is Rudra who is the original all-pervasive god. Vedas say Rudra pervades this universe with one quarter o his portion, rest three quarters of Rudra is still unknown to Vedas. Similarly other qualities also are Rudra’s qualities originally. Vishnu being Rudra’s form, all names or qualities of Rudra are inherited by Vishnu in reality.


Similarly Lakshmi being the manifestation of Uma-Tripurasundari (who is the original Sri or Mahalakshmi)) all the names of Lakshmi-devi are Uma’s names originally. Therefore Parashara used Uma-Maheshwara’s secondary names viz. Vishnu and Lakshmi to glorify secretly and discretely the same divinity viz. Bhava and Bhavani!
Even in other Vaishnava Puranas and also in Ramayana and Mahabharata when Vishnu is identified as the origin or as the Supreme Being that praise is in reality to the Mahadeva under the pseudonym called Vishnu. It is because the indweller of all gods including Vishnu is Mahadeva. YajurVeda clearly says that it is Rudra who is the indweller of all gods – Yajurveda (IV:5:9:p) which states, “devana hridayebhyo namah”, which means, “salutations to the Lord Rudra who is the indweller of hearts of all the gods”.

Skhambha Suktam of Atharva Veda which is a hymn on lord Rudra in his infinite form of Jwala-Linga (Fire Pillar), clearly states the following.

“yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge sárve samā́hitāḥ |
skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:13)
“Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha He in whose body are contained all three-and-thirty Deities?”

“yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge gā́trā vibhejiré |
tā́n vái tráyastriṃśad devā́n éke brahamvído viduḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:27)
“The three-and-thirty Gods within his body were disposed as limbs: Some, deeply versed in Holy Lore, some know those three-and- thirty Gods”.

The thirty three gods are –eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, two Ashwins, and eight Vasus. Among the twelve Adityas one is Vishnu. Rudra is not contained among these thirty three gods, infact he is the Skhambha who contains these thirty three gods within him. This is the reason why all scriptures praise only Bhagawan Rudra under various names. All Vaishnava scriptural portions when they identify Vishnu as supreme, that is an esoteric expression and the praise actually goes to Mahadeva (and Uma). Vaishnavites usually claim this fact in reverse order by saying whatever praises of Rudra exists in Vedas are actually to Vishnu who is the indweller fo Rudra – However there is no authentic proof that Vishnu is indweller of Rudra, whereas we have seen the reverse of it being true!

Hope this clarifies how esoteric our scriptures are, and how idiotic the Vaishnavas are who abuse Mahadeva and think they would reach Vishnu’s feet!

8. Unleashing the true meaning of Tirupati (the Shrine of lord Venkateswara)


Let us see how all our religions scriptures sing the glories of Uma and Maheshwara under the name of Vishnu.  Actually speaking, it is Vishnu who reveals their glories through his deeds. It is Vishnu who imitates his parents (Uma and Shiva) in all his deeds.

Skanda Purana glorifies Venkatadri hill and also lord Venkateswara stating that neither there is any place as holy as venkatadri nor there has ever been any god greater than Venkateswara. here is the verse for reference.
 “vEnkatAdri samam sthAnambrahmAnde nAsti kinchana |
vEnkatEsa samO dEvOna bhootOna bhavishyaI |” (Skanda Purana)
“There is no place equal (or superior) than the Venkatadri in this entire universe; and in the past, there was neither any God equal (or greater) than the Lord of the venkata hill nor would be anyone there in future”.


This is a true statement indeed, however it is again esoteric and not absolute in nature. We’ll analyze this truth now. Lord Srinivasa (Venkateswara) is the lord of Seshachalam. This Seshachalam is a sum total of all the Seven Hills, hence Seshachalam is not a hill rather it is a range of hills. Let’s understand what ‘sEshAchalaM’ means.

‘sEshAchalaM’ word is a composition of two words viz. – ‘sEsha’ + ‘achalaM’, where ‘sEsha’ is the name of the mighty serpent ‘sEshanAga’, hence it denotes a ‘Serpent’. And ‘achalaM’ means ‘unmoving’ (represents hill). Therefore ‘sEshAchalaM’ is nothing but – ‘The Serpent which is not moving’. This represents the state of avidya (ignorance). The moment you understand the real meaning of Tirupati shrine and realize who is Lord Venkateswara, your inner self would get awakened, and then this ‘sEshAchalam (the unmoving serpent)’ would become ‘a moving serpent’ (Kundalini) within your inner self.

Now, why there are ‘Seven’ hills under the mountain range called ‘sEshAchalaM’? We’ll analyze now. These seven hills are nothing but the representation of seven ‘Chakras’ of our microcosm which are connected by the passage of this Kundalini (sEshAchalaM in this context). Let’s understand the meaning of each hill now.

The seven hills are named ‘sEshAdri’, ‘vrushAbhAdri’, ‘nArAyanAdri’, ‘garudAdri’, ‘anjanAdri’, ‘neelAdri’, and ‘vEnkatadri’.  The names of these hills are stated in different sequence in different texts of Tirupati. Even the most famous Morning Prayer called ‘Sri Venkateswara Suprabhatam’, which is sung at the commencement of dawn every day at Tirupati records the names of these hills in verse no. 14 in the sequence as – ‘Sri Sesasaila, Garudachala, Venkatadri, Narayanadri, Vrsabhadri, Vrsadri’ where the hill named ‘Neeladri’ is not listed. However, Neeladri is very much a hill one among these seven. Well, I believe sequence of the hill names are not of prime importance because if we consider the sequence given in Suprabhatam as correct then Venkatadri becomes 3rd hill but in fact Venkatadri is the seventh hill. When texts of Tirumala temple themselves do not bother about sequence, let us also leave the sequence to the Lord’s wish. I’m actually more interested here to define their inner meaning.

Various scholars have brainstormed and given various interpretations and meanings to these seven hills. Most common meaning what they preached was that they believed these seven hills as representation of the seven hoods of the mighty snake ‘Adi Sesha’.  I respect their opinion, but as per scriptures like Mahabharata Adi-Sesha is a serpent of thousand hoods and not just seven.  Anyway, here I am only interested to state my understanding of these seven peaks and leave upto the readers the decision of whose opinion is close to truth.

1. Seshadri – It means hill of snake. It represents ‘Mooladhara’ chakra where the divine serpent power Tripurasundari as Kundalini resides and sleeps
2. Vrishabhadri – It means the hill of vrushabha (bull). A bull is an epitome of procreation, prajapati-tatwam. It represents the ‘Svadhishthana Chakra’ which is the chakra which governs the sexual health/function of our body. The presiding deity of Svadhishthana Chakra is ‘Brahma’, and Brahma being the foremost Prajapati (the progenitor) of all races, it maps accurately with vrushabhadri in my opinion
3. Narayanadri – It means the hill of Narayana. It represents the ‘Manipooraka Chakra’ whose presiding deity is Vishnu
4. Garudadri – It means the hill of Garuda. In Mahabharata Garuda’s story from his birth to all his deeds has been narrated in a detailed manner, where Garuda has been shown as the blazing fire. He represents fire due to his immense Tejas. And Anahata chakra is the fire chakra in our body whose presiding deity is Rudra who is again identical with Agni. Therefore Garudadri represents ‘Anahata Chakra’
5. Anjanadri – It means the hill of Anjaneya (Hanuman). Hanuman is the son of wind god and hence it represents the Vayu element. In our body the ‘Vishuddha Chakra’ represents the ‘Vayu’ element, therefore Anjanadri represents the Vishuddha Chakra
6. Neeladri – It means the hill of Neela Devi. Now, the term ‘neela’ denotes ‘amruta’ or ‘soma’. We have already done a detailed analysis of how “agni somatmakam jagat” is same as “neelalohitAtmakam jagat.h” in previous sections. So, by now we understand that ‘neela’ is a representation of ‘Amruta Tatwam’ which represents the immortality.  Therefore Neeladri represents the ‘Ajna Chakra’ which is the gateway to ‘Varanasi’, which is the gateway to ‘Kurukshetra’, which is the gateway to ‘Adhiyajna’ place. This Ajna chakra which is called ‘varanasi (kasi)’, is the gateway to liberation because when Pranas pass through this chakra they get directed towards the Sahasrara which Is the final destination. So, Neeladri represents ‘Anja Chakra’ and is a doorway to Amruta-tatwam (gateway to liberation). Hence Neeladri represents Ajna Chakra!
7. Venkatadri – Well, the name Venkata means ‘destroyer of sins’ and hence the hill name ‘vEnkatAdri’ means ‘the hill which destroys all sins’. We know that Lord Srinivasa’s temple is on this particular hill called ‘venkatadri’ which is the ‘SEVENTH’ hill. So, by this logic, it represents the seventh Chakra which is ‘Sahasrara Chakra’

Lord Srinivasa obtained his name as ‘Venkateswara’ because he installed himself (or he dwells) in the hill named ‘vEnkatAdri’, so his name ‘Venkateswara’ means ‘Lord of the hill vEnkatAdri’.  The hill name – ‘vEnkatAdri’ means ‘the hill which destroys all sins’. In Jabala Upanishad (1:02) it is clearly stated that Sahasrara which is above the juncture of eyebrows and nose) is called as ‘vAranAsi’. And it also explains that the meaning of ‘vAranAsi’ is ‘destroyer of all sins committed by the ten organs’. Therefore this ‘vEnkatAdri’ is no one other than the place ‘Sahasrara Chakra’ as evident from the above analysis. So, ‘vEnkatEshwarA’ means ‘lord of vEnkatAdri hill’, which again means, ‘lord of sahasrAra chakra’, which finally means, ‘lord Shiva’! Hence meaning of ‘indweller of the seventh hill’ is nothing but lord Shiva and Uma only as applauded in the below verse from Upanishad.

“aakaashe vaayumaaropya hakaaropari sha~Nkaram.h | binduruupaM mahaadeva.n vyomaakaara.n sadaashivam.h | shuddhasphaTikasa~Nkaasha.n dhR^itabaalendumaulinam.h | pa~nchavaktrayuta.n saumya.n dashabaahu.n trilochanam.h | sarvaayudhairdhR^itaakaara.n sarvabhuushhaNabhuushhitam.h | umaardhadeha.n varada.n sarvakaaraNakaaraNam.h |” (Yoga Tattwa Upanishad 98b-101a)
“Raising the breath along the region of Akasa (Sahasrara), he should contemplate on Sadashiva in the following manner, as producing happiness, as of the shape of Bindu, as the great god (Mahadeva), as having the shape of Akasa, as shining like pure crystal, as wearing the rising crescent of moon on his head, as having five faces, ten hands and three eyes, as being of a pleased countenance, as armed with all weapons, as adorned with all ornaments, as having Uma (the goddess) in one-half of his body, as ready to grant favours and as the cause of all the causes”.

So, who is the lord of the seventh hill in reality? Answer is clear that it is –Shiva (and Uma). So, the name ‘vEnkatEswarA’ which means ‘the lord of the (seventh) hill named venkata’ originally gets mapped to lord Shiva. Therefore even though lord Govinda is accepting the worship of all devotees under the name of ‘venkateswara’, but he is a representation of Uma-Maheshwara on this earthly level. In the guise of Vishnu, the original God who is internally being worshiped is none other than Bhagawan Rudra. If you analyze the meaning of “Tirumala”, again you would land up in discovering a divine secret. “Tirumala” is a colloquial word however the actual pronunciation used to be “Tirumalai” which is a Tamil word comprised of two words “tiru” and “malai”, where ‘Tiru’ means “Sri” and “malai” means “hill / mountain”; now if you translate this Tirumalai into Sanskrit what would you obtain? You would understand that Tirumala is nothing but a Tamil word which means “Sri Sailam”. This is what is the beauty of Venkateswara! Outwardly it is a Vaishnavite shrine, however inwardly it becomes a place of Mahadeva. Vishnu is the vyakta (manifest) form of Maheshwara who is avyakta (unknown).

Since Sahasrara is the ‘parama padam’ beyond which there exists no other abode, and since Mahadeva (Brahman residing in Sahasrara) is the highest refuge who is without a second, Skanda Purana rightly says when it says the following: However, it internally again means to glorify Bhagawan Rudra and his station Sahasrara alone. So, here it is outwardly an eulogy of Govinda and his hill venkatadri but in reality as I have always stated in my articles – there is no scripture which eulogizes anyone except Bhagawan Rudra (and Uma); and this rule is evident as being true in this verse of Skanda Purana also.

“vEnkatAdri samam sthAnambrahmAnde nAsti kinchana |
vEnkatEsa samO dEvOna bhootOna bhavishyaI |” (Skanda Purana)
“There is no place equal (or superior) than the Venkatadri in this entire universe; and in the past, there was neither any God equal (or greater) than the Lord of the venkata hill nor would be anyone there in future”.

This is the same truth which is spoken in the below verse directly addressing Bhagawan Rudra in Shruti.

“yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
“There is none greater than him (Rudra), on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future”.

Even Mahabharata confirms the same fact about Maheshwara as follows.

“nāsti śarva samo dāne nāsti śarva samo raṇe | nāsti śarva samo devo nāsti śarva samā gatiḥ |” (MBH 13:16:11)
“There is no god like Sarva. There is no end or refuge like Sarva. There is none that can give so many or such high boons. There is none that equal him in battle”.

The same has been stated in Harivamsa Parva by Lord Sri Krishna himself while praying to Mahadeva as follows.

“vedairgItA sA hi tattvaM prasUtA | yaj~no dIkShANAM yoginAM chAtirUpaH |
nAtyadbhutaM tvatsamaM deva bhUtaM | bhUtam bhavyaM bhavadevAya nAsti |” (Harivamsa Parva 2-74-33)
“The same mother (ambikA) is described in veda-s. She is the mother of the prime principle. You are the wealth of those who offer sacrifices. You are the wealth of yoga, who perform yogas. By the worldly form, you are the divine idol. There is no one else most wonderful and similar to you in the past, present and future”.

Another point let me bring here in our discussion. In Tirumala place you would have heard about ‘Akasa Ganga’ which is believed to be originating from lord venkateswara’s feet at venkatadri hill. What did you understand by that Akasa Ganga? The Ganga that flows in the supreme station – heaven (not to be confused with Indra’s abode of Puranas) is nothing but the divine nectar Soma only. And by now it should be clear enough why Akasa Ganga is also present in Venkatachala hill. For those who still didn’t get the meaning, it is again a good evidence that the seven hills represent the seven Chakras, the Akasa Ganga the nectar of immortality, and the Venkatadri the abode of Maheshwara viz. Sahasrara.

At the ‘bhoutika (superficial)’ level, no doubt Venkatachalam is the shrine of lord Srinivasa who is called ‘venkateswara’, but at the ‘tAtwika (deeper)’ level it is the shrine of Mahadeva (and Uma). So, my message for the ignorant folks (read ‘Shiva-abusing-Vishnu-devotees’) is simply the fact that knowingly or unknowingly it is Bhagawan Maheshwara alone who is worshiped by everyone. The devotional offers what you dedicate to this Janardana is being consumed by him only when you see with your eyes of flesh, but when you gain the divine eyes to discern the hidden truths, when you gain the ability to see through that Govinda, you would understand that internally the original lord who is getting all your services is Pashupati. Lord Sri Krishna has already shown this phenomenon in Mahabharata itself where Arjuna becomes astonished to see all the offerings that he (Arjuna) used to offer to Madhava were found to be seen deposited at the feet of Mahadeva as quoted below.

“tato ‘rjunaḥ prītamanā vavande vṛṣabhadhvajam |dadarśotphulla nayanaḥ samastaṃ tejasāṃ vidhim| taṃ copahāraṃ svakṛtaṃ naiśaṃ naityakam ātmanaḥ |dadarśa tryambakābhyāśe vāsudeva niveditam |” (MBH 7:57:60-61)
“Sanjaya said, ‘Then Partha, with a cheerful soul and joined hands and eyes expanded (in wonder), gazed at the god having the bull for his mark and who was the receptacle of every energy. And he beheld the offerings he made every night to Vasudeva lying by the side of the Three-eyed deity”.

So, how far your devotion would lead you to feet of GOPALA (caretaker of cows) when your heart is filled with abuses for PASHUPATI (lord of all beings), is left to your own heart’s discretion! Better late than never! Understand that there is no place in this universe where Shiva is not worshiped; there is no place that exists where one can live without Mahadeva. He is the one without a second. Every scripture glorify only one Supreme Being who is none other than Maheshwara (and Uma).

9. Shiva Kutumbam is the only ‘Complete’ Kutumbam


Hopefully all of us would have read or heard a hymn called “Annapoornashtakam” an octet composed by Adi Shankara on Goddess Annapoorna, that great poet says, “mAtA cha pArvatI dEvi pitAdEvO mahEshwaraH | bAndhavA shivabhaktAs cha swadEshO bhuvanaTrayaM |”, which means, “Goddess Parvati is my mother, Lord Maheshwara is my father, all devotees of Shiva are my relatives and the three worlds are my own country”.  Should we feel offended with this verse of Shankara because he didn’t say all devotees of Vishnu are his relatives? Absolutely not! Let’s now understand the concept of Shiva-kutumbam!
Shiva’s family is the superset under which all other god’s families dwell as the subsets. Shiva’s family is like a city within which numerous coloies dwell, and when you call yourself belonging to that city, you become belonging to all the colonies by default.

We have seen that all gods have spring from Bhagawan Rudra and mother Uma. All are their children. Even Vishnu is the son of Rudra and Uma as clearly stated in below verse from Rig Veda.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ |
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ |” (Rig Veda IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma  (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and VISHNU”.

Therefore, be it Vishnu’s devotees of be it Shakti’s devotees everyone is indirectly Shiva’s devotees only. This is the reason all families belong to the family of Bhagawan Mahadeva! Interestingly, in all Puranas whenever Vishnu or Brahma appears in front of any devotee, they appear singly or at max accompanied by their consorts. However, in many instances in our scriptures we find that whenever that illustrious god Maheshwara appears before his devotee, he appears with all the celestial forces (means his entire family). He appears along with Uma, Nandi, Skanda, Agni, Vishnu, Brahma, Indra and all the visvedevas together with the celestial consorts of all these gods. The reason behind that is nothing but a simple fact that Mahadeva’s family encompasses everyone.And the same style is shown in many instances that Brahma, Vishnu, Indra and all celestials would stand and sing Vedic hymns on Rudra in such occasions.

Let’s see some references from scriptures where Mahadeva appeared with such a huge family in various instances. The below narration is from the story where Upamanyu gets the vision of Bhagawan Rudra.

“savyadeśe tu devasya brahmā lokapitāmahaḥ | divyaṃ vimānam āsthāya haṃsayuktaṃ manojavam | vāmapārśva gataś caiva tathā nārāyaṇaḥ sthitaḥ | vainateyaṃ samāsthāya śaṅkhacakragadādharaḥ | skando mayūram āsthāya sthito devyāḥ samīpataḥ | śaktiṃ kanhe samādhāya dvitīya iva pāvakaḥ | purastāc caiva devasya nandiṃ paśyāmy avasthitam | śūlaṃ viṣṭabhya tiṣṭhantaṃ dvitīyam iva śaṃkaram | svāyambhuvādyā manavo bhṛgvādyā ṛṣayas tathā | śakrādyā devatāś caiva sarva eva | samabhyayuḥ | te ‘bhivādya mahātmānaṃ parivārya samantataḥ | astuvan vividhaiḥ stotrair mahādevaṃ surās tadā | brahmā bhavaṃ tadā stunvan rathantaram udīrayan | jyeṣṭhasāmnā ca deveśaṃ jagau nārāyaṇas tadā | gṛṇañ śakraḥ paraṃ brahma śatarudrīyam uttamam | brahmā nārāyaṇaś caiva devarājaś ca kauśikaḥ | aśobhanta mahātmānas trayas traya ivāgnayaḥ | teṣāṃmadhyagato devo rarāja bhagavāñ śivaḥ | śaradghanavinirmuktaḥ pariviṣṭa ivāṃśumān |” (MBH 13:14:141-149)
“On the left side of the great god stood the Grandsire Brahma seated on an excellent car unto which were attached swans endued with the speed of the mind. On the same side could be seen Narayana also, seated on the son of Vinata, and bearing the conch, the discus, and the mace. Close to the goddess Uma was Skanda seated on his peacock, bearing his fatal dart and bells, and looking like another Agni. In the front of Mahadeva I beheld Nandi standing armed with his Sula and looking like a second Sankara (for prowess and energy). The Munis headed by the Self-born Manu and Rishis having Bhrigu for their first, and the deities with Sakra at their head, all came there. All the tribes of spirits and ghosts, and the celestial Mothers, stood surrounding Mahadeva and saluting him with reverence. The deities were engaged in singing the praises of Mahadeva by uttering diverse hymns. The Grandsire Brahma uttering a Rathantara, praised Mahadeva. Narayana also, uttering the Jyestha Saman, sang the praises of Bhava. Sakra also did the same with the aid of those foremost of Vedic Mantras, viz., the Sata-Rudriam. Verily, Brahma and Narayana and Sakra,–those three high-souled deities,–shone there like three sacrificial fires. In their midst shone the illustrious God like the sun in the midst of his corona, emerged from autumnal clouds. I beheld myriads of suns and moons, also in the sky, O Kesava.”.

The below narration is from lord Krishna himself when he had the vision of lord Shiva after performing penance for him in Himalayas. The below narration is directly from the mouth of Krishna. Note down here also, that Mahadeva is accompanied by his entire family consisting of Indra, Vishnu, Rudras, Adityas, Goddess Earth, Vedas, Planets, cosntellations and everything in their embodied form.

“ekādaśa tathā cainaṃ rudrāṇāṃ vṛṣavāhanam | astuvan niyatātmānaḥ karmabhiḥ śubhakarmiṇam | ādityā vasavaḥ sādhyā viśve devās tathāśvinau | viśvābhiḥ stutibhir devaṃ viśvadevaṃ samastuvan | śatakratuś ca bhagavān viṣṇuś cāditinandanau |brahmā rathantaraṃ sāma īrayanti bhavāntike | yogīśvarāḥ subahavo yogadaṃ pitaraṃ gurum | brahmarṣayaś ca sa sutās tathā devarṣayaś ca vai | pṛtivī cāntarikṣaṃ ca nakṣatrāṇi grahās tathā | māsārdha māsā ṛtavo rātryaḥ saṃvatsarāḥ kṣaṇāḥ | muhūrtāś ca nimeṣāś ca tathaiva yugaparyayāḥ | divyā rājan namasyanti vidyāḥ sarvā diśas tathā | sanatkumāro vedāṃś ca itihāsās tathaiva ca | marīcir aṅgirā atriḥ pulastyaḥ pulahaḥ kratuḥ | manavaḥ sapta somaś ca atharvā sa bṛhaspatiḥ | bhṛgur dakṣaḥ kaśyapaś ca vasiṣṭhaḥ kāśya eva ca | chandāṃsi dīkṣā yajñāś ca dakṣiṇāḥ pāvako haviḥ | yajñopagāni dravyāṇi mūrtimanti yudhiṣṭhira | prajānāṃ patayaḥ sarve saritaḥ pannagā nagāḥ | devānāṃ mātaraḥ sarvā devapatnyaḥ sa kanyakāḥ | sahasrāṇi munīnāṃ ca ayutāny arbudāni ca | namasyanti prabhuṃ śāntaṃ parvatāḥ sāgarā diśaḥ | gandharvāpsarasaś caiva gītavāditrakovidāḥ | divyatānena gāyantaḥ stuvanti bhavam adbhutam | vidyādharā dānavāś ca guhyakā rākṣasās tathā | sarvāṇi caiva bhūtāni sthāvarāṇi carāṇi ca | namasyanti mahārāja vān manaḥ karmabhir vibhum | purastād viṣṭhitaḥ śarvo mamāsīt tridaśeśvaraḥ | purastād viṣṭhitaṃ dṛṣṭvā mameśānaṃ ca bhārata | sa prajāpatiśakrāntaṃ jagan mām abhyudaikṣata |” (MBH 13:15:14-27)
“Eleven hundred Rudras stood around that Deity of restrained soul and white deeds, then seated upon his bull. All of them were employed in hymning his praises. The Adityas, the Vasus, the Sadhyas, the Viswedevas, and the twin Aswins praised that Lord of the universe by uttering the hymns occurring in the scriptures. The puissant Indra of hundred sacrifices and Vishnu, the two sons of Aditi, and the Grandsire Brahma, all uttered, in the presence of Bhava, the Rathantara Saman. Innumerable masters of Yoga, all the regenerate Rishis with their children, all the celestial Rishis, the goddess Earth, the Sky (between Earth and Heaven), the Constellations, the Planets, the Months, the Fortnights, the Seasons, Night, the Years, the Kshanas, the Muhurtas, the Nimeshas, the Yugas one after another, all the celestial Sciences and branches of knowledge, and all beings conversant with Truth, were seen bowing down unto that Supreme Preceptor, that great Father, that giver (or origin) of Yoga. Sanatkumara, the Vedas, the Histories, Marichi, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, the seven Manus, Soma, the Atharvans, and Vrihaspati, Bhrigu, Daksha, Kasyapa, Vasishtha, Kasya, the Schandas, Diksha, the Sacrifices, Dakshina, the Sacrificial Fires, the Havis (clarified butter) poured in sacrifices, and all the requisites of the sacrifices, were beheld by me, O Yudhishthira, standing there in their embodied forms. All the guardians of the worlds, all the Rivers, all the snakes, the mountains, the celestial Mothers, all the spouses and daughters of the celestials, thousands upon thousands and millions of ascetics, were seen to bow down to that puissant Lord who is the soul of tranquillity. The Mountains, the Oceans, and the Points of the compass also did the same, the Gandharvas and the Apsaras highly skilled in music, in celestial strains, sang and hymned the praises of Bhava who is full of wonder. The Vidyadharas, the Danavas, the Guhyakas, the Rakshasas, and all created beings, mobile and immobile, adorned, in thought, word and deed, that puissant Lord. Before me, that Lord of all the godsviz., Sarva, appeared seated in all his glory. Seeing that Isana had showed himself to me bybeing seated in glory before my eyes, the whole universe, with the Grandsire and Sakra, looked at me”.

Same depiction exists in Shiva Gita from Padma Purana where Mahadeva appears before Sri Rama and discourses him the Gita called as Siva Gita. This narration of Shiva’s entire family appearing before Rama is beautifully depicted there as well (refer to Shiva Gita chapter 04 verse 20 onwards in my article titled “Shiva Gita Ch 04: Shiva Praadurbhaavam”).

The idea behind this point of mine is to tell one simple fact – the way there is no differences seen between Shiva and his sons Skanda and Ganesha in terms of superiority, and people worship ganesha and Skanda without wanting to see them above Mahadeva in superiority; in the same way, why Vishnu and Brahma are also the sons of Uma-Maheshwara, but unfortunately the devotees of Vishnu always want their favorite lord to be seated above the position of Mahadeva, for which they devise so many ill-minded strategies, create so many fake scriptures, distort the meanings of original scriptures while doing translations and spread false theories to make Mahadeva a demi-god. They do not keep any stone unturned in this mission of sinful conduct.

The question is why… Why can’t they peacefully worship that great god Vishnu without trying to make Maheshwara his servant? Why can’t they look at the sweet and divine pastimes of Narayana instead of searching for superiority related verses? Only God knows the answers!

9.1. Ganesha & Kartikeya Swaroopam


As analyzed in previous sections that Vishnu and Brahma are the most superior and exhalted sons of Rudra and Bhavani. Brahma manifested from the right side of Rudra and Vishnu was born from Rudra’s left side. Rudra’s left side being Uma who is of the aspect of Amruta (nectar representing coolness), Vishnu is also of the form of nectar and is same as Uma in male form. On the other hand Rudra being of the aspect of Agni, Brahma is also of the aspect of Agni.
Puranas consider Ganesha as Vishnu-Swaroopam (as a form of Vishnu). Why? Neither Parvati gave birth to Ganesha by taking any boons from Vishnu nor is Vishnu said to incarnate as a son of Parvati. But still Puranas unanimously call Ganesha as the form of Vishnu. Did you know why? I am sure those who read this entire article till now, whould have understood the reason. However, let me do my duty of explaining it here.

If we read Puranas narrating Ganesha’s birth, they clearly state that Goddess Parvati created him solely from the dirt of her body.  This implies Ganesha was purely born from Bhavani alone. Parvati who is Uma is the left half of Mahadeva’s body, and just for our sake they look as separate individuals but they are always inseparable and united with each other. Therefore Ganesha who is Paravti’s manifestation, is also a manifestation of Bhagawan Rudra’s left side.

We learnt in earlier sections that Vishnu also manifested from Rudra’s left side and hence shruti declares Vishnu as a male form of Uma. The birth of Ganesha being identical to the birth of Vishnu, both are of equally masculine manifestations of goddess Uma alone. This is why Ganesha is considered as of the form of Vishnu.

Now Kartikeya was born from Rudra’s seed via Ganga’s womb implanted by Agni. Ganga couldn’t tolerate the heat of that foetus and she aborted him without letting him develop inside her fully. So, it’s as good as to say that Skanda didn’t develop inside womb fully, therefore he is Shiva’s direct manifestation.Rudra himself is of the form of Primordial-fire, hence his direct manifestation (son) who was Skanda is called ‘Agni-Swaroopa’. Skanda always blazes like fire because he is of the form of Agni (Rudra).

We have seen earlier that Brahma was born from Rudra’s right portion which is of the aspect of Agni. Therefore even Skanda is Agni as like as Brahma.

How beautiful is Mahadeva and mother Uma’s love for their primary children viz. Brahma and Vishnu that even they created their subsequent children viz. Skanda and Ganesha in the same manner as like as their primary ones!

10. Vishnu being of Uma’s form is the ideal follower of Rudra as like as Uma


Vaishnavite scriptures always try to forcefully make Mahadeva a greatest Vaishnava calling him as the foremost devotee of Vishnu. But do they stick to that definition also? Never! If you are devoted to Vishnu, how lovingly you should handle a person whom you consider the foremost devotee of your beloved God? Unfortunately, the same mouths which call Mahadeva as a greatest vaishnava,on other occasions same mouths rebukes and abuses him of all nonsensical stuff as – demi-god, worthy of worshiping only by ghosts, not worsipable by men of satwik qualities, he is a deity who can grant only material comforts and not liberation…and what’s not!
But all their claims are founded on unauthentic Puranic portions and their specifically crafted scriptures. The fact is, it is not Shiva who is a foremost Vaishnava, but rather it is the other way round. It is Vishnu who is the foremost Shaiva.

Vishnu, who sprang from Rudra’s left half, is always devoted to his parents – Uma and Rudra.We have seen in earlier sections of this article, how closely Vishnu is devoted to his mother Uma that he imitates his mother’s deeds in his deeds –

Uma spans the three inner worlds as Kundalini; Vishnu repeated the same deed in outer worlds as Vamana. It’s Uma who engendered Rudra’s seed as a golden embryo (Hiranyagarbha) and created offsprings within that womb of universe. Vishnu imitated her actions by supporting the presiding deity of Hiranyagarbha viz. Brahma on the lotus stalk (representing umbilical cord) from his own navel. This means Uma sustained the universe within herself, Vishnu sustains that universe thereafter

Now, coming to Vishnu’s relation with Rudra; under the light of authentic scriptures I can say that Vishnu is the greatest Shaiva. He is the foremost devotee of his sire viz. Rudra! Vishnu always meditates on Rudra and has succeeded to gain the all-pervasiveness of this universe by the grace of Rudra.

“sarvakaraNAni manasi saMpratiShThApya dhyAna.n viShNuH prANaM manasi saha karaNaiH saMpratiShThApya dhyAtA rudraH prANaM manasi sahakaraNairnAdAnte paramAtmani saMpratiShThApya dhyAyIteshAnaM pradhyAyitavya.n sarvamidaM |” (Atharvashika Upanishad 2:1)
“The pranava (the sound of Om) makes all the souls to bow before it. It is the one and only one which has to be meditated upon as the four Vedas and the birth place of all devas. One who meditates like that goes away from all sorrows and fears and gets the power to protect all others who approach him. It is because of this meditation only that Lord Vishnu who is spread every where, wins over all others. It is because Lord Brahma controlled all his organs and meditated upon it, he attained the position of the creator. Even Lord Vishnu , parks his mind in the sound (Om) of the place of Paramathma (ultimate soul) and meditates upon Eeshana, who is most proper to be worshipped. All this is only proper in case of Eeshana”.

Even Mahabharata reaffirms the same Upanishadic truth as follows:

“esha vidhwan guna sreshto Vishnu parama durjaya |
divya chakshur maha theja veekshyathe yoga chakshsha |” (MBH 13:14:9)
“That Vishnu who knows every thing, who has greatest qualities, who cannot be won over by anybody, who has special holy sight, and who is greatly resplendent, sees him (Rudra) by his eyes of yoga”.

Because Vishnu is a manifestation of Rudra and inherits Uma’s qualities and properties; this Vishnu always remained devoted to his father Rudra as like as Uma is devotes herself by her love for Mahadeva. Under the grace of Mahadeva, by the power of extreme Shiva-Bhakti, this Vishnu always functions. This is another great evidence to understand the inheritance of Uma’s qualities in Vishnu because there is none who is as greatly attached to Mahadeva as Uma.

Let’s see some more references on this point of Vishnu’s single minded devotion for Ishana. Whether is be Vishnu or his incarnation Krishna, in every form, in every Yuga Narayana always attached himself to Mahadeva with his bhakti, and thereby he became successful in pervading the universe and also became successful in obtaining the universal agreeableness.

Narayana was a great devotee of Lord Shiva. He once desired to become all pervading; hence he desired to become one with Purusha (Rudra). For that he observed Purusha Medha sacrifice and did penance for Lord Shiva after that by the grace of the Lord Shiva who is the Purusha of vedas he became one with him hence gained the special quality of pervading the entire universe and attained universal agreeableness. This is depicted in the following verses of scriptures.

“puruṣo ha nārāyaṇo’kāmayata atitiṣṭheyaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtānyahamevedaṃ sarvaṃ | syāmiti sa etam puruṣamedham pañcarātram | yajñakratumapaśyattamāharattenāyajata teneṣṭvātyatiṣṭhatsarvāṇi bhūtānīdaṃ | sarvamabhavadatitiṣṭhati sarvāṇi bhūtānīdaṃ sarvam bhavati ya evam | vidvānpuruṣamedhena yajate yo vaitadevam veda |” (Satapatha Brahmana 13.6.1.1)
“Purusha Narayana desired, ‘Would that I overpassed all beings !would that I alone were everything- here (this universe) !’ He beheld this ‘five days’ sacrificial performance, the Purushamedha and took it and performed offering therewith ; and having performed offering therewith, he overpassed all beings, and became everything here. And, verily, he who, knowing this, performs the Purushamedha, or who even knows this, overpasses all beings, and becomes everything here.”

Same has been stated in Mahabharata saying, by getting pleased with Narayana’s penance Mahadeva appeared and gave him the boon of becoming overspread soul.

“matprasādān manuṣyeṣu devagandharvayoniṣu aprameyabalātmā tvaṃ nārāyaṇa bhaviṣyasi |” (MBH 7:172:74)
“‘O Narayana, through my grace, amongst men, gods, and Gandharvas, thou shalt be of immeasurable might and soul”.

Here ‘aprameyātmā’ means immesurable soul which is nothing but all pervasiveness. So, Narayana rishi gained all pervasive quality from Lord Shiva’s devotion by becoming one with Shiva the Purusha of Vedas. Since the same sage Narayana incarnates as Krishna in every Kalpa in Dwapara, Bheeshma mentioned the same about Krishna in the following way.

“Rudra bhakthya thu krishnena jagat vyaptham mahathmana |
Tham prasadhya thadha devam bhadaryam kila bharatha |
Arthath priya harathwam cha sarva lokeshu vai yadhaa |
Prapthavaaneva rajendra suvarnaakshan maheswaraath |” (MBH 13:14:10-11)
“It is in consequence of the devotion of the high-souled Krishna to the illustrious Rudra whom he gratified. O Bharata, in the retreat of Vadari, by penances, that he has succeeded in pervading the entire universe. O king of kings, it is through Maheswara of celestial vision that Vasudeva has obtained the attribute of universal agreeableness,–an agreeableness that is much greater than what is possessed by all articles included under the name of wealth”.

“yuge yuge thu krushnena thoshitho vai maheswara |
Bhakthya paramaya chaiva prathi sruthwa mahatmana |” (MBH 13:14:13)
“In every new Yuga has Krishna (by such penances) gratified Mahadeva. In every Yuga has Mahadeva been gratified with the great devotion of the high-souled Krishna”.

Even Veda Vyasa narrated the same about Kesava to Ashwatthama in Drona Parva as follows.

“sa eṣa rudra bhaktaś ca keśavo rudra saṃbhavaḥ | sarvabhūtabhavaṃ jñātvā liṅge ‘rcayati yaḥ prabhum | tasminn abhyadhikāṃ prītiṃ karoti vṛṣabhadhvajaḥ |” (MBH 7:172:89-90)
“Kesava is that devoted worshipper of Rudra who has sprung from Rudra himself. The Lord Kesava always worshippeth Siva in the phallic emblem as the origin of all creatures. The God having the bull for his mark cherisheth greater regard for Kesava”.

Even if you see the boons asked by Krishna to Mahadeva, one of them would make you understand the devotion and love what Krishna had in his heart for Maheshwara. Krishna asks one of the boon as “tava saṃnikarṣaṃ | (MBH 13:16:2)” which means, “[O Lord Shiva] grant me the boon of your adjacence (close connection with)”.

Due to such high devotion of Vishnu for Rudra, Mahadeva cherishes great love for him. In fact Shiva tells in Mahabharata how dear Krishna is to his heart as follows.

“satyaśaucārjava tyāgais tapasā niyamena ca | kṣāntyā bhaktyā ca dhṛtyā ca buddhyā ca vacasā tathā | yathāvad aham ārāddhaḥ kṛṣṇenākliṣṭakarmaṇā | tasmād iṣṭatamaḥ kṛṣṇād anyo mama na vidyate  |” (MBH 10.07.60-61)
“With truth, purity, sincerity, resignation, ascetic austerities, vows, forgiveness, devotion, patience, thought, and word, I have been duly adored by Krishna of pure deeds. For this there is none dearer to me than Krishna”.

What else could be a greater example that Sri Rama’s life to set an example of how closely Vishnu follows Shiva? It’s a huge topic and has been covered as a different article by me. One can read the article titled, “Sita-Rama Tatwam – A Replica of Shiva-Shakti Tatwam

Did you see how closely Vishnu is attached to Shiva as like as Uma? Now think and tell yourself what would be the end of those people who say they are devoted to Vishnu and at the same time insult mahadeva with thought, word and deed? We have seen that Vishnu tatwam is identical to Uma tatwam; therefore when Vishnu in his original form as Devi once in the form of Sati couldn’t tolerate hearing Shiva abuses by Daksha and felt that after hearing insulting remarks on Shiva it is not appropriate to live with that body; burnt herself to ashes through the power of Yoga.

Now the very same Sati manifested herself as a male god Vishnu. Bodily Vishnu looks like a different deity, but within him dwells the self of Uma. So, how do you shiva-abusing-vishnu-devottes think your devotion would be accepted by Vishnu?

That Vishnu who in the form of Sati burnt herself being intolerable to the Shaiva-Aparadha of daksha and by that act she gained two purposes, one – she couldn’t kill Daksha being his own daughter so she burnt herself; two – by burning herself, she ensured the devastation of sinner Daksha in Mahadeva’s hands. She was a lady, a tender hearted mother of all, so she punished herself of listening to Shiva abuse; but Vishnu being a male god I cannot expect him to burn himself, but one thing I’m sure of is – he would ensure for his devotees who abuse Shiva that all those candidatesaspiring of recruitment in Vaikunta would be recruited in ‘naraka corporation’ whose CEO is the most terrible personality named ‘Yama’.

This is why O Shiva-hating-Vishnu-devotees! Your beloved satwik purana ‘Padma Purana’ itself mentions about the right path for you all. In Padma Purana Sri Rama says:

“ye twam Surottama Gurum Purushaa vimudhaa | Jaananti nasya Jagatah Sacharaa –charasya | Ishwaryamaana nigamaanushyena | Paschaathey yatanaam twanubhavantya vishuddhichitthaah |” (Padma Purana)
“Maha Deva! Those impure hearted persons who take pride in their wealth, egotism and so-called knowledge and not realise who the Greatest Master really is, shall regret after Mrityu and on reaching Naraka, but thenthat would be too late!”

11. FINAL VERDICT


With this extensive analysis we have seen that in Vedas the one divinity that is glorified under the pseudo name of ‘Vishnu’ is goddess Tripurasundari – the supreme origin of all origins. Vedas sing her glories under Vishnu’s name because Vishnu is her masculine manifestation since Vishnu manifested from Rudra’s left side and Rudra’s left side is the residence of Tripurasundari.
Vishnu’s three steps praised in Rig Veda are not his steps in reality, rather, hey are the three milestones achieved by Tripurasundari as Kundalini while ascending upwards. Those three milestones are piercing through – Brahma granthi, Vishnu granthi and Rudra granthi respectively. Vishnu’s loftiest station (parama padam) which is praised beyond limits in Vedas is not his abode in reality; rather, it is the original abode of Shiva and Tripurasundari and is called as ‘Sahasrara’. The milk that flows from Vishnu so called supreme abode is nothing but the Soma (nectar) of immortality and Brahmagyanam which drips from Sahasrara after Kundalini enters Sahasrara. Vritra slaying process described in Rig Veda is not the Puranic story; rather it is the slaying of Avidya (ignorance) within us during the process of realization through Kundalini awakening.

Vishnu being the son of Tripurasundari and Shiva inheriting the qualities of Uma, he always imitates Uma in his deeds and being of Uma’s nature, he always devotes himself to Shiva and follows him dutifully.

Therefore, all scriptures sing the glory of Mahadeva (and Uma) alone under various names including those of their manifestations. It is we who treat the secondary names as true and forget the origin of all origins viz. Mahadeva! Shaktas worship lord Maheshwara’s left half, Vaishnavas worship lord Shiva’s left half’s male form; whatever be the path adopted, know that everyone would reach Mahadeva’s feet alone!

Well, before concluding, let’s see few verses from Lalita Sahasranama Stotram and understand that she is actually hidden in Vedas.

“Chandahsara shastrasara mantrasara talodari | Udarakirti ruddama vaibhava varna rupini | (LS verse 158)
“She, Lalita, who is the essence of all Vedas, who is the essence of all Shastras (Scriptures), who is the source of all Mantras, who, though slender of waist, contains within Herself all the worlds, whose fame extends everywhere, who is boundless in Her might and glory, whose form is denoted by the letters (akshara)”.

“stutimati shruti samstuta vaibhava |” (LS verse 172)
“She Lalita, who is worthy of hymns of praise, whose glory is praised by the Vedas”.

“Shruti simanta sinduri krutapadabja dhulika |” (LS verse 68)
“The dust of whose feet are borne on their head by the Shruti Devatas (Vedas personified as goddesses), who prostrate before Her and thereby colour Her feet with the vermilion marks of their foreheads”.

Saluting that sweet and loving mother of mine viz. Lalita Tripurasundari Devi who is the female aspect of my father Bhagawan Shiva and is one with him as Ardhanareeshwari, I offer this entire article to her and submit it at her lotus feet. O My mother Bhavani, when Upanishads themselves say that you are beyond the fourth (Turiya), how can I with my limited congnition comprehend you without your grace? O my mother Ambike, If I could see and locate your presence in Vedas in the guise of Vishnu, even though Vedas tried their best to hide you under that pseudonym; then it is not my glory O my mother; it is purely your compassion, that you chose me as your instrument to reveal about yourself to this world. O Mother, I even do not believe that I could write such a lengthy article, which looks like a ‘laghu-grantha (mini scripture)’ on your presence in Vedas; however, what I strongly believe is – it is you, who used my brain to put your thoughts, it is you who used my fingers to type, but being a selfless mother you gave that authorship to me! O Bhavani! O mother mine! I offer entire credit of this work to you, kindly accept it with all your love for me. However, due to my limited understanding, due to my human nature, due to ignorance if I could not grasp your teachings to your expected levels, if I couldn’t reproduce your instructions in the way you desired for, then I accept all such shortcomings as purely my mistakes and pray you to kindly ignore them considering the fact that, I am still your newborn infant fallen in this grown up body by mistake!

|| shrI mAtrE nAmaH | Etat sarvam sri umA mahEswara parabrahmArpanamastu ||

 


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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)

Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula, is 'षण्मातुरः' or 'षण्णां मातृणां पुत्रः' in detail, which means 'The son of six (divine) mothers' as he considers the six great goddesses viz. Parvati, Ganga, Lakshmi, Bhudevi, Saraswati, and Gayatri, as his own mothers, and sees himself as an infant in their laps. Together with their respective consorts he considers them as his own parents. He considers their children such as Ganesha, Skanda, Sanatkumara, Narada, Pradyumna etc., as his own siblings; in fact, not different from himself. He loves these six mothers very dearly, and equally loves the divine fathers; however, he has offered his 'devotion' only to Mahadeva! Hence he stands for lord Shiva safeguarding him from his haters. One would know him better from his writings.
Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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66 Comments

  1. arun subbe

    All my doubts have been smashed to bits. You are rendering yeoman service to our Dharma.
    Your exposition of Mohini Tatwam is the answer and the counter I was looking for all these days to get it across Shiva haters.
    Please throw more light on why Bhagwan Shiva blessed Bhasmasura to the point of endangering himself. The common criticism hurled at our dear Lord is that he is reckless in giving away boons to asuras.

    Reply
  2. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Dear Arun,

    Lord Shiva is not reckless, he is the greatest preceptor, his Bhasmasura episode has a deep tatwam behind that. I'll explain that in my article where i'll refute such common misunderstandings. However, owing to my busy work life and also since i'm persuing higher studies in parallen to job, my valuable spiritual time is getting eaten up. therefore, please expect some delays in articles. I am awae of all such bogus allegations on Mahadeva, which I already have plans to refute.

    Please keep visiting this blog at least once in a moth, hopefully if god permits, i might succeed to publish one article per month. May god make that happen.

    Reply
  3. arun subbe

    ISKCON guys claim that Adi Shankara had proclaimed Krishna as Brahman. As far as I know Advaitha talks of formless or nirguna Brahman. What is the basis for such a fantastic claim?

    Reply
  4. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    I know the source of this clam. It is from the commentary on BG 7.19., where he stated vAsudEVA as Brahman. But iskonites took that at literal sense. Please refer to my analysis of BG 7.19 in my article “hidden secrets of bhagawad gita revealed-5”.

    Reply
  5. Mad MaddY

    Mind blowing! I have not digested this fully though, but truly a great one from you brother.
    I have few doubts to be clarified here,actually claims from ISCKON friends;
    a)yo brahmanam vidadhati purvam yo vai vedams ca gapayati sma krsnah[atharva veda]
    -It was Krsna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past

    b)atha puruso ha vai narayano 'kamayata prajah srjeyety upakramya[atharva veda]
    -Then the Supreme Personality Narayana desired to create living entities

    c)narayanad brahma jayate, narayanad prajapatih prajayate, narayanad indro jayate, narayanad astau vasavo jayante, narayanad ekadasa rudra jayante, narayanad dvadasadityah[atharva veda]
    -From Narayana, Brahma is born, and from Narayana, the patriarchs are also born. From Narayana, Indra is born, from Narayana the eight Vasus are born, from Narayana the eleven Rudras are born, from Narayana the twelve Adityas are born

    d)eko vai narayana asin na brahma na isano napo nagni-samau… [break] … dyav-aprthivi na naksatrani na suryah sa ekaki na ramate tasya dhyanantah sthasya yatra chandogaih kriyamanastakadi-samjnaka stuti-stomah stomam ucyate[atharva veda]
    -In the beginning of the creation there was only the Supreme Personality Narayana. There was no Brahma, no Siva, no fire, no moon, no stars in the sky, no sun. There was only Krsna, who creates all and enjoys all

    e)rajapatim ca rudram capy aham eva srjami vai tau hi mam na vijanito mama maya-vimohitau [Moksa-dharma, Mahabharata]
    -'The patriarchs, Siva and others are created by Me, though they do not know that they are created by Me because they are deluded by My illusory energy

    f)narayanah paro devas tasmaj jatas caturmukhah tasmad rudro 'bhavad devah sa ca sarva-jnatam gatah [Varaha Purana]
    -Narayana is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and from Him Brahma was born, from whom Siva was born.

    Hope you can explain the real essences of the above verses. Also, the krsnah mentioned in atharva veda; is it as a quality? I've read in your BG articles that krishna is not vedic but vishnu is, so please explain this too.

    Very eager to get the true meaning of these claims from you brother. Thank you in advance.

    Reply
  6. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    The krishna related verses are from Gopalatapini Upanishad. I'll explain that when i write article on upanishads. Regarding the second bunch of verses on narayana, they already have been analyzed in the article, “narayana suktam – a hymn to tripurasudnari devi”. All those references actually refer to Uma and not Vishnu.

    Reply
  7. arun subbe

    While reading about Lord Venkateshwara on this blog I was reminded of Appaya Dikshatar. He was refused entry into the shrine on account of his Shaiva beliefs by the priests. To their shock those priests found Lord Shiva in place of Venkateshwara when the shrine was opened the next morning.
    Dikshatar was Parameshwara himself who had taken human form to protect his devotees. When Govindraja Swamy was reinstalled at Thillai Nataraja temple after nearly 4 centuries Dikshatar was the only one who offered his full support inspite of huge opposition.

    Reply
  8. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Really blessed to know about these details. Great is God's leela and any true devotee (be it Shaiva or Vaishnava) would be recognized by God for sure. Only thing is the hearts should not be tarnished with ill feelings for others.

    Thanks friend for posting such a heart touching incident. God bless you!

    Reply
  9. Mad MaddY

    Thank you for the explanation brother. I will read up the 'narayana suktam' article soon. Also looking forward for your article on Upanishads.

    Reply
  10. Indiaspirituality Amrut

    Namaste,

    This is a very indepth article. Of course Yog, symbolism, esoteric explanation goes hand in hand. There are books like each human body is Bhagavat Gita by Paramhansa Hariharananda of Kriya Yoga.

    This article is very vast and many would quit before reaching end (like me). I Think that this article should be split into a series of articles, so that we can read them one by one, in spare time. Reading the whole at a stretch is difficult and time consuming, specially when it is dealing with in-depth analysis and contains many verses from veda-s and upanishads. Splitting up articles would be helpful, as we can read one article for 5-10 minutes and later on continue from where I have. Also discusing the whole articles would be difficult as it covers many topics.

    Aum

    Amrut

    Reply
  11. Indiaspirituality Amrut

    Namaste,

    I wonder if Vishnu is Tripurasundari, then who is Laxmi Mata

    Aum

    Reply
    1. According to Mārkaņđeya Purāņa, Paramā Prakřti had taken three forms in former times- Mahākālī, Mahālakşmī and Mahāsarasvatī. The three are threefold forms of Caņđīrūpiņī Devī Durgā, whose Bhairava is Dakşiņamūrtirūpi Sadāśiva. These Devīs further assumed a male and a female form each-

      1. Mahākālī became Śiva and Sarasvatī
      2. Mahālakşmī became Brahmā and Lakşmī
      3. Mahāsarasvatī became Vişņu and Umā.

      Thereafter, Sarasvatī (Mahākālī) paired with Brahmā (Mahālakşmī), Lakşmī (Mahālakşmī) paired with Vişņu (Mahāsarasvatī) and Umā (Mahāsarasvatī) paired with Śiva (Mahākālī).

      Again, Caņdikā of Tańtras is Gāyatrī of Vedas, whose Bhairava is Savitar-rūpi Mārtaņđa Bhairava and who is propitiated by Brahmins in Her threefold forms- Sańdhyā, Sarasvatī and Sāvitrī.

      Keeping these in mind, do we reach the conclusion of who is who?
      Ādyāśakti alone knows, for cotton yarn doesn’t cease to be cotton even after being woven into fabric.

      śrī śrī guptadharmaprakāśinyē nama: ll

      Reply
  12. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Namaste Amrut ji,

    I understand your point, however, when it comes to this kind of lengthy works of mine, they usually contain mutual links and cross references among the various sections within the same article. SO, it would be tough for me to put this content in multiple articles and it would be tougher for the readers to navigate back and forth between the articles.

    So, when it becomes feasible i try to culminate my article in short passages itself as you can see. But this kind of articles are hard to manage in multiple posts.

    Reply
  13. Indiaspirituality Amrut

    Namaste Santosh ji.

    Fair enough. I agree.

    Reply
  14. Indiaspirituality Amrut

    Namaste Santosh bhai,

    sa eṣa rudra bhaktaś ca keśavo rudra saṃbhavaḥ | sarvabhūtabhavaṃ jñātvā liṅge 'rcayati yaḥ prabhum | tasminn abhyadhikāṃ prītiṃ karoti vṛṣabhadhvajaḥ |” (MBH 7:172:89-90)

    “Kesava is that devoted worshipper of Rudra who has sprung from Rudra himself. The Lord Kesava always worshippeth Siva in the phallic emblem as the origin of all creatures. The God having the bull for his mark cherisheth greater regard for Kesava”.

    Please do not use the word phallic emblem. Please use 'Linga' or 'Shiva Linga', which represents formless Brahman.

    Namah Shivaya

    Reply
  15. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Namaste,

    As per my understanding, Vishnu in “Vishnu Suktas' is an epithet which superficially glorifies Vishnu but at tatwika level reveals hidden secrets of Kudnalini and Yoga hence the name 'Vishnu' when is an epithet identifying Tripurasudnari.
    Also, if we go by puranas like Kurma and Brahmanda, it's clearly stated that Vishnu is a masculine manifestation of Tripurasudnari. So, Vishnu is male form of Uma. Even in Shiva Purana it's stated that Vishnu manifested from the left side of Shiva, and hence it indicates that left side being Uma's place Vishnu is masculine form of Uma. Of course Shiva Purana itself elsewhere says Shiva is in the form of Vishnu and Uma in the form of Lakshmi and same is stated in upanishads also (atharvashika/siras, rudrahridaya etc), but there is no contradiction anywhere in these seemingly contradictory passages.
    There is only one Purusha who is Shiva and all others are Prakriti as stated in Shiva Purana. Even Vedas call Shiva as Purusha “purushO vai rudrah”. Hence Vishnu is also Shiva's shakti and also Laxmi is shakti. At translactional level we may count all male forms as Shiva and all females as shakti's forms, but at absolute level except shiva all are prakriti hence can be counted as Uma's forms, and therefore yes, Vishnu is shiva's form and laxmi Uma's form and at the same time Vishnu is Uma's male form as well. Scriptures support both these views and therefore they are not contradictory but are truths at different planes.

    I'm sorry due to lack of free time, not able to provide verses to explain above message properly.

    Regs

    Reply
  16. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    All these contradictions cease to exist when we know that Shiva and Uma (tripurasudnari) are also not two but one and the same Ardhanareeshwara. Therefore Shiva's left portion manifested as Vishnu => Shiva is in the form of Vishnu at the same time when we see Shiva and Uma as two then Uma's form in Vishnu.
    So, Shiva is Uma, Shiva is Vishnu, Shiva is Laxmi, Shiva is Brahma, Shiva is Saraswati……Even in Shiva Gita from padma Purana Shiva says that 'Hari, Brahma, Parvati, Skanda, ganesha, Indra etal all are his forms'.
    Mahabharata also says “all masculine forms are that of Maheswara and all feminine forms are that of Ujma”, And again Taittiriya Aranyaka and also Puranas, Mahabharata identify Uma and SHiva as one -Ardhanareeshwara. SO, there culminates all differences, there ends all dualities and one truth that shines is as revealed by the great rishi Svetaswatara — “all forms are his (Shiva) forms all faces are his faces, all feet are his feet” (Svetaswatara Upanishad).

    Reply
  17. Indiaspirituality Amrut

    Namaste,

    I agree with Shiva = Vishnu and like you, I a smArta, am not comfortable when someone denigrates Shiva or calls Shaivism as non-vedic. Shiva Gita is indeed unique and definitely worth studying, I like chapter 10.

    Reply
  18. sohini

    i have yet to read the whole article but i have a few questions
    1. in vamana purana (if i remember correctly) it is said that ganga originated from the footwash water of vamana vishnu with which vali washed vamana’s feet, and shiv holds this footwash water (ganga) in his locks. This is clearly stated to deglorify mahadev, can you give any details on this
    2. can you justify the insult to mahadev by wikipedia ehen you search for saranga bow in wiki (this version also exit in valmiki ramayan i think)
    3. in brahma samhita it is clearly stated that Vishnu is MILK and Shiva is CURD (originates from milk), curd is nothing lyk milk, it is a form of milk only, plz justify this in your blog, also Prabhupada has used this info manytimes to insult shiv
    4. this ISKCON society (mainly prabhupada’s “PHILOSOPHY”)is continuously deglorifying mahadeva, plz raise your voice about this in your blog too

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      if you read this whole article, many of the queries would get auto-closed. And regarding the interpretations of the anti-shiva folks – such interpretations need to be ignored. If shiva carried Ganga on his head that is because there was none who could do so. If Ganga’s current was allowed without diminishing one Earth, earth would have broken due to her force. hence Mahadeva had to intervene and slice her force down. Secondly, valmiki Ramayana itself states that “Ganga” gained the power of “sin-cleansing” because of the “touch” of lord Shiva. So, who made the waters of Vishnu’s feet holy? Answer is – Shiva! For benefiting the univese SHiva can do anything and he doesn’t care about Supremacy issues – it’s we humans (includes me also) who are actually doing such fights.

      Saranga bow relatd story is not be taken at its face value. In fact Shiva ahd long abck given boons to narayana saying that “if ever narayana has to fight with Shiva, Narayana would be victorious”. It is all Shiva’s love that he spares all his devotees and makes them look greater than him. Otherwise who can dare to even bear the very smell of mahadeva’s enraged form?

      Brahma samhita is a bogus text – need not worry about what it says.

      ISKCON’s philosophy is something which even their own vaishnavite brotheren do not admire, so, it’s not even worth on my part to write anything about them. In fact, ISKCON is not “Hinduism”, their religion is “hareKrishnas”. It is prabhupada hismelf who declared so. Therefore it is not our religion, hence different from Hinduism. So, we need not care for what they say.

      Reply
      1. Kamarup Kamakhya Devi

        I would like to add few more things regarding this:

        1) Prabhupada (born Abhayacharan Dey) was a Shudra who never underwent an Upanayan ceremony which could have authorised him to write Bhashyams on Bhagavad Gita and Srimad Bhagavatam.

        2) ISKCONites claim they belong to Brahma Sampradaya of Vaishnavism and their philosophy ‘Achintya Bhedabheda’ is a Vedantic school, a sharp contrast to the fact that ISKCONites consider their bogus books like Brahma Samhita and Chaitanya Charanamrita superior to Vedas and Puranas.

        3) Brahma Samhita is a 16th century book, apparently found by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in a Keralite Krishna temple. God knows what makes this mere temple book so special!

        Reply
        1. Nataraja Das

          1)Prabhupada was authorised by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati
          2)Belonging to the sampradaya is not by claims, but by acts, qualities. Many ISKCONites do not belong to anything, because they do not follow, they even do not try to follow what is thought them. But many of the BELONG and are real representants of vedic knowledge and lifestyle, strictly following rules and regulations and siddhanta. Its the same like dasyas and aryas. Dasyas are avratas – they refuse, they do not want to follow Manu Laws, but aryas – they are dhruvaso – humble ones, who accept Laws of Manu, as it is said in Rgveda. So – this is qualification.
          3) You speak like westerner – Rgveda 1500 BCE book, Brahma samhita 16th book, Dhanurveda 19th century book… No – Brahma samhita is complete vedic text, describing everything exactly – according vedic knowledge and goal and meaning, and thus should be accepted by followers of the vedas. Apaurusheya.

          Reply
          1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

            If you think brahma Samhita is authentic, then please do so. The reality is however that it is not. And that may hurt you, so let me allow you to follow it if it pleases your heart. Thanks!

          2. Karthick

            Only 1 chapter of Brahma Samhita was found by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. It is said that there are 100 chapters and there is only the 5th chapter which contains 62 slokas. There might be other chapters in the Brahma Samhita which are not known. They might contain about Sada Shiva or Adi Sakthi Mata.

        2. sohini

          iskcon claims brahma samhita was written by badarayan who was actually vedvyas, don’t know why they keep coming up with all thei “made up” stories

          Reply
        3. sohini

          true

          Reply
      2. Nataraja Das

        Also, claiming that Brahma samhita is bogus text did not give greatness to shaiva bhakta. By which standarts – bogus? If we are honest – we have one enemy – christian, muslim, western or communist translators, scientists or other usurpators of the knowledge, who forced us to accept their point of view, by forgetting the original point of view of vedas. Vedas never declares that there are something like HINDUISM. Sanatana dharma, but not hinduism. Different agamas, shcools of knowledge, different processes – like vandanam, sravanam, kirtanam, dasyam, arcanam – BUT NOT HINDUISM. Correct me please if I am wrong. This is westerners idea – hinduism, completely nonvedic way of thinking, which brings only chaos – this is so called knowledge. andham tamah pravisanti ye vidyam upasate tato bhuya iva te tamo ya u vidyayam ratah

        Reply
    2. Nataraja Das

      If you read Brahma samhita then read it in the whole, by not taking out things of contest. There is said, that if someone claims that Vishnu or Shiva are different – He is offender. I mean diminishes the greatness of Shiva or Vishnu – He is offender.
      Second one – Brahma Samhita is translated by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati maharaja, not Srila Prabhupada

      Reply
      1. Could you tell me which Purāņa or Tańtra has the story of Mahādeva laying on Kālikā’s path when She had wrecked a killing spree after slaying Raktabīja?
        Prabhupada often quoted the aforementioned story.

        Reply
  19. Nataraja Das

    And if we talk about your article – there are certain flaws. First flaw is that you use translation of westerners, like Griffith and Muller and so on. Every verse which you cite can be translated in accompaniation with other truths and relevances. For example – tad visnoh paramam padam. Somehow you make distance, differenciation between Visnu and his abode. Which is apasiddhantic
    sambhūtiṁ ca vināśaṁ ca yas tad vedobhayaṁ saha
    vināśena mṛtyuṁ tīrtvā sambhūtyāmṛtam aśnute

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      I don’t buy ISKONite interpretations. Griffith and Muller have done a better job that ISKONites. 🙂

      Reply
      1. sohini

        u r gr8 santoshji 🙂

        Reply
  20. Subhasis Dey

    In this Article, the meaning of ‘Hiranyagarbha’ or the Golden Womb has been stated as the the Gross Universe ( ”Puranas explain the creation as the children of Brahma, and Brahma is nothing but this entire universe shaped into an egg form which is called ‘Hiranyagarbha (golden womb)’. And the creation actually happens within thisHiranyagarbha (gross universe)” , vide sub Article 4 : Explaining Vishnu’s Origin and his relationship with Uma-Maheshwara), But, in your Article ‘Narayan Suktam A hymn to Tripurasundari Devi’, Hiranyagrabha has been stated as the sum total of minds. (“virAt” means the sum total of all gross bodies. “hiranyagarbha” is the sum total of all subtle bodies (minds)”. What then should I take for the real meaning of Hiranyagarbha ? Gross Universe includes the sum total of all the minds ( consciousness) and matter, but the sum total of mind does not include matter.

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      As highlighted in the notice at the beginning, the Narayana-suktam artcile needs to be re-written. SO, you are not advised to spend time reading it. Though it has nothing incorrect to need a re-write of it, but I want to enhance it with more concrete pramanas which lord has taught me in recent times. Hence a total rewrite of the same is what i am planning.

      Well, Hiranyagarbha is the gross physical universe, it is the sum total of all minds, and it is also the lord Brahma. These terms are used for different contextual meanings in different places. At physical sense gross universe is real, but in Vedantic sense hiranyagarbha is the cosmic-mind in which all the vasanas of jivas get stored. Vedantcially, there are three bodies of us and three corresponding cosmic aggregates of them as follows.
      1. Our gross body is “sthUla deha”, and the aggregate of all the gross bodies of the universe is called “virAT” the cosmic gross body
      2. Our subtle body (which is mind actually) is called “sUkshMa deha” or “linga deha”, and the aggregate of all the subtle bodies (minds) of the universe is called “hiraNyagarbha” the cosmic mind
      3. Our causal body is called “kAraNa deha”, and the aggregate of all the causal bodies of the universe is called “Ishvara” the cosmic causal agent.

      virAt = Vishnu, Hiranyagarbha = brahma, Ishvara = Maheshwara. The brahman (the fourth, turiya) is “Shiva”.

      Reply
    2. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      As highlighted in the notice at the beginning, the Narayana-suktam article needs to be re-written. So, you are not advised to spend time reading it. Though it has nothing incorrect to need a re-write of it, but I want to enhance it with more concrete pramanas which lord has taught me in recent times. Hence a total rewrite of the same is what i am planning.

      Well, Hiranyagarbha is the gross physical universe, it is the sum total of all minds, and it is also the lord Brahma. These terms are used for different contextual meanings in different places. At physical sense gross universe is real, but in Vedantic sense hiranyagarbha is the cosmic-mind in which all the vasanas of jivas get stored. Vedantcially, there are three bodies of us and three corresponding cosmic aggregates of them as follows.
      1. Our gross body is “sthUla deha”, and the aggregate of all the gross bodies of the universe is called “virAT” the cosmic gross body
      2. Our subtle body (which is mind actually) is called “sUkshMa deha” or “linga deha”, and the aggregate of all the subtle bodies (minds) of the universe is called “hiraNyagarbha” the cosmic mind
      3. Our causal body is called “kAraNa deha”, and the aggregate of all the causal bodies of the universe is called “Ishvara” the cosmic causal agent.

      virAt = Vishnu, Hiranyagarbha = brahma, Ishvara = Maheshwara. The brahman (the fourth, turiya) is “Shiva”.

      Reply
      1. Subhasis Dey

        Some scriptural verses say Lord Shiva assumes the form of Lord Vishnu ( Ref :“sá yád dákṣiṇāṃ díśam ánu vyácalad índro bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad bálam annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:2). Lord Vishnu, therefore, is none but Lord Shiva Himself. If that is true, then how can Lord Vishnu be the son of Lord Shiva ( as depicted in the Rig Vedic verse No. IX,96,5) ?

        Reply
        1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

          When something manifests from someone, it is verily the form as well as teh child.

          “AtmA vai putra nAmAsI’ is what upansihads say – which mean, “you yourself take birth as your son”, and a wife is called “jAyA” which means, “the one from whose womb you take birth again”. SO, your son is none other than you taking birth from your wife.

          Same logic applies there too. Vishnu is none other than Shiva, and at the same time he is Shiva’s son.

          Reply
  21. Subhasis Dey

    While going through the comments section of this Article, I came across a verse statedly from Atharva Veda cited by Mr. Mad Maddy which reads as :
    ” eko vai narayana asin na brahma na isano napo nagni-samau… [break] … dyav-aprthivi na naksatrani na suryah sa ekaki na ramate tasya dhyanantah sthasya yatra chandogaih kriyamanastakadi-samjnaka stuti-stomah stomam ucyate[atharva veda]
    -In the beginning of the creation there was only the Supreme Personality Narayana. There was no Brahma, no Siva, no fire, no moon, no stars in the sky, no sun. There was only Krsna, who creates all and enjoys all.”
    Is this verse authentic ? What is the verse number ? Please take note of the words “…na isano”. Has Lord Siva been mentioned here as ‘isano’? If this is true, then how is it possible that Lord Siva was not present at some time? Had there been any time when my beloved Father Lord Siva did not exist ? My interpretation is that ‘isano’ does not mean Lord Siva here or this verse is an interpolation into the Atharva Veda. I have learnt from a source that both Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu has a fixed life-span. Though the period is vast in terms of human standard of time, but at the end of every ‘Kalpa’ , they merge into Lord Siva. It is Lord Rudra/Siva only who remains constant down the ages along with my divine Mother Bhavani. He had always been present. He is always present and He will always remain present. I believe Lord Siva is beyond time. Could you find some reference from Veda in support of this ? I am extremely tormented to see the verse above. Please, deliver me from this mental distress as you always do.

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      Those verses are from mahopanishad. They are valid. It doesn’t talk about Vishnu (Narayana), but narayana there is Nirguna Shiva from whom Saguna Shiva as Isana manifests.

      Reply
      1. sUBHASIS dEY

        Could you please cite some verses from the Vedas where Lord Siva has been depicted as the one who is beyond time ?

        Reply
        1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

          Not aware of the exact reference, but Shiva being the brahman, he is the mahakala (supreme time), which is infinite expanse of continuous stretch of time. At the same time during creation time having three divisions (past, present, future), is recounted.

          Reply
  22. VikramInside

    Dear friend,
    It’s TriVikraman not Vamanan who measured the 3 worlds.
    Regards
    Jai Sriman Narayana

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      What’s in a name? vamana is trivikrama for having measured the three worlds.

      Reply
  23. Subhasis Dey

    Sir, I would like to mention here a verse probably from the Gopaltapini Upanishada :
    yo brahmanam vidadhati purvam yo vai vedams ca gapayati sma krsnah[atharva veda]
    -It was Krsna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past.
    Is ‘Krishna’ referred to here the one from the Mahabharata ? If so, how could this be possible because as per my knowledge the Mahabharata was not written prior to the age of the Vedas and the Upanishadas. Is Gopaltapini Upanishada an exception to it ? Or is ‘Krishna’ referred to here is the infinite Space ( Mahakasha) which again is a part of Bhagwan Sadashiva ?

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      ‘krishna’, ‘rama’ etc., in upanishads are ‘tatwams’ and are aspects of Shiva’s nature. They are NOT puranic ‘characters’. All forms and tatwams are the blue-prints in their original state and those blue-prints are of shiva’s. from them manifest the avataras and forms later.

      Reply
    2. In Śiva Purāņa, there is the mention of an incarnation of Śiva known as Aghora, who is variously known by names like ‘Křşņa’, ‘Křşņasāra’ and ‘Křşņakaņțhadhřka’.

      By Jyotiśa point of view, Cańdra and Śani are compatible planets. If you live in West Bengal, you might have noticed that Kālī and Śani are worshiped together on Saturdays.
      Śani is Mahākāla Bhairava, for like Mahākāla Himself, Śani too affects the events of our lives by arranging rewards and punishments according to our Karma.
      Kālī is Křşņa as per Śākta Mahābhāgavatam and Tođala Tańtra, since Křşņa is a Cańdravańśī and hence Cańdra.
      Similarly Tārā, Akşobhya Bhairava, Rāma, Sūrya and Břhaspati are related and so on.

      Coming to the point, “Křşņa” is an esoteric reference of Kālī.
      As far as word “Gopāla” (Protector of cattle) is concerned, one may use it for Śiva as well since Śiva is Paśupati (Lord of cattle).

      śrī śrī caņđanāyikāyē nama: ll

      Reply
      1. Subhasis Dey

        Thank you a lot for this clarification.

        Reply
  24. Karthick

    Santosh ji, Is there any proof for the presence of Vishnu tattwa and Shiva tattwa in the Vedic scriptures telling which tattwa is the supreme.

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      All polemics aside actually speaking, no tatwa is superior or inferior. All tatwas are various aspects of mahadeva alone. In the role of creator of subsequent creations (not the original one), Shiva himself is Narayana. In the role of protector again he himself is Vishnu. In the role of sub-creations he himself takes the role of brahmA. Ultimately all tatwams are shiva-tatwams only – Blind vaishnavas have never been able to see this hence to clarify the importance of Shiva (who is the origin of all origins), I am engaging in these hair-splitting discussions. Otherwise the topic of superiority of tatwams don’t even arise.

      Having said that, the above points are valid only in the pAramArthika level (absolute order of reality), in the transnational order of reality, Shiva plays many leelas and there alone these superiority etc discussions arise. There if we carefully analyze, each and every scripture’s central message is to sing the glory of Shiva-tatwam only. Take Ramayana, outwardly it is a tale of Rama (Vishnu form), but ‘Sita Rama tatwam is Shiva Shakti tatwam’ (I have already explained that in an article here with same title). Take Vedas, all the forms are forms of Shiva alone “namo girIshAya cha shipivishTAya cha” says Veda which calls Shiva as being in the form of Vishnu. Therefore, there is no “two” tatwams at all. All tatwams outwards seem to be belonging to various forms but in reality there is only one god glorified in all the scriptures i.e, Mahadeva!

      Reply
  25. sohini

    hi santoshji, whenever u get time, have a look over this -https://vedics.in/goloka-the-residence-of-supreme-god/
    one ridiculous thing about these blind believers of krishnaism is that they can talk about different dimensions but they state evolution to be simply untrue, wow. Hare krishnas need to look outside bhagwatam, they need to know it is not the ONLY spiritual book. As u too say santoshji that until these ppl stop spreading hatred towards mahadev shiv, we the devotees of mahadev shall also give it back to them. I really can not stop cursing these iskconites, i mean there are many vaishnavas out there other than these hare krishnas, but i don’t feel this kind of hatred towards them , because they are not always bad mouthing about shiv bhagwan and stating every science untrue just like…this….. We all want to state our own ishta dev/devi to be the supreme, but to do that we can not start talking nonsense about other gods. In the last 3/4 days i have heard so many disgusting things about iskcon that now feel like…..

    Reply
  26. sohini

    santoshji, mahadev is also called kalagni rudra, in many ways mahadev is related to rudra, can u give some more insights over this?

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      Technically it is one lord, various names based on functions he undertakes. While obscuring the world with Maya (called tirodhana) he is Maheshvara, while gracing the Jivas with Mukti (task called as anugraha) he is sadashiva, while destroying the worlds (laya) he is kalagnirudra, while creating the worlds (srishti) he is Brahma and while protecting the worlds (stithi) he is Vishnu.

      Reply
  27. Karthick

    Santosh Ji, I have read this at many places, but no idea where it comes in the scriptures “Lakshmi says “You and Vishnu are both same, the Paramaatma. Please help me!”. Shiva says “Soodari! How do you know that we both are same? Who told you?”. Lakshmi says, “Once Mahavishnu Himself told me this……..I am doing Shankara-dhyaanam. He is Eshwara. He is the same as Me. All learned people know that. If someone is my devotee but still hates Shiva, he will fall into naraka.”

    Do you know in which Purana it comes?

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      It is from Devi Bhagavatam. The story si about ekavIra’s birth (he was the son of lakshmi and Vishnu when they were in horse and mare form on earth. From him sprung the Hayahaya dynasty).

      You may read that story beginning from this chapter and flowing into subsequent 2-3 chapters.
      http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/db/bk06ch18.htm#page_546

      Reply
  28. Karthick

    Nice. Thanks for the reference 🙂 . One more doubt. I have also heard about Arjuna being born as Kannappa and attaining Siva Sayujyam, the ultimate bliss. Where does it come from?

    Reply
    1. Periya puranam, where the stories of 63 nayannars are listed. Kannappa was one among them.

      Reply
  29. Subhasis Dey

    Lord Siva wears the Moon as His crown on His matted lock. Also, He is seen to wear garland of snakes. Does this divine form of His have any esoteric significance?

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      Moon signifies immortality and amrita, snakes symbolize to time (kala). You may read my article on ‘dakshinamurti tatwam’ where I have elaborated on the symbolism.

      Reply
  30. Karthick

    Ok fine. Do you know where exactly Mahaanyaasam comes in the Vedas? I have seen the Kumbakonam version. Does the whole Mahaanyaasm comes exactly as it is (what we have right now) in the Vedas, or is it a combination of various mantras from different parts of the Vedas?

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      nyAsa prakrIya doesn’t come in Vedas as far as I know. nyAsa is taught by other mantrashAstras and other granthas. So, mahanyAsa also wouldn’t be in Vedas AFAIK.

      Reply
      1. Karthick

        Ok fine. If that is the case then Lahunyasam also is not a part of Vedas because it is also Nyasa. So who created Lahnuyasam and Mahanyasam then?

        Reply
        1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

          These prakriyas are given by rishis in mantrashastra agamas and puranas.

          Reply
  31. Subhasis Dey

    I would like to state you that for long we did not have any new Article from your end. I am earnestly looking for a new Article from you keeping in view the ‘Samudra Manthan’ ( Churning of Ocean) episode and Lord Siva’s consuming poison to save the Universe.

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      Thank you for the reminder. I know its been a long time, but need to find time. Let’s see.

      Reply
  32. Dhyey Bhatt

    Namaste Santoshji 🙏,
    I hope that by asking questions frequently I m not bothering you(and if anytime please pardon me).I will be always thankful to you for solving my doubts.Yes I am Lord Shiva Devotees but I respect all the aspect and form of THAT God. I sometimes became perplexed as I read vaishnav Puranas too,with due respect to Lord Vishnu there are some instances in such Puranas (Vishnu Puran I guess) where it is mentioned that Lord Vishnu created Yog-Maya.Even I came across some Images of Lord Vishnu giving blessings to the Goddess who is having 8 hands. Does Yog-Maya and Adi-Shakti(Mool-Prakriti) is identical or Such Puranas are conveying some estoric Message.

    Moreover,Also Shakti is Symbolisation of Energy (If I’m not wrong). Scientifically as per rules of Thermodynamics Energy CAN’T be Created NOR it can be Destroyed.So should we take such Puranas as it is or it is conveying something else? Because Adi-Shakti is the Universal Mother and Lord Rudra is Heavenly (Universal)Father of all .Even when shruti says that They both are Source of all,then how it differs in Purana ‘s?

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      The puranic language shouldn’t be taken literaly. Shakti expresses herself out from time to time from one medium to another. It is Vishnu who is controlled by Shakti (Maya), not the otehr way round. However, since shiva has given the task of lordship to vishnu by making him ishvara, he has assigned the rights to wield yogamaya as and when he requires. But even though it looks like yogamaya reports to vishnu in the hierarchy, it is not so, Vishnu’s manager is yogamaya.

      Reply

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