BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 5.27), (BG. 5.28), (BG. 6.11 – 6.15)
sparshan kritva bahir bahyams caksus caivantare bhruvoh
pranapanau samau kritva nasabhyantara-carinau | (BG. 5.27)
yatendriya-mano-buddhir munir moksha-parayanah
vigateccha-bhaya-krodho yah sada mukta eva sah | (BG. 5.28)
“Excluding (from his mind) all external objects of sense, directing the visual glance between the brows, mingling (into one) the upward and the downward life-breaths and making them pass through the nostrils, the devotee, who has restrained the senses, the mind, and the understanding, being intent on emancipation, and who is freed from desire, fear, and wrath, is emancipated, indeed”
In next chapter there are few verses which are related to this above verse. So, I would like to combine them here to arrange the topic in a better way.
sucau dese pratishthapya sthiram asanam atmanah
naty-ucchritam nati-nicam cailajina-kusottaram | (BG. 6:11)
tatraikagram manah kritva yata-cittendriya-kriyah
upavisyasane yunjyad yogam atma-vishuddhaye | (BG. 6:12)
samam kaya-siro-grivam dharayann acalam sthirah
sampreksya nasikagram svam disas canavalokayan | (BG. 6:13)
prashantatma vigata-bhir brahmacari-vrate sthitah
manah samyamya mac-citto yukta asita mat-parah | (BG. 6:14)
yunjann evam sadatmanam yogi niyata-manasah
shantim nirvana-paramam mat-samstham adhigacchati | (BG. 6:15)
“Erecting his seat immovably on a clean spot, not too high nor too low, and spreading over it a piece of cloth, a deer-skin, or blades of Kusa grass, and there seated on that seat, with mind fixed on one object, and restraining the functions of the heart and the senses, one should practise contemplation for the purification of self. Holding body, head, and neck even, unmoved and steady, and casting his glance on the tip of his nose, and without looking about in any of the different directions, with mind in tranquillity, freed from fear, observant of the practices of Brahmacharins, restraining the mind, with heart fixed on me, the devotee should sit down, regarding me as the object of his attainment. Thus applying his soul constantly, the devotee whose heart is restrained, attains to that tranquillity which culminates in final absorption and assimilation with me”.
Reasoning & Analysis:
Here in these verses of Bhagwad Gita, a yogic method of self-realization is mentioned. These Gita verses state about a great method of Yoga called ‘tAraka yogam’ also known as ‘tArakopadesam’ and the method of meditation mentioned is one of the ‘pancha mudrAs’.
‘tAraka yoga’ comprises of five ‘Mudras’ called ‘Khechari, Bhoochari, Madhyama, Shanmukha, and Sambhavi. While practicing them one would hear Dasavidha Nadam (Ten types of sounds) viz. ‘Chitti, Chini, Ghanta (Bell), Sankha (Conch), Taala (Cymbal), Venu (Flute), Bheri (Bugle), Mrudanga (Drum), Meghanada (thunder)’ kinds of sounds within himself. One who establishes himself in an undeterred way by winning over all the distractions using his knowledge; would realize the fact that he is none other than the supreme divine almighty himself. This is self realization which makes one disillusioned and makes clear the fact of ‘Advaita’ that there is no duality between soul and God. He himself is the supreme Lord and apart from him there exists nothing.
1. Khechari: – Khechari means focusing on the ‘Bhroomadhya’ (place in between the eyebrows) either by closing the eyes or keeping them open
2. Bhoochari: – Bhoochari means to focus the sight at the tip of the nose without shaking the eyes
3. Madhyama: – Madhyama lakshyam means to focus the sight in the middle of the nose portion and to concentrate inwards of one’s self
4. Shanmukha: – Shanmukha means to focus the sight at the Bhroomadhya after closing the two eyes, two ears and two nostrils (using fingers)
5. Sambhavi: – Sambhavi mudra means to fix the mind constant, removing all ‘Vikarams (distractions)’ by focusing inwards within oneself (Antarlakshyam)
There are three types of focusing methodologies viz. ‘bAhya lakshyam’, ‘madhya lakshyam’, and ‘antar lakshyam’. These three in combination in general are called as ‘Lakshya Triambakam’ in Yogic terminology.
Vedanta and Yoga both takes one towards realization. Vedanta gives us theoretical wisdom without which one can’t understand the nature of Brahman, and Yoga gives us practical lessons without which one can’t realize Brahman. Yoga and Vedanta go hand in hand and they can’t be studied separately. The same is stated by Lord Shiva in the following Upanishad verse as given below:
“j~naana.n kechidvadantyatra kevala.n tanna siddhaye |
yogahiina.n katha.n j~naanaM mokshada.n bhavatiiha bhoH | (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:12)
yogo.api j~naanahiinastu na kshamo mokshakarmaNi |
tasmaajj~naana.n cha yoga.n cha mumukshurdR^iDhamabhyaset.h |” (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:13)
“How can Jnana without Yoga lead to salvation? It is also true that Yoga alone without Jnana will not lead to salvation. So, the one who aims at salvation; should learn Jnana and Yoga together”.
Yoga is difficult but that is a practical way of realization of the supreme Brahman within oneself. Well, elaborate discussion on these topics stands out of scope of the current discussion. But in a nutshell I can confidently state that; Yoga, and Tantra are doubtlessly the playground of ONLY Shakti and Shiva. There is no doubt in that, and I can cite numerous references supporting that. When I say, numerous know it truly as numerous! Any Yoga related Upanishad, or any Tantra related scripture one is free to choose for analysis, doubtlessly she/he would find it to be only a playground of Shakti-Shiva. There is no higher truth beyond Shiva and Shakti. There is no realization of Brahman without the grace of Shiva. Especially in Yoga, there is no achievement without realization of Shiva. Shiva tatwam alone pervades in all our bodies from Mooladhara to Sahasrara. And the Shakti (Tripurasundari) which assumes the form of Kundalini, rises upwards to embrace her consort viz. Shiva. And they get merged together in their supreme seat called Sahasrara chakra present in the crown of our head. That same Shakti is called as ‘Narayana’ in Mahanarayanopanishat, but carefully if you study, it would become revealed that it is a female principle and Narayana is nothing but Shiva’s Shakti (Uma) in male form and Kundalini is totally a female principle, and is Shakti who merges and embraces her consort Shiva in the crown chakra (Shasrara) which is a lotus of 1000 petals. From mooladhara to Ajneya chakras the beeja mantras (seed letters) of each chakra when combined from bottom to top, it forms ‘Na-Ma-Shi-Va-Ya’; and the seed letter of Sahasrara is ‘Om’. So, our body is totally a temple of Shiva wherein Shiva himself resides as the Jiva as well as the Atman. Well, I can write pages and pages on this topic of Kundalini and Yoga but keeping the context in mind, would like to keep an endpoint here. This Bhagwad Gita verse and any other verse where Yoga is the subject in context, know that truly that is a glorification of Shiva-Shakti principle only. There is no room for any doubt in that; one can take this in written from me!
Yoga and Kudnalini concepts are an ocean and therefore I would like to cite only an iota of that ocean here as references. One may study the related scriptures in detail if one is interested to know more.
“deha.n shivaalayaM prokta.n siddhida.n sarvadehinaam.h |” (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:168)
“For all those who have a body, their body is the temple of Shiva. It gives them siddhi (fulfillment of yogic goal viz. salvation)”.
“mUlAdhArAdiShaTchakra.n shaktisthAnamudIritam.h |
kaNThAdupari mUrdhAnta.n shAMbhava.n sthAnamuchyate |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:53)
“The six Chakras beginning with Muladhara are said to be the seat of Sakti (Goddess). From the neck to the top of the head is said to be the seat of Sambhu (Shiva)”.
“nADInAmAshrayaH piNDo nADyaH prANasya chAshrayaH |
jIvasya nilayaH prANo jIvo ha.nsasya chAshrayaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:54)
“To the Nadis, the body is the support (or vehicle); to Prana, the Nadis are the support; to Jiva, Prana is the dwelling place; to Hamsa, Jiva is the support”.
“ha.nsaH shakteradhiShThAna.n charAcharamida.n jagat.h |
nirvikalpaH prasannAtmA prANAyA.n samabhyaset.h |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:55)
“To Sakti, Hamsa is the seat and the locomotive and fixed universe. Being without distraction and of a calm mind, one should practise Pranayama”.
“kumbhena kumbhayetkumbha.n tadantasthaH para.n shivam.h |
punarAsphAlayedadya susthira.n kaNThamudrayA |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:60)
“It is only through Kumbhaka that Kumbhaka should be firmly mastered. Within it is Parama-Shiva. That (Vayu) which is non-motionless should be shaken again through Kantha-Mudra (throat-posture)”.
“prakR^ityashhTakaruupa.n cha sthaana.n gachchhati kuNDalii |
kroDiikR^itya shiva.n yaati kroDiikR^itya viliiyate |” (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:74)
“Kundalini assumes the eight forms of Prakriti (matter) and attains Shiva by encircling him and dissolves itself in Shiva”.
“rudragranthi.n cha bhittvaiva kamalaani bhinatti shhaT.h |
sahasrakamale shaktiH shivena saha modate
saivaavasthaa paraa j~neyaa saiva nirvR^itikaariNii iti |” (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:86)
“Then it pierces Rudragranthi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses). Then Sakti is happy with Shiva in Sahasrara Kamala (1000 lotuses seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest Avastha (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude (Kaivalya / Sayujya Moksham)”.
Well, the methodology mentioned in the aforementioned Bhagwad Gita verses is actually again something which talks only about Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva only is the redeemer there who acts like the boat sailing one through the samsaara to the shore of enlightenment. And again it is lord Shiva only who is the object of realization there. We have the same thing discussed in the following verses of Shruti.
“bR^ihaspatiruvaacha yaaj~navalkya.n yadanu kurukshetra.n
devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h |
avimukta.n vai kurukshetra.n devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM
bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h |
tasmaadyatra kvachana gachchhati tadeva manyeta tadavimuktameva |
ida.n vai kurukshetra.n devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM
bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h |
atra hi jantoH praaNeshhuutkramamaaNeshhu rudrastaarakaM brahma
vyaachashhTe yenaasaavamR^itii bhuutvaa mokshii bhavati
tasmaadavimuktameva nishheveta avimukta.n na
vimu~nchedevamevaitadyaaj~navalkyaH |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:01)
““Brihaspati (the preceptor of the gods) asked (the sage) Yajnavalkya: (Which is) the Kurukshetra, (the famous holy place that destroys sins and protects the good, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings? (Yajnavalkya replied): Avimukta is the Kurukshetra, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices to deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings (i.e. the middle of the eye-brows). Hence wherever one goes one shall think thus: This is the Kurukshetra, the place where the gods perform sacrifices to the deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings. This is the spot where, when the vital airs depart from the living person, Rudra imparts the mantra (Taraka Brahman viz. OM) to him by which, becoming immortal; he attains liberation (final beatitude). Hence one shall resort to the Avimukta; shall not desert the Avimukta. (Brihaspati approved of the statement saying): ‘So it is, Yajnavalkya’, verily it is so, O, revered one! ‘It is so Yajnavalkya’”.
atha hainamatriH paprachchha yaaj~navalkya.n ya eshho.ananto.avyakta
aatmaa ta.n kathamaha.n vijaaniiyaamiti |
sa hovaacha yaaj~navalkyaH so.avimukta upaasyo ya
eshho.ananto.avyakta aatmaa so.avimukte pratishhThita iti | (Jabala Upanishad 1:02)
““Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How am I to realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest ?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied: That Avimukta (Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite and unmanifest, is established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara, possessed of attributes)’”.
“so.avimuktaH kasminpratishhThita iti | varaNaayaa.n naashyaa.n cha madhye pratishhThita iti |
kaa vai varaNaa kaa cha naashiiti | sarvaanindriyakR^itaandoshhaanvaarayatiiti tena varaNaa bhavati |
sarvaanindriyakR^itaanpaapaannaashayatiiti tena naashii bhavatiiti | katama.n chaasya sthaanaM bhavatiiti . bhruvorghraaNasya cha yaH sandhiH sa eshha dyaurlokasya parasya cha sandhirbhavatiiti | etadvai sandhi.n sandhyaaM brahmavida upaasata iti | so.avimukta upaasya iti . so.avimukta.n j~naanamaachashhTe . yo vaitadeva.n vedeti |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:02)
“‘Which is that (place) where Avimukta is established ?’ ‘He is established in between varana and nasi’. ‘What is (meant by) varana and what (by) nasi ?’ ‘The varana is so called as it wards off all the faults committed by the (ten) organs (of perception and action). The nasi is so named as it destroys all sins committed by the (ten) organs. (The place between the varana and the nasi is the meeting place of the upper part of the nose and the centre of the eye brows). ‘Which is the seat of that (Avimukta)?’ ‘That, which is the (well known) juncture of the eye brows and the nose, is the juncture of heaven (in the form of the crown of the head -sahasrara) and this world (in the form at the end of the chin). The knowers of the Veda worship indeed this juncture (Samadhi) as Sandhya (in their daily worship). That Avimukta is to be worshipped. He who knows this thus (the true nature of the Avimukta), imparts the wisdom of the Avimukta (that the individual Self is no other than the attributeless Brahman, to his disciples)”.
Now since Yoga is a tough subjecta dn is not possible to attain by every common man, Lord Shiva the kindest parabrahman has made it much easiler to attain Kaivalya by giving a much easier way which is talked in the below verse.
“atha hainaM brahmachaariNa uuchuH ki.n japyenaamR^itatvaM bruuhiiti |
sa hovaacha yaaj~navalkyaH |
shatarudriyeNetyetaanyeva ha vaa amR^itasya naamaani |
etairha vaa amR^ito bhavatiiti evamevaitadyaaj~navalkyaH |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:03)
“Then the discipline students (Brahmacharins of Yajnavalkya) asked him: ‘Please, tell us, what is that mantra by reciting which one attains immortality?’ He replied: ‘By (reciting) Satarudriya’. These mantras are indeed the names of immortality (names of Rudra which give immortality). By (reciting) these (mantras) one becomes immortal”.
Through yoga one practically understands that the Brahman whom the Yogi wanted to know, is he himself and he understands that the Brahman is “Shiva” only. Through ‘Pranayama’ and ‘Kumbhaka’ kind of breath reversal exercises there are sounds produced at the mooladhara and ajneya viz. ‘ham’, and ‘sa’ (hamsa- swan). Through Yoga they when experienced in reverse it becomes ‘soham’ which means ‘sah-aham’ implying, “I am that”. Therefore the ultimnate realization of ‘Aham brahmasmi’ or ‘soham’ is nothing but the realization of ‘Shivoham’ (I am Shiva). This is the ultimate truth indeed!
That’s why we have yogis who say, “aham brahmAsmi”, and “shivOham”, but we do not have any yogi who says “vishnuOham”. No offense meant here, I understand the oneness of various vibhootis of Shiva; and Vishnu is one among the forms of Shiva. But my only point is to say that as per authentic scriptures Shiva always remains as the origin and there is no origin for Shiva. And Yoga is totally a playground of Shiva-Shakti, by experiencing which; practically a Jiva turns himself into Shiva who is the Brahman of Vedas, the ultimate reality, higher than the highest!
Conclusion: – BG. 5.27 BG. 5.28, BG. 6.11-6.15 talk about Taraka Yogam which is a yogic technique of realization of Brahman. This is a practical way to realize that Shiva is the Brahman who is not different from the self. This is the ultimate truth which unfortunately not majority of people understand! Well, in BG. 6:11-6:15 it states in direct speech as “Me” which is a clearcut evidence that Shiva was the one who was speaking through Sri krishna’s mouth. This is proved here also.
BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 5.29)
bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-maheshvaram
suhridam sarva-bhutanam jnatva mam shantim rcchati | (BG 5:29)
“Knowing me to be enjoyer of all sacrifices and ascetic austerities, the great Lord of all the worlds, and friend of all creatures, such a one obtaineth tranquillity.'”
Reasoning & Analysis:
We have to understand who is that lord described in the Vedas as the one who is – the lord of all sacrifices, lord of all worlds, and friend of all creatures. Let’s take these points one by one and analyze them.
We have a direct and to the point verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly describes that all these qualities described in this Bhagwad Gita verse as belonging to Lord Shiva.
“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”.
The above evidence is enough to understand that all those qualities given in (BG. 5.29) belong to Bhagawan Rudra and therefore he was the speaker of Bhagwad Gita. But again since I have many other references which support this fact, I am desirous of sharing them. Therefore let me elaborate all these attributes in detail. Let’s see more evidences from Vedas and Upanishads.
Let’s first see who the lord of sacrifices is. It is the lord of sacrifice who becomes the enjoyer of sacrifice also since the sacrificial offering goes to the one who is the lord of sacrifice.
Agni encompasses the sacrifice fully and perfects (fulfils) it. That means, Agni is the lord who makes the sacrifice complete.
“aghne yaṃ yajñamadhvaraṃ viśvataḥ paribhūrasi sa iddeveṣu ghachati ” (RV 1.1.4)
“Agni, the perfect sacrifice which thou encompassest about Verily goeth to all the Gods”.
But it is Lord Rudra who has been called by the name of ‘Agni’ in the above verse. Here is the direct verse applied on Rudra by Vedas.
“tveṣaṃ vayaṃ rudraṃ yajñasādhaṃ vaṅkuṃ kavimavase nihvayāmahe ” (RV 1:114:4)
“Hither we call for aid the wise, the wanderer, impetuous Rudra, fulfiller of sacrifice”.
Agni is the priest of sacrifice also. But again this praise goes to lord Rudra only as shown below.
“tava praśāstraṃ tvamadhvarīyasi brahmā cāsi ghṛhapatiśca no dame ” (RV 2.1.2)
“[Agni] Thou art Director, thou the ministering Priest: thou art the Brahman, Lord and Master in our home”.
“ā vo rājānam adhvarasya rudraṃ hotāraṃ satyayajaṃ rodasyoḥ ” (RV 4:3:1 and Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita 1:3:14:2)
“Rudra, king (ruler) of the sacrifice, True offerer, priest of both the worlds!”.
Lord of sacrifice is again Agni (Rudra) as given in below Vedic verses.
“rājantamadhvarāṇāṃ ghopāṃ ṛtasya dīdivim vardhamānaṃsve dame ” (RV 1.1.8)
“[Agni] Ruler (lord) of sacrifices, guard of Law eternal, radiant One, Increasing in thine own abode”.
“ghāthapatiṃ medhapatiṃ rudraṃ jalāṣabheṣajam tacchaṃyoḥ sumnamīmahe ” (RV 1:43:5)
“To Rudra Lord of sacrifice, of hymns and balmy medicines, We pray for joy and health and strength”.
We have seen from the above verses that Vedas in some places call Agni as the lord of sacrifice and in other places addresses those praises directly to Rudra. But know that all these praises are exclusively for Lord Rudra only even if they are sung under the name of Agni. We have the following evidence which testifies the same.
“tadvā agnaya iti kriyate agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā
ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti
tānyasyāśāntānyevetarāṇi nāmānyagnirityeva śāntatamaṃ tasmādagnaya iti kriyate
sviṣṭakṛta iti ” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8)
“That (offering) then is certainly made to ‘Agni,’ for, indeed, Agni is THAT god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni. The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious (sânta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ‘Agni,’ and to (him as) the Svishtakrit”.
So, it is Bhagawan Rudra who is the lord of all sacrifices. In fact entire sacrifice is itself Rudra. Rudrahridayopanishad (1:20) makes it clear saying, “rudro yaj~Na umaa vedistasmai tasyai namo namaH |”, which means, “rudrA is the yajnA, umA is the vEdi, prostrations to him and her”.
A very detailed article titled, “Rudra is the Sacrifice (yajnA), Uma is the Altar (vEdi) and they created this Universe” exclusively on ‘Sacrifice’ has been written by me. One can read that for an elaborate understanding. But in short, know that –– the sacrifice,
– the sacrificial altar,
– the priest of the sacrifice,
– the libations of the sacrifice,
– the residue of the sacrifice,
– the fruit of the sacrifice and finally
– the lord of the sacrifice who enjoys the sacrificial offering – all these doubtlessly are Bhagawan Rudra only.
Next attribute to discuss is to find out the God who is the lord of all worlds. It is again lord Rudra only as per the Vedas. Lord Rudra only is the source from all worlds got their birth and he is the one lord without a second and is the ruler of all the worlds. Here are the evidences.
“namo bhuvantaye varivaskritayaushhadhinam pataye namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to Him who has created the world and spread it broad, the creator of riches and lover of those who are devoted to Him; to the Lord of all vegetation, salutations”.
“jagatam pataye namo |” (Yaurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to [lord Rudra who is] the Lord of entire creation”.
“táva cátasraḥ pradíśas táva dyáus táva pr̥thivī́ távedám ugrorv àntárikṣam
távedáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇát pr̥thivī́m ánu ” (Atharva Veda 4:28:10)
“Thine, O strong god (ugra), are the four regions, thine the sky, thine the earth, and thine this broad atmosphere; thine is this all that has a spirit and has breath upon the earth”.
“bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣam |
tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ |” (Atharva Veda 4:28:27)
“Bhava rules the sky, Bhava rules the earth; Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”
“sthirebhiraṅghaiḥ pururūpa ughro babhruḥ śukrebhiḥ pipiśehiraṇyaiḥ |
īśānādasya bhuvanasya bhūrerna vā u yoṣad rudrādasuryam |” (RV 2.33.9)
“He, the fierce god, with strong limbs, assuming many forms, the tawny Rudra, decked himself with brilliant golden ornaments. From Rudra, who is lord of this wide world (īśānādasya bhuvanasya), divine power will never depart”.
Rudra is the sovereign (Supreme Ruler) of both the celestial as well as earthly worlds.“sa hi kṣayeṇa kṣamyasya janmanaḥ sāmrājyena divyasya cetati |
avannavantīrupa no duraścarānamīvo rudra jāsu no bhava |” (RV 7:46:2)
“For, being the lord, he rules over or looks after what is born on earth; being the universal ruler, he rules or looks after what is born in heaven (through his high imperial sway). Come willingly to our doors that gladly welcome thee, and heal all sickness, Rudra., in our families”.
“tamiishvaraaNaaM paramaM maheshvara.n ta.n devataanaaM parama.n cha daivatam.h |
patiM patiinaaM paramaM parastaad.hvidaama devaM bhuvaneshamiiDyam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 5:07)
“Let us know that highest great lord of lords, the highest deity of deities, the master of masters, the highest above, as god, the lord of the world, the adorable”.
“Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha |
namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Him who is the source of all things (Bhava) and to Him who is the destroyer of all ills (Rudra). Salutations to the destroyer of everything (Sharva) and to the protector of all beings in bondage (Pashupati)”.
We may get a question whether lord Shiva has any lord or boss above him? Definitely this needs to be enquired. But Shruti states that there is no ruler or boss above Bhagawan Shiva. Here are the evidences.
“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.
“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
“There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord”.
Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) declares Rudra as the Purusha, “purusho vai rudrah” and Svetaswatara Upanishad states the below fact about Veda Purusha Shiva.
“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Sve. Upa. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.
And finally we are left with analyzing the attribute which says the supreme lord is the friend of all creatures (suhridam sarva-bhutanam). In this context there is no other god better that Bhagawan Rudra as a best friend for any creature in fact.
For being the best friend the lord has to be approachable, the healer of all woes and diseases, the bounteous giver of everything that is sought or needed by the beings, should be the comforter, should be the greatest protector of all worlds and creatures, he should be able to ward of all sins, he should be the one lord who not only bestows happiness in this world but also grants the final beatitude (liberation). In all these qualities only Bhagawan Rudra fits in as per the Vedas.
“pashunam pataye namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of all creatures”.
Lord Rudra is called as ‘Pashupati” because he is the lord of all beings in bondage. The word “Pasu” means the one who is tied with the “pAsha” (noose). All the created beings and all the gods everyone is bound by the rope of Shiva-Maya. Only through the knowledge of Brahman (brahmajnanam) one can cut through that illusion of Shiva. And whosoever it may be – be it a God of heaven or be it an animal of earth or human; everyone is a Pasu till the time s/he has not realized the Brahman. Shiva is the lord of all such beings who are tied with the rope of ignorance (Avidya). He is their lord because he transports them from the ocean of samsaara (Avidya or ignorance) and gives them the supreme wisdom called Brahmajnanam and finally grants them the supreme state called ‘Kaivalyam’ (liberation) after which they do not come back to this world again. So, that’s why he is the ‘Pashupati” who rules over all beings (creatures and also the gods). So, this one example is itself enough to understand that there is no better friend that Rudra in this entire universe. But still we would continue our discussion and explore the other greatest aspects of our best friend Rudra.
“vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:02)
“Rudra is the protector of all the worlds”
It is Lord Rudra only who is hailed as the bounteous giver. He is the only lord who is capable of granting all boons including immortality also. The entire Chamakam portion of Sri Rudram hymn from Yajurveda is a testimony of what all things Rudra can grant. And the best desire is always the desire of liberation as the scriptures say. And it’s interesting to note that Vedas proclaim ONLY Bhagawan Rudra as the one who grants liberation. There is no other god whom Vedas have asked to liberate. Maha Mrityunjay Mantra is an example. About the attribute of boon giving I would quote only one verse from Rig Veda, since quoting entire chamakam is not feasible here.
“kumāraścit pitaraṃ vandamānaṃ prati nānāma rudropayantam |
bhūrerdātāraṃ satpatiṃ ghṛṇīṣe stutastvaṃ bheṣajā rāsyasme |” (RV 2:33:12)
“I bend to thee as thou approachest, Rudra, even as a boy before the sire who greets him. I praise thee Bounteous Giver, Lord of heroes: give medicines to us as thou art lauded”.
Rudra is the BEST of the physicians. Hence he removes all woes and diseases (even of gods). He gives comfort to all. He showers compassion.
“mā tvā rudra cukrudhāmā namobhirmā duṣṭutī vṛṣabha māsahūtī |
un no vīrānarpaya bheṣajebhirbhiṣaktamaṃ tvā bhiṣajāṃ śṛṇomi |” (RV 2:33:4)
“Let us not anger thee with worship, Rudra, ill praise, Strong God! or mingled invocation. Do thou with strengthening balms incite our heroes: I hear thee famed as BEST of all physicians”.
“kva sya te rudra mṛḷayākurhasto yo asti bheṣajo jalāṣaḥ |
apabhartā rapaso daivyasyābhī nu mā vṛṣabha cakṣamīthāḥ |” (RV 2:33:7)
“Where is that gracious hand of thine, O Rudra, the hand that giveth health and bringeth comfort, Remover of the woe that Gods have sent us? O Strong One, look thou on me with compassion”.
“namah paryaya chavaryaya cha |
namah prataAranaya chottaranaya cha “” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.
He ALONE (yes, you read it right – ‘he alone’) can grant us liberation; there is no other path to Moksham. Here is the evidence which talks the same about the Rudra who is the supreme Purusha.
“vedaahametaM purushhaM mahaantamaadityavarNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |
tameva viditvaatimR^ityumeti naanyaH panthaa vidyate.ayanaaya |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:08)
“I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike lustre beyond the darkness (tamas). A man who knows him truly, passes over death; there is no other path to liberation”.
Further Rig-Veda (7:59:12) states the famous Maha Mrityunjaya Mantram which occurs in Yajurveda-Sri Rudram as well. In this Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Vedas (Vedic seers) request Lord Shiva for liberation. It is an interesting fact to know that in all the four Vedas Vedic seers have prayed for Liberation only to Lord Shiva (Not even to lord Vishnu). So, it’s crystal clear that the Purushottama (Rudra) is the only Lord who can grant liberation.
So it is crystal clear now that there is no friend better that Rudra for all the creatures.
Conclusion: – With this detailed analysis we have seen that Lord of sacrifices, lord of all worlds, and friend of all creatures is Bhagawan Rudra as per Vedas. So, Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 5.29) totally glorifies Lord Rudra’s qualities and since that verse is in direct speech where the speaker states that “He” possesses all those qualities; it becomes doubtlessly clear that the speaker is Lor Shiva only. And Sri Krishna was just a mode or instrument of communication.
BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 6.30), (BG. 6.31)
yo mam pasyati sarvatra sarvam ca mayi pasyati
tasyaham na pranasyami sa ca me na pranasyati | (BG. 6.30)
sarva-bhuta-sthitam yo mam bhajaty ekatvam asthitah
sarvatha vartamano ’pi sa yogi mayi vartate | (BG. 6.31)
“Unto him who beholdeth me in everything and beholdeth everything in me. I am never lost and he also is never lost to me. He who worshippeth me as abiding in all creatures, holding yet that all is one, is a devotee, and whatever mode of life he may lead, he liveth in me”.
Reasoning & Analysis:
Here we need to find out from Shruti about that Lord who exists in all mobile and immobile creation and in whom everything exists. As per Vedas and Upanishads it is again a quality of Bhagawan Rudra. Let’s see the evidences now.
We have a simple one liner statement readily available in Yajurveda Tattiriya Aranyaka as the direct evidence speaking in favor of Rudra as follows.
“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutations.”
But we’ll not stop at this; we’ll see many more references now. Let’s proceed.
“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.
“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha |
tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Yajur Veda 5:5:9:i or Taittiriya Samhita 220.127.116.11)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.
“Bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣamtásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ” (Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
“Bhava rules the sky (àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth (pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”
In Atharvaveda there is a hymn to lord Rudra’s Jwala-Linga form which is called Skhambha. It says,
“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam |
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa |” (Atharvaveda X:7.35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.
“skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ |
skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát |” (Atharvaveda X:8.2)
“Upheld by Skambha’s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye”.
“ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ” (Atharvaveda X:8.13)
“He with one half engendered all Creation (bhuvanam). What sign is there to tell us of the other?”
Earth (Bhuloka) and Heaven (Swargaloka) are one of the 14 Bhuvanam (abodes). Hence from above verse from Atharvaveda it is very clear that Lord Rudra from “HALF” of his Jwala-Linga form (Skhambha) generated all Jagats. Therefore Lord Rudra is infinite and in reality Lord Rudra is higher than the Heaven (Swarga). He alone supports Heaven, Earth, all abodes and created beings. Also, all 14 Bhuvanams are inside the Hiranyagarbha (shining visible universe) and as per the below quote it becomes clear that Lord Rudra is higher than Hiranyagarbha hence he is the limitless infinite Para-Brahman.
“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetasvathara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.
Lord Rudra is the superlative degree of all sorts of comparative terms. He is ‘greater than the Greatest’, he alone fills the entire universe and there is no place where he is absent:
“etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ” (Rig Veda 10:90)
“So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa”.
Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) declares Rudra as the Purusha, “purusho vai rudrah” and correlating this with the above Rig Vedic verse we can infer that Veda Purusha Rudra is the highest. He stands alone, there is no one apart from Rudra who exists. Whatever exists, whatever existd once upon a time, and whatever will exist in future all is this Mahadeva only. This is also supported by the following verses.
“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Sve. Upa. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.
Yajurveda Sri Rudram (Anuvaka-4) states, “vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo”, which means, “Salutations to Lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam”. Again, Yajurveda Sri Rudram (Anuvaka-9) states, “devana hridayebhyo namah”, means, “Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller of the heart of all Gods”. Therefore Rudra exists as the Atman (Spirit) of even the celestial Gods also. So, all the Gods are Lord Rudra’s forms and not different from him.
“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Sve Upa. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”
The below verse also confirms that everything that is there is Rudra only. All forms are Lord Rudra’s forms.
“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.
From above verses we read that Rudra is, the indweller / present in the hearts of all Gods, and he is also the indweller of all beings. So, who is left without being a form of Shiva? This proves that Vedas recognize Lord Rudra as the one who entered all beings (including Gods). Rudra is the past, present and future too. He is the one who existed once upon a time, he is the one who exists now and he is the one who will manifest in future, this is supported in below verses.
“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha | namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha | namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.
“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atharva Veda X-8-28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”
“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.
These verses proves the fact that it’s only Lord Shiva who is the Poorvaja (Ancient), Jyeshtha (Eldest among the born i.e Hiranyagarbha), and Kanishtha (youngest one which includes every new foetus being born).
Till now we have seen generic description of Bhagawan Rudra calling him as ‘everything’. Let’s see some specific references of his forms now. After reading them it would be crystal clear for anyone to believe that there is nothing except Rudra in this world and beyond.
These descriptions are available in Sri Rudram of Yajurveda (IV:V)
Rudra is in the form of Sun:
“Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah |” (This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra) – (YajurVeda 4:5:1.7)
“Asau yoavasarpati nilagrivo vilohitah |” (The black-throated Rudra who has assumed the form of the sun that glows red when rising) – (YajurVeda 4:5:1.8)
Rudra is the three dawns (Trikala Sandhya):
“trikagni kalaya |” (God who is the Sandhya time when the three sacred fires are lit [Trikala Sandhya]) – (YajurVeda 4:5:2.0)
Rudra is in the form of all the kinds of thieves and Cheats:
“stenanam pataye namo |” (Salutations to Rudra who exists as the Leader of the thieves) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.2)
“thaskaraanam pathaye namo |” (Lord of those smugglers and dacoits who thieve openly, salutations) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.3)
“Vanchathe pari vanchathe sthayoonam pathaye namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who cheats, To him who is the greatest cheat, And to him who is leader of those who steal by cheating) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.4)
Rudra is in the form of all those who sit, sleep, lie down, who are awake, who stands, who runs:
“Aaseenebhya sayanebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who sits, And to him who lies down) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.5)
“Swapadbhyo jagardbhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who sleeps, And to him who is awake) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.6)
“Sthishtathbyo dhavadbyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who stands still, And to him who runs) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.7)
Rudra is the audience (sabha) as well as the speaker (sabhapati):
“Sababhya sabha pathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is one among the audience, And to him who presides over the audience.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.8)
Rudra is the horse as well as the rider also:
“Aswebhyo aswapathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the horse, And to him who is the rider of the horse.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.9)
Rudra is even present in the form of evil spirits:
“Nama avyadheeneebhyo vividhayantheebyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the evil spirits that surround and torment, And to him who is the evil spirits that attack and kill.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.1)
Rudra is in the form of all superior female goddesses and also fierce goddesses. (Means Rudra is Saraswati, Lakshmi, Parvati and he is only Kali, Bhairavi, Durga, Chamunda etc. also):
“Uganabhysthrum hathobyhascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations to you who are in the form of the superior female Gods and the fierce vengeful and powerful Goddesses.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.2)
Rudra is even in those forms who are attached and possessive:
“Gruthsebhyo gruthsa pathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is attached and greedy, And to him who is the chief of those who are attached.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.3)
Rudra is in the form of ascetics and their leader also:
“Vrathebhyo Vrathapathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the assembly of different types of ascetics and people, And to him who is the chief of such assemblies.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.4)
Rudra is the member of a clan and also its chief:
“Ganebhyo ganapathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the member of a clan, And to him who is the chief of a clan.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.5)
Rudra is in all the great men and also in the fallen souls:
“Mahadbhya kshullakebyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a great souls, And to him who is a small being.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.7)
All those who have vehicles, and those who do not have – Rudra exists in all of them equally:
“Radhibhyo aradhebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who rides a chariot, And to him who does not have a chariot.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.8)
Rudra himself is in the form of chariot (vehicles) and also in the form of the driver too:
“Radhebhya radha pathibhyscha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a chariot, And to him who is the leader of the chariot.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.1)
Rudra is in the form of a foot soldier as well as the commander or leader of the armies:
“Senabhya Senanibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the soldier, And to him who is the leader of the armies.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.2)
Rudra dwells is in the carpenters who do wood works:
“Sthakshabhyo rathakarebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a carpenter, And to him who makes chariots.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.4)
Rudra remains in the form of a potter and a blacksmit also:
“Kulalebhya kamaribhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the potter, And to him who is the black smith.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.5)
Rudra remains in the forms of a bird hunter as well as a fisherman:
“Punchishtebhyo nishadebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the hunter of birds who uses nets, And to him who is the fisherman.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.6)
Rudra remains in the form of animal hunter and also in the form of Chandala:
“Mrugayubhya swanibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who hunts animals, And to him who drags dogs using a rope.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.8)
Rudra is even in the form of dogs and the owner of the dogs:
“Swabhya swapathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a dog,
And to him who protects the dogs.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.9)
Rudra is in all the forms of water bodies:
“Nama seegriyaya cha seebhyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in fast streams and to him who is in great waters.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:5.2.3)
“Nama oormyaya cha aswanyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in fast tides and to him who is in still water.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:5.2.4)
“Nama stotrothasyaya cha dweepyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in rivulets and to him who is in islands.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:5.2.5)
Rudra is all those born on earth and all those born in other worlds (gods, sadhyas, pitris, demons etc. everything):
“Namo sobhyaya cha parthi saryaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is born in earth and to him who is born in other worlds.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.5)
Rudra is the Yama and Indra too:
“Namo yaamyaya cha kshemyaya cha |” (Salutations to him to him who punishes in hell and to him who grants favours in heaven.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.6)
Rudra is in the fields and in the gardens:
“Namo oorvarya cha khalyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the fields and who is in gardens.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.7)
Rudra is in the Vedas and in the Vedanta (Upanishads):
“Namo shlokyaa cha vasanyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is praised in the Vedas and to him who is praised at the end of Vedas.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.8)
Rudra is in forests, trees, and plants:
“Namo vanyaya cha kakshyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who exists as tree in forest and to him who exists as plants in bushes.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.9)
Rudra is the sound and Rudra is the Echo:
“Namo sravaya cha prathisravaaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is of the form of sound and to him who is in the form of echo.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.10)
Rudra is the cavalries and troops:
“Nama aasushenaaya cha asuradhaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is the fast moving troops and to him who is the fast moving cavalry.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.2.1)
Rudra is in the form of all heroes and knights:
“Nama sooraya cha avabindhathe cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of heroes and to him who is in the form of knights.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.2.2)
Rudra is the drum as well as the drumstick:
“Namo dunthubhyaya cha hananyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is kettle drum and to him who is the drumstick.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.1)
Rudra is the messenger as well as the servant too:
“Namo dhootaaya cha prahitaaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is the messenger and who is the servant.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.3)
Rudra is the footpaths and highways also:
“Nama shruthyaya cha pathyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in narrow footpaths and to him who is in wide highway-roads.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.7)
Rudra is in the clouds and lightenings also:
“Namo meghyaya cha vidhuyutyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the clouds and who is also in lightning.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.3)
Rudra is the autumn sky rain and sun:
“Namo idhreeyaya cha aathapthaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of clear sky of autumn and to him who is in the form of rain and sun.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.4)
Rudra is the wet storms and dry storms:
“Namo vaathyaya cha reshmiyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of rainy storm and to him who is in the form of dry hoarse wind.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.5)
Rudra is in the materials of the house and also the Vastu Devata:
“Namo vasthavyaya cha vaasthupaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in materials of the house and to him who is the vaasthu purusha guarding the house.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.6)
Rudra is the source of pleasures and Salvation:
“Nama sambhave mayo bhave cha |” (Salutations to him who is the source of pleasures of this world and to him who is the source of salvation.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:8.1.9)
And many more…! Entire Rudram has such wonderful revalations about Mahadeva!
It is impossible even for the very Gods and greatest sages to describe about Lord Shiva totally. That’s the reason Veda-Vyasa himself mentioned the below note about Mahadeva to Arjuna in Mahabharata.
“īdṛśaḥ sa mahādevo bhūyaś ca bhagavān ajaḥ |
na hi sarve mayā śakyā vaktuṃ bhagavato guṇāḥ |” (Mahabharata 7:173:70)
“Whatever is highly mysterious in the several branches of the Vedas, in the Upanishads, in the Puranas, and in those sciences that deal with the soul, is that God, viz., Maheswara, Mahadeva is even such. That God is, again, without birth. All the attributes of that God are not capable of being enumerated by me even if, O son of Pandu, I were to recite them continually for a thousand years”.
When Vyasa himself expressed his inability to narrate the attributes of Maheshwara even if he were to recite for thousand years; then how can I be able to narrate Mahadeva’s qualities? Mahadeva is infinite, and only blessed and fortunate souls understand his supreme nature. Others who are deluded by Shiva’s Maya, such men of poor intellect call himas ‘Demi-God’.
Conclusion: – From the above analysis it should be clear even to a child that there is nothing except Lord Rudra. So, as per the Bhagwad Gita verses (BG. 6:30) and (BG. 6:31), the person who sees the presence of Rudra in everything and everything as a manifestation of Rudra, verily dwells in Rudra only and gets emancipated from the cycle of births and deaths. These Bhagwad Gita verses which are spoken in ‘direct speech’ are a strong proof to believe that these Bhagwad Gita verses are spoken by Lord Shiva through the mouth of Krishna. So, here again it is proved beyond doubt that Bhagwad Gita was spoken by Shiva and Krishna was just a messenger of Lord Mahadeva.
BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.4)
bhumir apo ’nalo vayuh kham mano buddhir eva ca
ahankara itiyam me bhinna prakritir astadha | (BG. 7.4)
“Earth, water, fire, air, ether, thought (Manas) and reason (Buddhi), egoism (Ahamkara),–thus hath my nature (Prakriti) been divided eight-fold”.
Reasoning & Analysis:
This verse of Bhagwad Gita is again a direct hit at the bull’s eye. Yes, this is again a direct glorification of Lord Shiva’s qualities. The eightfold division of ‘His’ Prakriti is nothing but the ASHTA-MURTY form of Lord Shiva only. And again it becomes so clear to us that this verse is a proof that Lord Shiva was the speaker of Bhagwad Gita and Krishna was just an instrument or communicator only. How can I be so confident? Let me show the evidences from Vedas now.
As per Vedas, before creation, only Lord Shiva existed in his Jwala-Linga form which is the supreme consciousness viz. Brahman or Purusha (Atman). From that Atman (Agni-Linga form) seven sparks sprang forth (which are nothing but the Pranas and in normal terms we call it as the primal germ or seed). That seed (seven rays), united and became the golden-embryo called Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha) which is nothing but the visible shining universe consisting of space and time. After creating that universe (Hiranyagarbha) lord Shiva entered and appeared inside that Universe as a small infant (kumara). That means the Bhagwan Shiva who is transcends the coordinates of space and time, appeared inside the universe which consists of space-time coordinates. That small infant (Shiva), assumed eight names viz. Rudra, Sarva, Ugra, Bhava, Asani, Pasupati, Mahadeva, Isana and with each name he manifested one element of Prakriti viz. Agni (Fire), Water, Air, Sky (cloud), Indra (Ahamkara), Pasupati (Earth and vegetation), Mahadeva (Moon), and Isana (Sun).
These eight names and corresponding eight forms are called as ‘Ashtamurti‘forms of Lord Shiva. With these eightfold framework only this universe is sustained and becomes the blueprint for further creation. Every creature born within the universe comprises of Pancha-Bhutas (five elements), mind (moon), intellect (sun) and Ego (Indra). Without these eightfold elemental framework further creation could never happen. And the all auspicious and graceful Bhagawan Shiva manifested into these eight forms that we know today as deities and helped Brahma (Prajapati) in continuing his task of creation further.
With this introduction let’s proceed ahead and see the evidences from Vedas directly.
After Prajapati (the visible universe) was created, he had Ushas as his mistress and creatures were the seasons. Where Prajapati was the Year, creatures are seasons which mean gradual development cycle of creation with respect to yearly cycle time and Ushas was called as Dawn which is nothing but space. So, there Prajapati (Year) and Creatures (seasons) laid their seed into the womb of Ushas (Space). This is just symbolic or poetic narration but the actual menaing is to convey the message that in a year’s time gradually there happened development as like as seasons come and go on time and within the coordinates of space (Ushas), in a Year’s time (Prajapati) Lord Shiva appeared inside the universe (prajapati) as a newborn infant (kumara).
“tadyāni tāni bhūtāni | ṛtavaste ‘tha yaḥ sa bhūtānām patiḥ saṃvatsaraḥ so ‘tha yā soṣāḥ
patnyauṣasī sā tānīmāni bhūtāni ca bhūtānāṃ ca patiḥ saṃvatsara uṣasi reto ‘siñcantsa
saṃvatsare kumāro ‘jāyata |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:8)
“Now, those beings are the seasons; and that lord of beings (prajapati) is the year; and that Ushas, the mistress, is the Dawn. And these same creatures, as well as the lord of beings, the year, laid seed into Ushas. There a boy (kumâra) was born in a year.”
Then this newborn infant Shiva was given eight names and with every name he manifested a form from himself.
Agni became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravīdrudro ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodagnistadrūpamabhavadagniva rudro
yadarodīttasmādrudraḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:10)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Rudra.’ And because he gave him that name, Agni became suchlike (or, that form), for Rudra is Agni: because he cried (rud) therefore he is Rudra. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Waters became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravītsarvo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodāpastadrūpamabhavannāpo vai sarvo
‘dbhyo hīdaṃ sarvaṃ jāyate so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:11)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Sarva.’ And because he gave him that name, the waters became suchlike, for Sarva is the waters, inasmuch as from the water everything (sarva) here is produced. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Vayu (Air) became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravīdugro ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodvāyustadrūpambhavadvāyurvā
ugrastasmādyadā balavadvāyugro vātotyāhuḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me
nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:13)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Ugra.’ And because he gave him that name, Vâyu (the wind) became suchlike, for Ugra is Vâyu: hence when it blows strongly, they say ‘Ugra is blowing.’ He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Parjanya (the cloud which represents Sky) became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravīdbhavo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarotparjanyastadrūpamabhavatparjanyo
vai bhavaḥ parjanyāddhīdaṃ sarvam bhavati so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me
nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:15)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Bhava.’ And because he gave him that name, ‘Parganya’ became suchlike; for Bhava is Parganya, since everything here comes (bhavati) from the cloud (read ‘Sky’). He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Asani (Lightening which represents Indra who represents Ego) became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravīdaśanirasīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodvidyuttadrūpamabhavadvidyudvā
aśanistasmādyaṃ vidyuddhantyaśanirabadhīdityāhuḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi
dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:14)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Asani.’ And because he gave him that name, the lightning became suchlike, for Asani is the lightning: hence they say of him whom the lightning strikes, ‘Asani has smitten him.’ He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Note that here Asani means ‘lightening’ but it actually means Indra. Here in Shatapatha Brahmana it is not eplicit but the inner meaning is the same. In kaushitaki Brahmana (6:3:41) it is clearly mentioned that Asani is Indra. Vedas are not as literal as they sound sometimes, and hence we need to understand the implied meaning in such circumstances.
Plants (represents Earth) became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravītpaśupatirasīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodoṣadhayastadrūpamabhavannoṣadhayo vai paśupatistasmādyadā paśava oṣadhīrlabhante ‘tha patīyanti so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me
nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:12)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Pasupati.’ And because he gave him that name, the plants became suchlike, for Pasupati is the plants: hence when cattle (pasu) get plants, then they play the master (patîy). He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Moon (manas or Mind) became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravīnmahāndevo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākaroccandramāstadrūpamabhavatprajāpatirvai candramāḥ prajāpatirvai mahāndevaḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:16)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Mahân Devah (the Great God).’ And because he gave him that name, the moon became suchlike, for the moon is Pragâpati, and Pragâpati is the Great God. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”
Sun (Intellect) became such like because of Lord Rudra:
“tamabravīdīśāno ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodādityastadrūpamabhavadādityo vā
īśāna ādityo hyasya sarvasyeṣṭe so ‘bravīdetāvānvā asmi mā metaḥ paro nāma dhā iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Îsâna (the Ruler).’ And because he gave him that name, the Sun (Aditya) became suchlike, for Îsâna is the Sun, since the Sun rules over this All. He said, ‘So great indeed I am: give me no other name after that!’”
These are the eightfold form (Ashtamurty) of Lord Shiva who is the primordial Agni (Jwala-Linga called Skhambha). And the Kumara is Lord Shiva himself. After assuming these eight names, Shiva entered each form and then remained in his eight forms and the Kumara (infant) disappeared.
“tānyetānyaṣṭāvagnirūpāṇi | kumāro navamaḥ saivāgnistrivṛttā |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:18)
“These then are the eight forms of Agni. Kumâra (the boy) is the ninth: that is Agni’s threefold state”.
“’agniriti so ‘yaṃ kumāro rūpāṇyanuprāviśanna vā agniṃ kumāramiva paśyantyetānyevāsya rūpāṇi
paśyantyetāni hi rūpāṇyanuprāviśat |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:19)
“That boy entered into the forms one after another; for one never sees him as a mere boy (kumâra), but one sees those forms of his, for he assumed those forms one after another”.
Later, Prajapati desired to see Agni (Shiva) again as narrated in Shatapatha Brahmana (6:2:1) and one day when all other Gods left prajapati making him alone, only Manyu (Anger) didn’t leave him (implies Prajapati became angry) and from that anger Rudra appears in front of Prajapati in a terrible form having thousand heads, thousand eyes, holding a firm bow, and blazing with anger demanding food. Seeing his terrible form all the other gods tremble with fear and with the suggestion of Prajapati they collect and being food for Rudra which is nothing but the ‘Satarudriya hymn (Namakam Chamakam)’. And all the gods including Prajapati sing that hymn which appeased Rudra and made him calm. This is narrated in Shatapatha Brahmana (9:1:1:6 – 9:1:1:7).
Therefore Lord Shiva’s form is not transient. He is outside the universe also and he is inside the universe also. When he wanted he appeared inside the universe as an infant and manifested other deities (ashtamurty) from him and vanished, and once again advented on his own will in front of Prajapati. Lord Shiva is eternal god who creates other gods and withdraws them to himself at the end of their time.
Let us see some contextual verses from Upanishads also now.
“tadevaagnistadaaditya stadvaayustadu chandramaaH |
tadeva shukra.n tad.h brahma tadaapastat.h prajaapatiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:02)
“That Supreme Self is Agni (Fire); It is Aditya (Sun); It is Vayu (Wind); It is Chandrama (Moon). That Self is the luminous stars; it is Hiranyagarbha; it is water; it is Virat”.
“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!“
But one thing we should understand is Purusha lays his seed into Prakriti and she creates the universe of gross form. Purusha makes the gross forms alive by entering as the indwelling Atman. So, here even though Shiva manifested as Asthamurty forms all those forms are made up of ‘Pradhana’ which is a lower form of Mula-Prakriti. And Purusha (Shiva) gave them life by entering into them.
This Soma (Sa+Uma=Shiva) lays his germ (seed) upon his consort Aditi (Uma the Mula-Prakriti) and she produces this world. Means she brings the existence into picture. Therefore she is the mother of universe.
“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe ” (RV 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the lap (womb) of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.
And then inside that golden womb (Hiranyagarbha) which is the visible universe, Rudra manifests himself as all the creatures and Gods with the help of his Prakriti.
“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |” (Atharva veda 10:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”
Mother of the creation is Aditi (Gauri), and Shiva is the indwelling Atman which makes the creation alive. Vedas say that Gauri (Uma) has become all this creation.
“gaurīrmimāya salilāni takṣatyekapadī dvipadī sā catuṣpadī
aṣṭāpadī navapadī babhūvuṣī sahasrākṣarā parame vyoman ” (RV 1.164.41)
“Forming the water-floods, the buffalo (cow) hath lowed, one-footed or two-footed or four-footed, she, Gauri, Who hath become eight-footed or hath got nine feet, the thousand-syllabled in the sublimest heaven.
“tasyāḥ samudrā adhi vi kṣaranti tena jīvanti pradiśaścatasraḥ
tataḥ kṣaratyakṣaraṃ tad viśvamupa jīvati ” (RV 1.164.42)
“From her (Gauri) descend in streams the seas of water; thereby the world’s four regions have their being, Thence flows the imperishable flood and thence the universe hath life”.
And Vedas call Shiva as the father of the entire creation.
“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.
And Shiva & Uma are one and the same being Ardhanareeshwara. That is the reason why Vedas also do not see any difference between the couple. Hence we have the following verse also which states that Aditi (Uma) is all this creation as a father and as a mother too.
“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ
viśve devā aditiḥ pañca janā aditirjātamaditirjanitvam ” (RV 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born”
Therefore from the above narration from Vedas it is crystal clear that it is lord Shiva only who divides his Prakriti into eight fold forms and enters into them as the inwelling Atman making them functional (alive).
Conclusion: – With respect to the above analysis and evidences from Vedas it should be clear by now that the Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 7.4) talks about Lord Shiva’s ashtamurty forms only and the speaker is none other than Lord Shiva who was delivering his lecture through the messenger called Krishna.
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