Hidden Secrets of Bhagawad Gita Revealed -7

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BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 9.24)

aham hi sarva-yajnanam bhokta ca prabhur eva ca
na tu mam abhijananti tattvenatas cyavanti te | (BG. 9.24)
“I am the enjoyer, as also the lord, of all sacrifices. They, however, do not know me truly; hence they fall off (from heaven)”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse of Bhagawad Gita is a direct statement referring about Lord Rudra only. It is Lord Rudra alone who is the lord (enjoyer) of all sacrifices. Who do not understand this secret falls off from their merits. That’s what had happened when Daksha didn’t invite Shiva and wanted to perform a “nirEshwarA” sacrifice. Even though he offered that’s sacrifice to Vishnu what happened? All the scriptures state alike that Daksha Yajna was never successful.

Let’s see what Vedas say about the lord of Sacrifices.

Ekakshara Upanishad clearly states that Rudra is the Sacrifice and Rudra is again the Leader (Lord) of the sacrifice too.

“R^icho yajuu.nshi prasavanti vaktraatsaamaani samraaDvasuvantariksham.h |
tva.n yaj~nanetaa hutabhugvibhushcha rudraastatha daityagaNaa vasushcha |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 7)

“The Vedic verses, prose formulas and songs proceed from Thy mouth. Thou [Shiva] shinest best (as) the Vasus and the sky. Thou art the leader of the sacrifice, the all-pervading fire and the Rudras. So also (art Thou) the hosts of demons and Vasus”.

“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou [Shiva] art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”.

“ghāthapatiṃ medhapatiṃ rudraṃ jalāṣabheṣajam | tacchaṃyoḥ sumnamīmahe |” (Rig Veda 1:43:4)
“To Rudra Lord of sacrifice, of hymns and balmy medicines, we pray for joy and health and strength.

“rājantamadhvarāṇāṃ ghopāṃ ṛtasya dīdivim | vardhamānaṃsve dame |” (Rig Veda 1:1:8)
“Ruler of sacrifices you are O Agni [Rudra], guard of Law eternal, radiant One, Increasing in thine own abode”.

Rudra is the fulfiller of sacrifice. Without his grace none of the sacrifice can ever become complete.

“tveṣaṃ vayaṃ rudraṃ yajñasādhaṃ vaṅkuṃ kavimavase nihvayāmahe |
āre asmad daivyaṃ heḷo asyatu sumatimid vayamasyā vṛṇīmahe |” (Rig Veda 1:114:4)
“Hither we call for aid the wise, the wanderer, impetuous Rudra, perfector (fulfiller) of sacrifice.
May he repel from us the anger of the Gods: verily we desire his favourable grace”.

It is Rudra whom Vedas call as Agni and since Rudra is the God having universal form where in Rudra dwell all the other Gods or say rudra is alone present in various forms of Gods. So, always Sacrifice is done through Agnihotra (fire altar) since Agni is nothing but Rudra only and he indeed is all the Gods. When Agni encompasses the sacrifice that becomes perfect and respective share goes to all the gods. This in reality means that Agni who is Rudra, when he accepts the sacrifice as being its Lord, it goes to other gods also with respect to their individual share.

In the below verse Rig Veda states that Agni makes the sacrifice “perfect” by encompassing it.

“aghne yaṃ yajñamadhvaraṃ viśvataḥ paribhūrasi sa iddeveṣu ghachati ” (RV 1.1.4)
“Agni, the perfect sacrifice which thou encompassest about Verily goeth to all the Gods”.

And we have seen above in Rig Veda (1:114:4) that Rudra is called as the “perfector” of the sacrifice. This means that Rudra (who is called by name Agni) is the lord of sacrifice who blesses it and makes it successful. Again he only passes on to other gods their individual shares. This Agni is just a pseudonym for Rudra as clearly called out in the following verse.

“tadvā agnaya iti kriyate agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā |
ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti |
tānyasyāśāntānyevetarāṇi nāmānyagnirityeva śāntatamaṃ tasmādagnaya iti kriyate |
sviṣṭakṛta iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8)
“That (offering) then is certainly made to ‘Agni,’ for, indeed, Agni is THAT god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni. The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious (sânta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ‘Agni,’ and to (him as) the Svishtakrit”.

Now the Gita verse says that people do not know this Original lord of sacrifice truly hence they fall off from heaven. Can we trace this Gita statement to Vedas and find out who that lord is being talked about? Yes, it is again lord Shiva only. Daksha’s Yajna (Sacrifice) is a PERFECT example here which has its roots in Vedas in fact! Yes, that story is Puranic but Daksha got punished because he didn’t follow the instructions of Vedas!

It is Rudra only who created sacrifice and sacrificial fees as well. A hymn to Vratya (Shiva) from Atharva Veda states that from Shiva sacrifice and sacrificial fees (Dakshina) emerged.

” tásya vrā́tyasya | saptá prāṇā́ḥ saptā́pānā́ḥ saptá vyānā́ḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15:1-2)
“Of that Vrātya (Shiva). There are seven vital airs, seven downward breaths, seven diffused breaths”.

“yò ‘sya ṣaṣṭhò ‘pānáḥ sá yajñáḥ | yò ‘sya saptamò ‘pānás tā́ imā́ dákṣiṇāḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.6-7)
“His sixth downward breath is Sacrifice. His seventh downward breath are these sacrificial fees”.

Now we have learnt so far that Rudra is the Lord of sacrifice and he only created the sacrifice and Dkashina (fees) also. So, total proprietorship on Sacrifice is copyrighted to Bhagawan Rudra only.

Well, from Puranas as well as from Mahabharata we have read the story of Daksha’s Yajna (Sacrifice), where he decides not to invite lord Shiva and proceeds to perform the sacrifice. And we learn from the same stories that his sacrifice never became successful because Lord Shiva’s incarnation Veerabhadra destroys the sacrifice as well as he kills Daksha also.

One might sometimes wonder what problem Lord Shiva had that he destroyed that sacrifice. Why can’t one perform a sacrifice without involving him? Daksha was devoted to Vishnu and made Vishnu the receiver of the sacrifice, so it was fine right? Why does someone need to come uninvited and demolish a sacred ritual? Such kind of lot many stupid questions one might pose on Mahadeva’s character. So, let me reveal here the reason why doing a “Nireeshvara Yajna” (sacrifice without Shiva) is prohibited.

Actually Vedas themselves prohibit doing sacrifice without offering it to Mahadeva. And Daksha being the son of Brahma, he was very well versed in Vedas. But due to his personal ego he wanted to insult Mahadeva by doing a “Nireeshwara Yajna”. Now, let’s analyze what Vedas have to say about doing sacrifice.

Atharva Veda’s hymn to Vratya (Ascetic form of Shiva), gives clear cut instructions on this sacrifice. It instructs, it warns and it orders. But Daksha failed to abide by the rules of the Vedas, and met with his death as the fruit of his wrong deeds.

It is Mahadeva only who permits one to do sacrifice. Only with his permission one is supposed to do Yajna as said in below verses. It is Mahadeva who comes as guest first. One is supposed to understand his true nature and seek his permission to do sacrifice. In Daksha’s case, Shiva had actually come to his house once during a ritual, where Daksha instead of honoring him insults him and pronounces curses on Shiva which is Not supposed to be done as per the following Vedic verses.

“tád yásyaiváṃ vidvā́n vrā́tya úddhr̥teṣv agníṣv ádhiśrite ‘gnihotré ‘tithir gr̥hā́n āgáchet |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:1)
“The man, to whose house, when the fires have been taken up from the hearth and the oblation to Agni placed therein, the Vrātya (Shiva) possessing this knowledge comes as a guest”.

“svayám enam abhyudétya brūyād vrā́tyā́ti sr̥ja hoṣyā́mī́ti |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:2)
“Should [one] of his own accord rise to meet him and say, Vrātya (Shiva), give me permission. I will sacrifice”.

“sá cātisr̥jéj juhuyā́n ná cātisr̥jén ná juhuyāt |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:3)
“And if he gives permission he should sacrifice, if he does not permit him he should not sacrifice”.

When Shiva permits one to do sacrifice then if a person performs the Yajna, he gets raised to heavenly abodes (based on his virtue) as stated below.

“sá yá eváṃ vidúṣā vrā́tyenā́tisr̥ṣṭo juhóti | prá pitr̥yā́ṇaṃ pánthāṃ jānāti prá devayā́nam |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:4-5)
“He who sacrifices when permitted by the Vrātya (Shiva) who possesses this knowledge Well knows the path that leads to the Fathers and the way that, leads to the Gods”.

And because he obtained the permission to do sacrifice from the lord who created sacrifice (viz. Mahadeva), no other God dares to oppose him or create obstacles in his way as stated below.

“ná devéṣv ā́ vr̥ścate hutám asya bhavati |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:6)
“He does not act in opposition to the Gods. It becomes his sacrifice”.

The person gains long life when he does sacrifice under the grace of Mahadeva.

“páry asyāsmíṃl loká āyátanaṃ śiṣyate yá eváṃ vidúṣā vrā́tyenā́tisr̥ṣṭo juhóti |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:7)
“The abode of the man who sacrifices when permitted by the Vrātya (Shiva) who possesses this knowledge is long left remaining in this world”.

Now, the same hymn states what would happen if someone performs sacrifice against the permission of Vratya (Shiva). It is said that he falls from heavenly abodes (if he is a celestial), Gods become his enemies; and if he lives in the abode of man (Earth), he dies. And Daksha performed sacrifice on Earth only, without inviting Mahadeva. So, as a result he had to meet his death.

“átha yá eváṃ vidúṣā vrā́tyenā́natisr̥ṣṭo juhóti | ná pitr̥yā́ṇaṃ pánthāṃ jānāti ná devayā́nam | ā́ devéṣu vr̥ścate áhutam asya bhavati |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:8-10)
“But he who sacrifices without the permission of the Vrātya who-possesses this knowledge, knows not the path that leads to the Fathers nor the way that leads to the Gods. He is at variance with the Gods. He hath offered no accepted sacrifice”.

“nā́syāsmíṃl loká āyátanaṃ śiṣyate yá eváṃ vidúṣā vrā́tyenā́natisr̥ṣṭo juhóti |” (Atharva Veda XV:12:11)
“The abode of the man who sacrifices without the permission of the Vrātya (Shiva) who possesses this knowledge is not left remaining in this world”.

So, from above analysis from Vedas it is clear that the Original lord of sacrifice (Yajna) is lord Shiva, and if someone doesn’t recognize him as tries to do a sacrifice without involving him (advertantly or inadvertently), he falls down from heaven and also his sacrifice never becomes successful. This is what that has been stated in the Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 9.24) above.

Therefore it is evident from the above analysis that Lord Rudra is the sole lord of all sacrifices and also the first enjoyer. He accepts the sacrifice, blesses it to be successful and gives other Gods their share.

And people who do not understand this truth, fail in their attempts as like as Daksha.

Conclusion: – Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 9.24) is clear evidence that Lord Shiva was the speaker of Gita not Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 9.26)

patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati
tad aham bhakty-upahrtam asnami prayatatmanah | (BG. 9.26)
“They who offer me with reverence, leaf, flower, fruit, water–that offered with reverence, I accept from him whose self is pure”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, this verse of Gita is a personal statement and need not be present really in Vedas and Upanishads. This is a generic statement which applies on the God since God is most benevolent in nature.

Here are the references from Upanishads which talk about the list of items viz. Leaves, fruits, flowers etc. They were offered to Shiva by Bhushunda and Shiva getting pleased with that worship taught him essential knowledge of all the Vedas. And the second reference also states about Shiva’s worship by offering these items to him.

“atha jAbAlo bhusuNDaH kailAsashikharAvAsamo.nkArasvarUpiNaM brahmaviShNurudrAtItamekamAshAsyaM bhagavanta.n shivaM praNamya

muhurmuhurabhyarchya shrIphaladalaistena bhasmanA cha natottamA~NgaH
kR^itA~njalipuTaH |” (Bhasma Jabala Upanishad)
“Once Bhusunda, a descendant of Jabali went to the Kailas Peak and prostrated before Lord Mahadeva Siva, who is the form of Omkara and who is beyond the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra (destroyer deity). Bhusunda worshipped Siva with great devotion again and again through fruits, flowers and leaves”.

“raama.n trinetra.n somaardhadhaariNa.n shuulinaM param.h
bhasmoddhuulitasarvaa~Nga.n kapardinamupaasmahe |
dhyaayanneva.n varNalaksha.n japatarpaNatatparaH |
bilvapatraiH phalaiH pushhpaistilaajyaiH pa~Nkajairhunet.h |” (Ramarahasya Upanishad 2:32, 2:34)
“I worship that Rama, Who has three eyes, Who wears the crescent, Who holds the trident, Who is anointed all over by ash, And who is with matted hair. Thus meditating, devoted wholly to recitation and oblations one shall chant mantras one-hundred thousand times, offering bilva leaves, fruits, flowers, gingili seeds, and lotuses”.

The above evidence is enough and at the same time based on other Puranic scriptural injunction also we can clearly identify which god is worshiped using those items as stated in the Gita verse.

Who in the entire Hinduism is the most innocent and easily pleasing God? Who is the god who doesn’t need any costly items for his worship? Who is that God who gets satisfied with a Bilva leaf offering, with ‘Abhishekam’ of water, with even wild flowers of forest? And who is that god who surrenders himself to the devotee’s reverence, faith and devotion easily?

Answer to all these questions is well known to every single Hindu that it is that God who is known by name “Ashutosh (easily pleasing)”, and “Bhole Nath (Innocent God)”; yeah, he is none other than the supreme Lord Mahadeva alone!

“Periya Puranam” a south Indian religious text which documents the stories of 63 great Saivite devotees, has a story of “Bhakta Kannappa”, who was a hunter. He didn’t have anything to offer to Shiva and hence he offered a boar (pig)’s meat to Shiva and that was accepted with love by Shiva and he consumed without any feeling of disgust. That shows how devotion can bind and capture that supreme lord.

Conclusion: – Although this Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 9:26) cannot be verified with too many references with respect to Vedas or Upanishads, yet by the two available references as cited above it is clear that it is Shiva being talked in this Gita verse. By the Gita verse itself it is clearly visible that it is the property of Lord Shiva’s magnanimous nature. Therefore Bhagawad Gita is spoken by Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 9.34)

man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaishyasi yuktvaivam atmanam mat-parayanah | (BG. 9.34)
“Fix thy mind on me; be my devotee, my worshipper; bow to me; and thus making me thy refuge and applying thy self to abstraction, thou wilt certainly come to me, the self.'”

Reasoning & Analysis:

Who is the supreme Atman (Self) that has been clearly and elaborately discussed in section (BG. 2.16-2.18) in the very beginning. Please refer to that section to learn who is the “self (Atman / Purusha / Brahman)” as per Vedas. Let me simply give the answer – it is again Lord Shiva alone and no one else.

Conclusion: – This Bhagawad Gita verse (BG 9.34) is again the property of Lord Shiva only. And it again proves that speaker of Gita is Shiva not Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.2), (BG. 10.3)

a me viduh sura-ganah prabhavam na maharsayah
aham adir hi devanam maharsinam ca sarvasah | (BG. 10.2)
yo mam ajam anadim ca vetti loka-maheshvaram
asammudhah sa martyesu sarva-papaih pramucyate | (BG. 10.3)
“Neither the hosts of gods know my origin, nor the great Rishis, since I am, in every way, the source of the gods and the great Rishis. He that knoweth me as the Supreme Lord of the worlds, without birth and beginning, (he), undeluded among mortals, is free from all sins”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here in the (BG. 10.3) clearly two words viz. “aja” and “maheshvaram” have been used which apply only on Lord Shiva. “Aja” means “unborn” and it applies only on lord Shiva. And likewise “Mahesvara” means the “supreme ruler”. And again it is an attribute of Shiva since Shiva rules on everyone but there is none who is the boss of Shiva.

“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire-Jataveda). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”

Lord Rudra is the only unborn lord as described in Vedas and Upanishads. Let’s see some evidences in support of this point.

“vedaahametam ajaraM puraaNa.n sarvaatmaana.n sarvagata.n vibhutvaat.h |
janmanirodhaM pravadanti yasya brahmavaadino hi pravadanti nityam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:21)
“I know this undecaying, primeval One, the Self of all things, which exists everywhere, being all-pervading and which the wise declare to be free from birth. The teachers of Brahman, indeed, speak of It as eternal”.

This above verse is affirmed by the brahmavādin, the teachers of Brahman, paying a bouquet of flowery tributes to the Supreme Purusha (Rudra) as: Ajaramnever aging, Purānameternal, Sarvātmānamthe Self of all, Sarvagatameverywhere and in every being, Vibhutvātall pervasive, and Janmanirodham without birth and death and chanting that the Self is nityameternal..

Further it again states the unborn nature of Rudra in another verse as follows.

“ajaata ityeva.n kashchidbhiiruH prapadyate .
rudra yatte daxiNaM mukha.n tena maaM paahi nityam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4: 21)
“It is because you are birthless (Aja), that some rare souls, frightened by birth and death, take refuge in you. O Rudra, may your benign face protect me for ever!”

Even Rig Veda sings the praises of Rudra’s unborn nature as follows.

“tamid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamaghachanta viśve |
ajasya nābhāvadhyekamarpitaṃyasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni tasthuḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:82:6)
“The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn’s [Aja] navel, that One wherein abide all things existing”.

This is from a hymn to Viswakarman. And it is to be noted that Vedas describe lord Rudra by various names due to fear of calling Rudra by his actual names; hence among them Viswakarman is one. In fact Rig Veda 10:81:3 clearly talks about Viswakarma (Rudra)’s attribute of having faces, eyes, everywhere. It is only Bhagawan Rudra who has faces in every direction viz. Sadyojata (west), Vamadeva (North), Aghora (South), Tatpurusha (East), Eeshana (Skywards). Also Tantra states that he also has one more face which remains hidden and facing downwards. Whatever it may be, there is only one God in our scriptures who has faces in all directions – Rudra! Let’s see another verse from Rig Veda as follows.

“viśvataścakṣuruta viśvatomukho viśvatobāhurutaviśvataspāt |
saṃ bāhubhyāṃ dhamati saṃ patatrairdyāvābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ |” (RV 10:81:3)
“He who hath eyes on all sides round about him, a mouth on all sides, arms and feet on all sides, He, the Sole God, producing earth and heaven, weldeth them, with his arms as wings, together”.

The above verse RV 10:81:3 is from hymn to Viswakarma again; but that is EXACTLY same as mentioned in Svetaswatara Upanishad (3:03) as mentioned below.

“vishvatashchaxuruta vishvatomukho vishvatobaahuruta vishvataspaat.h |
saM baahubhyaa.n dhamati saMpatatrairdyaavaabhuumii janayan.h deva ekaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3.03)
“That one god (Rudra), having his eyes, his face, his arms, and his feet in every place, when producing heaven and earth, forges them together with his arms and his wings”.

So, RV 10:82:6 beyond doubt, talks about Aja (Rudra) who is “unborn” and whose navel is the support of existence. Note that, by the word “navel” one should not start assuming things like Vishnu’s nabhi Kamala etc. Navel being support of universe is a way to say that he balances the universe by his support. Navel is symbolic to ceter of gravity of human body. In fact “Aja” means “Unborn” and this is a very common name applied on Lord Rudra in his 108 names as well as in his 1000 names. (This was just for additional information only).

Further let’s see some more verses supporting Lord Rudra’s unborn nature.

“hiraṇyagarbhám paramám anatyudyáṃ jánā viduḥ |
skambhás tád ágre prā́siñcad dhíraṇyaṃ loké antarā́|” (Atharva veda X:7:28)
“Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha (pillar/Jwala-linga) poured (i.e., gave birth) that Hiranyagarbha”.

So, Lord Shiva in his Jwala-Linga form existed even before Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha), and he gave birth to Prajapati.

“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire-Jataveda). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born (as Hiranyagarbha), the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”

Regading the undecaying nature of the supreme Lord, Shruti again supports only lord Rudra as follows:

“xaraM pradhaanamamR^itaaxara.n haraH xaraatmaanaaviishate deva ekaH |

tasyaabhidhyaanaadyojanaattattvabhaavaat.h bhuuyashchaante vishvamaayaanivR^ittiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:10)

“Pradhâna (lower order Prakriti) is perishable, Hara, the Lord is immortal and imperishable. The one god rules the perishable (the pradhâna) and the (living) self. From meditating on him, from joining him, from becoming one with him there is further cessation of all illusion in the end”.

“mahaan.h prabhurvai purushhaH satvasyaishha pravartakaH |
sunirmalaamimaaM praaptimiishaano jyotiravyayaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:12)
“That person (purusha) is the great lord (iishaana); he is the mover of existence, he possesses that purest power of reaching everything, he is light, he is undecaying”.

Rudra is the highest Brahman of Vedas beyond whom nothing exists.

“yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
“He who is Rudra, he alone is Bhagawan. He is the Supreme Light and we salute him again and again”.

“yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
“There is none greater than him (Rudra), on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future”.

It is only Lord Shiva who transcends everything and is the highest Brahman. There is nothing superior to Shiva. We have the following verse from Yajurveda which also testifies this.

“yo vedaadau svaraH prokto vedaante cha pratishhThitaH
tasya prakR^itiliinasya yaH paraH sa maheshvaraH ” (Taittiriya Aranyaka
“It is Lord Maheshwara who transcends the syllable Om which is uttered at the commencement of the recital of the Vedas, which is well established in the Upanishads and which is dissolved in the primal cause during contemplation”.

Tattiriya Aranyaka states clearly that Lord Shiva (Ardhanareeshwara) is the param-brahman, purusha, truth, and righteousness.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness (rita) and Truth (satyam), is the androgynous purusha the Umamaheshvara (or Ardhanareeshwara), dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste (having semen rised up) and possessing uneven eyes (three eyed) . Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe, or whose form is the universe”.

Lord Shiva is the supreme Purusha stated in Vedas. There is nothing beyond Purusha since Purusha (Rudra) is the Para-Brahman.

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“praaNaH prasuutirbhuvanasya yonirvyaapta.n tvayaa ekapadena vishvam.h |
tva.n vishvabhuuryonipaaraH svagarbhe kumaara eko vishikhaH sudhanvaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3)
Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art the Principle of life; Thou the manifestation (the manifested world); Thou the source of the world; by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world. Thou art the world’s birth, the cause, the life supreme, and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow.

Note the above verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly states that from Lord Rudra’s one quarter only this entire creation emerged. This is the same thing stated in Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda about Bhagwan Rudra as follows.

“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ | tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi |” (Rig Veda 10:90:4)
“Three quarters of his are beyond all this; all of this creation is but from one quarter of him. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not appeared from this one quarter of His.”

Same thing has been stated in Skhambha Suktam (Hymn to Shiva’s Jwala-Linga) from Atharva Veda .

“yátra skambháḥ prajanáyan purāṇáṃ vyávartayat | ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásya purāṇám anusáṃviduḥ |” (Atharva Veda 10:7:26)
“Where Skambha (Jwala-Linga of Shiva) generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha (Linga) as the Ancient World.”

From above verses it should be clear by now that Purusha of Vedas is Rudra, hence Rudra is the Brahman above whom there is nothing superior. Since Rudra’s only a quarter portion has manifested as this world with all the deities and creatures; it is for anyone impossible to know Rudra in totality. So, Rudra transcends all types of knowledge, he cannot be known by the hosts of gods or by sages. He is infinite and cannot be known truly.

Let’s now see some verses supporting Rudra’s supremacy in direct words.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidyasmaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyekastenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:09)
“The whole universe is filled by the Purusha (Rudra), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing either smaller or greater; who stands alone, motionless as a tree, established in His own glory”.

“sa vishvakR^id.h vishvavidaatmayonirGYaH kaalakaalo guNii sarvavid.h yaH |
pradhaanaxetraGYapatirguNeshaH sa.nsaaramoxasthitibandhahetuH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:16)
“He (Rudra) makes all, he knows all, the self-caused, the knower, the time of time (destroyer of time), who assumes qualities and knows everything, the master of Prakriti (unmanifest nature) and of Jiva, the lord of the three qualities (guna), the cause of the bondage, the existence, and the liberation of the world”.

It is Rudra who exists as everyone. No one is different from him.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH | sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is the omnipresent lord Shiva”.

“mahaan.h prabhurvai purushhaH satvasyaishha pravartakaH |
sunirmalaamimaaM praaptimiishaano jyotiravyayaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:12)
“He, indeed, is the great Purusha, the Lord of creation, preservation and destruction, who inspires the mind to attain the state of stainlessness. He is the Ruler and the Light that is imperishable”.

Lord Rudra has no boss above him. He is the only boss of entire creation including all gods and creatures. Other Gods are incapable of ruling over everything with perfection. It’s only Lord Rudra who is capable since he is the highest God and hence he continues to be the ruler forever.

“ya iishe.asya jagato nityameva naanyo heturvidyata iishanaaya |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad. 6:17)
“He rules this world for ever, for no one else is able to rule it”.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH (Svet. Upa. 6:09)
“No one in the world is His master; there is no ruler who has control over him, not even a sign of him exists who rules him. He is the cause of all, and the ruler of individual souls. He has no parent, nor is there any one who is His lord”.

Bhagawan Rudra is the creator of all Gods and giver of their positions and powers.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu ||” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

No one escapes from Rudra’s blows. Be it a God or be it a normal creature, when they do errors in their duty Rudra punishes them and Veda says that no one even among Gods, can escape from his blows. So, it is Rudra alone who is the Maheshwara (Supreme ruler) of all the worlds and beings.

“yáyor vadhā́n nā́papádyate káś canā́ntár devéṣūtá mā́nuṣeṣu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ |” (Atharva Veda IV:28:5)
“Ye from whose blows no one either among gods or men escapes; ye who rule all these twofooted and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble”.

Rudra is the only one god who exists; there is none who is his match. All gods, creatures and entire creation is his own reflection.

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA |” (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.

Rudra is the Parabrahman, he is the Omkara also.

“tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava (primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the Para-Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also the Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God (Bhagavan) and it is also the lord of all things“.

Conclusion: – With the above mentioned detailed analysis it is crystal clear that Rudra is the supreme Brahman, the Maheshwara of all the worlds and is unborn and eternal. He is not known to even the Gods and sages. Therefore Bhagawad Gita (BG. 10.2) and (BG. 10.3) are direct glorification of Lord Shiva’s qualities and hence it proves once again that Bhagawad Gita was spoken by Shiva not Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.4), (BG. 10.5)

buddhir jnanam asammohah ksama satyam damah samah
sukham duhkham bhavo ’bhavo bhayam cabhayam eva ca | (BG. 10.4)
ahimsa samata tustis tapo danam yaso ’yasah
bhavanti bhava bhutanam matta eva prithag-vidhah | (BG. 10.5)
“Intelligence, knowledge, the absence of delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint, and tranquillity, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, and also security, abstention from harm, evenness of mind, contentment, ascetic austerities, gift, fame, infamy, these several attributes of creatures arise from me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, every quality – good or bad; arises from the same supreme Brahman (Rudra) only. Sri Rudram of Yajurveda is a clear cut evidence to see how enourmous is Rudra’s pool of qualities from which the Vedic seers wanted to gain certain drops of them.

Sri Rudram’s “namakam” portion shows lord Rudra’s presence in all good as well as all bad things. And the “chamakam” portion requests Rudra to grant all the great qualities and boons to the devotees.

Here I would quote only few of such qualities for the sake of evidence, sicne that hymn is a huge oen and entirely copying that here is impractical. But whatever may be the case, it is only from Lord Rudra everything proceeds as there is nothing that is different from Rudra as evident from the below verses from Vedas

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations.”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Since describing Bhagawan Rudra in every minute detail is even impossible for Vedas that’s the reason why Vedas have even declared that only from one-fourth part Rudra has become everything here, and still his three-fourths are not known to anyone. It is about lord Rudra only the Vedantis contemplate as Brahman and go into “neti neti” (not this not that) kind of whirlpool. How can one describe Rudra truly when Vedas themselves have stated that he cannot be known completely?

So, let me cite evidences from Vedas which are known to me.

In the Chamakam portion of Sri Rudram of Yajur Veda, Bhagawan Rudra is requested to provide the devotees with these qualities. So, Rudra is the giver of these means all such qualities proceed from him only.

“ojashcha me |” (O Lord Rudra! Grant me the highest intelligence)

“vriddhishcha me |” (O Lord Rudra! Grant me the superiority born out of knowledge and personality)

“mahas cha may samvich cha may |” (O Lord Rudra! make me the embodiment of vedic knowledge and the profundicity to impart the same to all others)

“aadhiitam cha me |” (O Lord Rudra! Grant me the mental knowledge)

“satyam cha me |” (O Lord Rudra! make me conscious of truth always)

“abhayam cha me |” (O Lord Rudra! Grant me Absence of fear)

Namakam portion of Sri Rudram says.

“Bhavaya Cha |” (O Rudra, you are the Source of all)

There is nothing in the universe which lord Rudra cannot grant. Everything proceeds from him only. Rudra is the Kamadhenu for those who know his nature to be such.

Conclusion: – It is from Shiva only everything proceeds; hence this verse of Bhagawad Gita is a glorification of Mahadeva alone. Therefore (BG. 10.4 – 10.5) again testify that the speaker of Gita is Shiva not Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.8)

aham sarvasya prabhavo mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam budha bhava-samanvitah | (BG. 10.8)
“I am the origin of all things, from me all things proceed. Thinking thus, the wise, endued with my nature, worship me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This is again a simple verse which directly hints about Lord Shiva only. As per Shruti, it is Shiva who is the origin of all things, he is the maintainer also, and finally all things dissolve in him only. We’ll see some evidences from Vedas here now.

“Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha | namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Rudra who is the source of all things (Bhava) and to Him who is the destroyer of all ills (Rudra). Salutations to the destroyer of everything (Sharva) and to the protector of all beings in bondage (Pashupati)”.

Taittiriya Aranyaka of Yajurveda clearly explains that everything is verily Rudra and everything is from him only.

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations.”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Conclusion: – Once more this verse of Bhagawad Gita (BG. 10. 8) is an evidence that the speaker of Bhagawad Gita was Shiva.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.21)

adityanam aham vishnur jyotisam ravir amsuman
maricir marutam asmi nakshatranam aham sasi | (BG. 10.21)
“I am Vishnu among the Adityas, the resplendent Sun among all luminous bodies; I am Marichi among the Maruts, and the Moon among constellations”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, Vibhooti Yoga chapter of Bhagawad Gita “selectively” picks up certain attributes of the Supreme Lord and shows them. Among all the Adityas he is Vishnu, that doesn’t mean other Adityas are manifestations of someone else. In fact everything is Supreme Lord only.

All the Vibhootis (manifestatiosn) are the manifestatiosn of Bhagawan Rudra ONLY; as per Vedas. There are twelve Adityas (sons of Aditi) among which Vishnu is one of them. Aditi is nothing but Uma the consort of Shiva and she when termed as ‘Aditi’ represents the infinite and unbound nature of Prakriti (Uma). Shiva is the Purusha of Vedas and Uma is the supreme Prakriti. In order to multiply and manifest the creation, Purusha (Rudra) lays his seed within the womb of Prakriti (Aditi), and she engenders it as Hiranyagarbha (Universe), and within that golden womb manifests the entire creation including all Gods. But all these Gods are again the combined manifestations of Shiva and Uma only since Shiva creates the Gods (through Uma) and pervades into them as their consciousness or Atman. Therefore there is nothing or none who is not a manifestation of Uma-Maheshwara.

Adityas are the sons of Aditi. In fact everything is a progeny of Aditi-Shiva. But in the heavenly region Uma is referred to as Aditi and hence Rudra’s children born there are called Adityas. In intermediate region (Antariksha), Uma is referred as “Prishni” and Rudra’s children born out of Uma there are called as Rudras, in the lowest region Uma is referred to as Prithvi and Rudra creates all creatures here.

Shatapatha Brahmana clearly says that from Rudra Aditya manifested. Aditya is not an independent name, and it doesn’t mean a singular entity. Aditya means “son of Aditi”, and there are twelve suns (luminaries) by various names but all are classified under the name “Aditya”. Therefore all the twelve Adityas (including Vishnu) are the manifestations of Bhagawan Rudra only as shown below.

“tamabravīdīśāno ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodādityastadrūpamabhavadādityo vā
īśāna ādityo hyasya sarvasyeṣṭe so ‘bravīdetāvānvā asmi mā metaḥ paro nāma dhā iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Îsâna (the Ruler).’ And because he gave him that name, the Sun (Aditya) became suchlike, for Îsâna is the Sun, since the Sun rules over this All. He said, ‘So great indeed I am: give me no other name after that!’”

Atharva Veda also clearly says that Shiva (Vratya) became Vishnu as follows.

“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad virā́jam annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:5)
“He, when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu and having made Virāj an eater of food”.

When Rudra entered the Hiranyagarbha and created all the Gods from his own self, he manifested various deities into various directions like scattering away. Hence he went away to stedfast region means Rudra projected Vishnu from himself towards the stedfast region.

Let’s see the evidences for whatever in theory we discussed so far.

This Soma (Sa+Uma=Shiva) lays his germ upon his consort Aditi (Uma the Mula-Prakriti) and she produces this world. Means she brings the existence into picture. Therefore she is the mother of universe.

“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe ” (RV 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the lap (womb) of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.

And then inside that golden womb (Hiranyagarbha) which is the visible universe, Rudra manifests himself as all the creatures and Gods projecting them into various directions.

“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |” (Atharva veda 10:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”

Rig Veda also confirms that Soma (Shiva) is the father of Vishnu.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and VISHNU”.

Since Rudra and Uma (Aditi) being Ardhanareeshwara are one and non-distinct in any sense; all the Gods and creatures are from Aditi (Uma).

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ
viśve devā aditiḥ pañca janā aditirjātamaditirjanitvam ” (RV 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born”

Well, the Mahabharata itself states various vibhootis of lord Shiva where lord Shiva is praised by the following verse.

“ādityānāṃ bhavān viṣṇur vasūnāṃ caiva pāvakaḥ |
pakṣiṇāṃ vainateyaś ca ananto bhujageṣu ca |” (MBH. 13:14:158)
“Among the Adityas thou art Vishnu (Upendra), among the Vasu thou art Pavaka, among birds thou art the son of Vinata (Garuda), and among snakes thou art Ananta (Sesha)”.

Conclusion: – It is Lord Shiva who is present as Vishnu. Therefore the verse (BG. 10.21) is an evidence that Bhagawad Gita was spoken by Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.22)

vedanam sama-vedo ’smi devanam asmi vasavah
indriyanam manas casmi bhutanam asmi cetana | (BG. 10.22)
“I am the Sama Veda among the Vedas; I am Vasava among the gods; I am the mind among the senses; I am the intellect in (living) beings”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This is one of the interesting verses. Here it is strange to see why God has called himself as “Sama Veda” especially when earlier it has been spoken of like all the Vedas proceed from him only [vedyam pavitram omkara rk sama yajur eva ca | (BG. 9.17)].

Of course all the four Vedas are manifestation of the supreme lord, but the reason why Sama Veda has been specially called out we’ll discuss now.

Among all the Vedas, Sama Veda receives special honor in Chhandogya Upanishad, it is called as the essence of Rig Veda from which nearly all the verses are derived. Rig Veda is most important of all the Vedas being the oldest one. Moreover, Sama Veda hymns are musical and their renditions are blissful.

“eShAM bhUtAnAM pR^ithivI rasaH pR^ithivyA apo rasaH |
apAmoShadhayo rasa oShadhInAM puruSho rasaH |
puruShasya vAgraso vAcha R^igrasa R^ichaH sAma rasaH |
sAmna udgItho rasaH |” (Chhandogya Upanishad 1:1:2)
“The essence of all these beings is the earth. The essence of the earth is water. The essence of water is vegetation. The essence of vegetation is man. The essence of man is speech. The essence of speech is Rik. The essence of Rik is Saman. The essence of Saman is Udgitha”.

It is again from Shiva only that the Riks, Yajus, Samans (Vedas) were born. Let’s see the evidences of Vedas being born from Shiva.

In Atharvana Veda, Kala Sukta, A hymn to Maha Kala form of Lord Shiva, says:

“kāló ha bhūtáṃ bhávyaṃ ca putró ajanayat purā́ |
kālā́d ŕ̥caḥ sám abhavan yájuḥ kālā́d ajāyata |” ( Atharva Veda 19:54:3)
“In Kala erst the text produced what is and what is yet to be.The Riks arose from Kala, the Yagus was born from Kala”.

Even Skhambha Suktam of Atharva Veda which is a hymn to Lord Shiva’s Jwala-Linga form talks about Vedas manifesting from Shiva as follows.

“yásmād ŕ̥co apā́takṣan yájur yásmād apā́kaṣan |
sā́māni yásya lómāny atharvāṅgiráso múkhaṃ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:20)
“Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha From whom they hewed the lichas off, from whom they chipped the Yajus, he Whose hairs are Sāma-verses and his mouth the Atharvāngi- rases?”

Same is even confirmed in Svetaswatara Upanishad also.

“chhandaa.nsi yaGYaaH kratavo vrataani bhuutaM bhavya.n yachcha vedaa vadanti |
asmaan.h maayii sR^ijate vishvametattasmi.nshchaanyo maayayaa sanniruddhaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:09)
“The sacred verses, the offerings (yajna), the sacrifices (kratu), the penances (vrata), the past, the future and all that the Vedas declare, have been produced from the imperishable Brahman. Brahman projects the universe through the power of Its maya. Again, in that universe Brahman as the jiva is entangled through maya”.

In fact all the sacred chants are produced from Shiva (Soma=lord with Uma) as confirmed in Rig Veda as well.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

We have extensively analyzed and proved in our analysis in the first set of Gita verses (BG. 2.16-2.18) that the supreme self (Atman) is none other than Lord Shiva alone. Now with that axiom in mind, if we read the below verses from Upanishads; it would become clear again that all Vedas have sprung from the breath of the Supreme Self (Atman) who is Bhagawan Rudra who is the Brahman.

“etadyadR^igvedo yajurvedaH sAmavedo.atharvAN^girasa itihAsaH purANaM vidyA upanishhadaH shlokAH sUtrANyanuvyAkhyAnAni vyAkhyAnani asyaivaitAni sarvANi nishvasitAni |” (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4:5:11)
“As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue, even so, my dear, the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharvangirasa, history, mythology, arts, Upanishads, pithy verses, aphorisms, elucidations, explanations, sacrifices, oblations in the fire, food, drink, this world, the next world and all beings are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self)”.

“tasmaadvaa etasmaadaatmani sarve praaNaaH sarve lokaaH sarve vedaaH |
sarve devaaH sarvaaNi cha bhuutaanyuchcharanti tasyopaniShatsatyasya satyamiti |
atha yathaardraidhaagnerabhyaahitasya pR^ithagdhuumaa nishcharantyeva.n vaa |
etasya mahato bhuutasya niHshvasitametadyadR^igvedo yajurvedaH saamavedo.atharvaa~Ngirasaa
itihaasaH | puraaNam.h vidyaa upaniShadaH shlokaaH suutraaNyanuvyaakhyaanaani
vyaakhyaanaanyasyaivaitaani vishvaa bhuutaani |” (Maitrayani Upanishad 6:32)
“From this very Self (Atman = Shiva), abiding within his Self, come forth all Prânas (speech etc.), all worlds, all Vedas, all gods, and all beings; its Upanishad (revelation) is that it is ‘the true of the true.’ Now as from a fire of green wood, when kindled, clouds of smoke come forth by themselves (though belonging to the fire), thus from that great Being has been breathed forth all this which is the Rig-veda, the Yagur-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharvâṅgirasas (Atharva-veda), the Itihâsa (legendary stories), the Purâna (accounts of the creation, etc), Vidyâ (ceremonial doctrines), the Upanishads, the Slokas (verses interspersed in the Upanishads), the Sûtras (compendious statements), the Anuvyâkhyânas (explanatory notes), the Vyâkhyânas (elucidations) –all these things are his”.

From the above analysis it is clear that all the Vedas have sprung from lord Shiva only. And we have also seen the importance of Sama Veda in above discussion. Therefore it is crystal clear that this verse of Bhagawad Gita is a praise of Supreme Lord Shiva only. Now let’s see other aspects discussed in this Gita verse.

Vedas proclaim that Indra is an aspect of Rudra only. It is Rudra who manifested himself as Indra (Vasava)

“sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.aśanir.eva.iti yad.aśanir.indras.tena |” (Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:3:41)
“Prajapathi said to Rudra ‘Thou art Asani’ ; for Asani is Indra”.

“sá yád dákṣiṇāṃ díśam ánu vyácalad índro bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad bálam annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:2)
“He [Vratya (Shiva)], when he went away to the southern region, went away having become Indra, and having made Strength an eater of food”.

Again another hymn from Atharva Veda called as “Hymn to ‘Bhava’ and ‘Sarva’” eulogizes lord Rudra in his two aspects (names) viz. Bhava and Sarva. If we understand these names with reference to Sri Rudram hymn from Yajurveda, then it would become clear to us that Rudra is called ‘Bhava’ because he is the source of all and everything which exists (bhavati); and Rudra is called as ‘Sarva’ because he destroys everything from creatures to gods to galaxies to entire universe at the end of time. Hence he is called the one who destroys everything (sarvam) hence the name ‘Sarva’. Atharva Veda’s hymn to Bhava and Sarva depicts Rudra’s these two names as two aspects and praises him with a song. But essentially Rudra is truly one. That hymn calls Rudra (Bhava / Sarva) as the slayer of demon “Vritra” as follows:

“sahasrākṣáu vr̥trahánā huveháṃ dūrégavyūtī stuvánn emy ugráu |
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ |” (Atharva Veda IV:28:3)
“The thousand-eyed slayers of Vritra both do I invoke. I go praising the two strong gods (ugrau) whose pastures extend far. Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble”.

It might confuse some people how can Rudra be called as the slayer of Vritra demon when actually Indra killed him? That’s because Vedas always eulogize only Rudra under various names. All forms (gods and beings) are the forms manifested from Rudra and Indra is one of them as seen in above verses. In fact there is no duality; it is Rudra’s “lordship” aspect which is termed as “Indra” in Vedas. Even Rig Veda calls Indra by name “Shiva” in certain places. All glories of all Gods are the glories of Rudra alone because there is none other than Rudra in existence! So, this proves that as per Vedas Vasava is nothing but a form of Rudra who symbolizes the “lordship” of Rudra.

Mind and Intellect are nothing but Moon (chandrama) and Sun (aditya) respectively. Shatapatha Brahmana (6:1:3:16) states that chandrama is this Rudra and Shatapatha Brahmana (6:1:3:17) states that Aditya is also Rudra. This mapping of mind and intellect with moon and sun is an indepth one, we’ll study generic meaning in next section. But whatever be the case, it is Rudra who is all these.

Well, the Mahabharata itself states various vibhootis of lord Shiva where lord Shiva is praised by the following verse.

“sāmavedaś ca vedānāṃ yajuṣāṃ śatarudriyam |
sanatkumāro yogīnāṃ sāṃkhyānāṃ kapilo hy asi |” (MBH. 13:14:159)
“Among the Vedas thou art the Samans, among the Yajushes thou art the Sata-Rudriyam, among Yogins thou art Sanatkumara, and among Sankhyas thou art Kapila”.

From above detailed analysis it is again proved that Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 10.22) talks about Bhagawan Rudra’s aspects only.

Conclusion: – Bhagawad Gita is a song of lord Shiva’s glories and the speaker is also lord Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.23)

rudranam sankaras casmi vitteso yaksha-rakshasam
vasunam pavakas casmi meruh sikharinam aham | (BG. 10.23)
“I am Sankara among the Rudras, the Lord of treasures among the Yakshas and the Rakshasas; I am Pavaka among the Vasus, and Meru among the peaked (mountains)”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, the supreme lord cannot be limited to one form among many; he cannot be present in one thing and absent in another. This Bhagawad Gita verse should not be understood like Supreme Lord’s manifestation is only one among the Rudras and other Rudras are not his forms. These verses of Bhagawad Gita only highlight the significant aspects of the Supreme Lord. We’ll study here how the Rudra named ‘Shankara’ is considered significant among others and talked about with prime importance.

Well, this verse has two meanings when it comes to the topic of Rudras; that I’ll elaborate here. But before that I need to put a caution statement on the incorrect interpretations prevailing around.

The above Gita verse is purposely mistranslated by Vaishnava websites as “among the Rudras I’m lord Shiva”. No doubt ‘Shankara’ is the name of lord Shiva only and they are one and the same, however the phrase “among the Rudras” needs to be taken into account while translating this verse. Let me explain the real meaning here.

Primarily, there are eleven Rudras called as Ekadasha-Rudras. They all are MANIFESTATIONS of Lord Rudra (Shiva) as the children of Goddess “Prishni” (Goddess Uma represented as the celestial cow). That Prishni is called as ‘Surabhi’ in Puranas, and her sons viz. the eleven Rudras are called as Maruts also in Vedas.

Rudras (Maruts) are like sons (or manifestation or incarnation) of lord Rudra (Shiva). Their names have been given differently in various Puranas and Mahabharata; because, the Puranas many a times depict the stories of previous Kalpas also. And in every Kalpa these eleven Rudras are created by lord Shiva and the names of these eleven Rudras change in every Kalpa. Lord Rudra and Prishni procreated Maruts (Rudras) as per Rig Veda as shown below.

“ajyeṣṭhāso akaniṣṭhāsa ete sam bhrātaro vāvṛdhuḥ saubhaghāya |
yuvā pitā svapā rudra eṣāṃ sudughā pṛśniḥ sudinā marudbhyaḥ |” (Rig Veda 5:60:5)
“None being eldest, none among them youngest, as brothers they have grown to happy fortune.
May their Sire Rudra, young and deft, and Pṛśni pouring much milk, bring fair days to the Maruts”.

In the present Kalpa the names of the eleven Rudras are:
1. Mahadeva, 2. Shiva , 3. Maha Rudra, 4. Shankara, 5. Neelalohita, 6. Eshana Rudra, 7. Vijaya Rudra, 8. Bheema Rudra, 9. Devadeva, 10. Bhavodbhava, and 11. Adityatmaka Srirudra.

Their 11 consorts of these 11 Rudras in this present Kalpa are respectively the following names:-
1. Dhee devi, 2. Dhritti devi, 3. Ushna (Rasala) devi, 4. Uma devi, 5. Neeyut devi, 5. Sarpi devi, 7. Eela devi, 8. Ambika devi, 9. Ieravati devi, 10. Sudha devi and 11. Deeksha devi

So, it’s just a matter of shear coincidence that the 4th son of Prishni, the 4th Marut has been named ‘Shankara’ and again it’s a divine coincidence that his wife’s name happens to be ‘Uma devi’. In next Kalpa these names might change. And since Bhagawad Gita available with us belongs to narration based on this currently running Kalpa, it is said he is Shankara among the Rudras.

But from the above quoted Rig Vedic verse we come to know that it is Rudra who has manifested (fathered) all the Rudras (maruts), so it is lord Rudra (Shiva) who is present as the Rudras including the one named ‘Shankara’. So, it again proves that, in this Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 10.23) it is Lord Shiva only speaking Gita to Arjuna. Let’s now understand the other and indepth meaning of the 11 Rudras and why one of them is marked as more prominent than others.

Maruts (Rudras) are eleven and they are nothing but the Pranas present in our body. They govern the life forces and actions of our body. Rudra (Shiva) is the Atman (Self) from which the Pranas (rudras) spring into existence. Now, let’s understand what are these eleven pranas.

Upanishads classify the Pranas in various ways; hence the numbers differ largely. Somewhere pranas are called only seven, somewhere they are said to be eight, somewhere nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen. All these statements are true based on the method adopted in categorization. However, at the end there is only one Prana which is seen in so many ways. This again matches with the non-duality aspect of Vedas. But for current Bhagawad Gita verse we need to identify that system which classifies Pranas as eleven. In this context Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad classifies the Organs (pranas) as:

“katame rudrA iti | dasheme purushhe prANAAtmaikAdashas te yadA.asmAchchharIrAnmartyAdutkrAmanty | atha rodayanti tadyadrodayanti tasmAdrudrA iti |” (Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad III:9:4)

“Which are the Rudras ? The ten organs in the human body, with the mind as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they make (one’s relatives) weep. Because they then make them weep, therefore they are called Rudras”.

These Pranas are – “eyes, nose, ears, tongue, touch (skin), speech, and mind (inner organ); hands, feet, anus and the organ of generation”. These are the eleven Pranas (Rudras). One need not get confused to see that why the organs are called as Pranas, when traditionally Pranas are meant to convey winds (life forces). The answer is, as discussed above, Upanishads have classified Pranas in various ways. Speech, Eyes etc. are also called Pranas in Brihand-Aranyaka Upanishad (III:2:1-III:2:9) and even in Chandogya Upanishad these organs have been termed as Pranas.

Out of these eleven Pranas viz. “eyes, nose, ears, tongue, touch (skin), speech, and mind (inner organ); hands, feet, anus and the organ of generation” which are Rudras; all are equally important but it is the Mind which controls every other organ. Therefore even though all these are equally important, the Mind becomes the leader of them. This Prana (Rudra) by name Mind is the “Shankara” discussed in the Gita verse.

As said, Pranas can be classified in several ways, another way is to classify them as five vital winds (Prana, Samana, Udana, Apana, Vyana), and five sub-winds (upa-Pranas) viz. naga, korma, krukura, dhananjaya, devadatta and finally the mind (manas). Here again the Mind prevails over other Pranas, hence that is the prominent Rudra among the Ekadasha Rudras (pranas). That is what is being highlighted when Gita says ‘among all the Rudras I am Shankara’.

Since all the pranas (rudras) are born from Atman (Rudra) where Atman is called “Prana of Pranas”, the duality ceases here and there is only one true god who remains i.e., Atman (Rudra) and that is called as “that (TAT)”. At the end of life, all the Pranas merge in mind (main rudra among eleven) and the mind merges into Atman (Rudra-Shiva). The same case happens with the cosmos also; everything merges into the five elements, they inturn merge into subtle elements and likewise finally everything even time gets destroyed and merged into Rudra. Only reality that shines alone is Rudra – the Brahman!

“katama eko deva iti | prANa iti sa brahma tyadityAchakshate |” (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III:9:9)
“‘Which is the one god?’ ‘The Prana (here it implies Atman which is Prana of all Pranas) is the one god; it is Brahman, which is called Tyat (that).’

The same has been expounded in Svetaswatara Upanishad as follows:

“eko hi rudro na dvitiiyaaya tasthurya imaa.nllokaaniishata iishaniibhiH |
pratyaN^ janaastishhThati saJNchukochaantakaale sa.nsR^ijya vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:02)
“Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self (Atman) of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time.”

Eight Vasus as classified in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (III:9:3) are “agnishcha pR^ithivI cha vAyushchAntarikshaM chA.a.adityashcha dyaushcha candramAshcha nakshatrANi chaite vasava |” , which means, “‘Fire, the earth, air, the sky, the sun, heaven, the moon and the stars – these are the Vasus”. Regarding these eight vasus we need not analyze separately since we have analyzed that extensively in Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 7.4) earlier. Vasus are nothing but Bhagawan Rudra’s eight manifestations also called as Ashtamurty forms. Rudra indeed in all these.

Svetaswatara Upanishad (3:04) states that Rudra is the creator of all Gods and bestower of their powers and positions. So, this includes all Gods including Kubera. And everything that exists in this universe is Rudra as per the below Vedic verse. So, all mountain ranges are Rudra alone, out of them since Meru is the most prominent one, it is primarily highlighted in Gita verse.

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Well, the Mahabharata itself states various vibhootis of lord Shiva where lord Shiva is praised by the following verse.

“parvatānāṃ mahāmerur nakṣatrāṇāṃ ca candramāḥ |” (MBH. 13:14:156)
“Thou art Meru amongst mountains, thou art the Moon among all luminaries of the firmament”.

So, from the above analysis, it is clear that this Gita verse sings praise of Rudra alone.

Conclusion: – Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 10.23) once again proves that Gita preacher was Shiva through the mouth of Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.24)

purodhasam ca mukhyam mam viddhi partha brihaspatim
senaninam aham skandah sarasam asmi sagarah | (BG. 10.24)
“Know me, O son of Pritha, to be Vrihaspati, the chief of household priests. I am Skanda among commanders of forces. I am Ocean among receptacles of water”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, this is a very direct statement revealing the God in praise as Bhagawan Rudra.

It is Bhagawan Shiva who manifested or assumed the form of Brihaspati. This is clearly stated in the following verse of Atharva Veda in a hymn to Vratya (ascetic form of Shiva).

“sá yád ūrdhvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad bŕ̥haspátir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad vaṣaṭkārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:9)
“He [Vratya (Shiva)], when he went away to the upper region, went away having become Brihaspati and having made the exclamation Vashat an eater of food”.

On similar lines the same hymn also states that it is Lord Shiva who became Ocean; as follows:

“sá mahimā́ sádrur bhūtvā́ntaṃ pr̥thivyā́ agachat samudrò ‘bhavat |” (Atharva Veda XV:7:1)
He [Vratya (Shiva)], having become moving majesty, went to the ends of the earth. He became the Ocean”.

And as per our Shastras, a son born from the seed of a father is verily that father’s second birth (or reincarnation). The son is taken as the father himself born through the womb of his wife again. In Mahabharata we have a good version of Skanda’s birth. Skanda was born from Shiva’s seed through the womb of Ganga when Agni carried Shiva’s seed and implanted that in Ganga’s womb. Therefore Skanda who is Shiva’s son is verily Shiva himself. On the other hand, Ganesha was not born from Shiva’s seed, he was directly born from Parvati (from her body’s dirt), and since Uma-Maheshwara are not separate, Ganesha is again a manifestation of Shiva only but prominently through Uma. Therefore here Bhagawad Gita didn’t mention the name of Ganesha who is an indirect manifestation whereas Skanda is a direct one. Also, note that in this Bhagawad Gita only the prominent charecters are being described, otherwise everything is Shiva’s manifestation only.

Well, the reason why a father’s seed born son is called verily the father himself reappeared is, in the beginning there was only Lord Rudra in his Jwala-Linga form (pillar of fire), also called as the Purusha (Brahman). From him, his seed issued out as seven sparks (Pranas) which he placed inside the womb of Aditi (Uma) the unbound prakriti. Prakriti (Uma / Aditi) engendered it as her womb (Hiranyagarbha). That womb is called as Prajapati also. The same Prajapati which is nothing but Uma’s womb and since Uma is the Prakriti, her womb (Hiranyagarbha) was a space-time framework (Prajapati being the year personifying time and Usha being the space). Within that space-time framework this Rudra entered and assumed the first and foremost form of an infant named “Kumara” (the boy). That Kumara was again none other than Rudra himself, who assumed eight names and from each name manifested eight Gods (Ashtamurtis) and entered those eight forms one by one. Since the infinite Rudra himself entered the womb (Hiranyagarbha) of Uma as a child but that chaild was verily Rudra himself; this incident most probably became the reason why Shastras call a son verily the father himself. In fact even Vedic hymns say that it is ONLY lord Rudra who is the old man, the young man, woman, and he himself is in the womb. Means all forms are Rudra himself. There is no room for duality anywhere.

I’ve explained the concept above, but let me quote few references in support of that here. Soma (Shiva) who was as an infinite pillar of fire (blazing consciousness) termed usually as Brahman or Purusha; from him came seven sparks (seed) which he laid in the lap of Aditi.

“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam |
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe |” (RV 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the lap (womb) of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.

She engendered it as her womb which is termed as Prajapati in Satapatha Brahmana, but essentially Prajapati is the Hiranyagarbha (visible universe) made of space and time as said below.

“tadyāni tāni bhūtāni | ṛtavaste ‘tha yaḥ sa bhūtānām patiḥ saṃvatsaraḥ so ‘tha yā soṣāḥ
patnyauṣasī sā tānīmāni bhūtāni ca bhūtānāṃ ca patiḥ saṃvatsara uṣasi reto ‘siñcantsa
saṃvatsare kumāro ‘jāyata so ‘rodīt |” (Satapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:8)
“Now, those beings are the seasons; and that lord of beings (Prajapati) is the year; and that Ushas, the mistress, is the Dawn. And these same creatures (seasons), as well as the lord of beings, the year, laid seed into Ushas (space). There a boy (kumâra) was born in a year: he cried”.

As seen in above verse, Kumara (Rudra as infant) was born. Here birth shouldn’t be taken in literal sence, Rudra is unborn always! Here the infinite Rudra the Brahman entered the visible universe and appeared there. That’s it. It is not a manifestation and not a birth in reality. Then Satapatha Brahmana (6:1:3:10-6:1:3:18) narrates how that Kumara (Rudra) manifested eight celestial forms viz. Agni, Waters, Indra, etc. from him etc. And then after entering all these eight manifestations; this boy (Rudra-Kumara) disappears. And later when all the other Gods go away leaving the Prajapati alone, from his Anger once again Rudra appears in Satapatha Brahmana (9:1:1:6). So, this again proves that Rudra’s birth is not literally a birth. Since he disappears anytime and reappears again as per his wish.

This elaborate discussion was to explain only one small point – a son born from a father’s seed is verily the father himself. Assuming that, this logic is understood, I conclude that Skanda is verily Rudra himself.

So, this again proves that the Supreme Lord glorified in Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 10.24) is verily Bhagawan Shiva only.

Conclusion: – It is again evident that Bhagawad Gita was spoken by Lord Shiva and not Krishna. Lord Krishna was just the messenger of Shiva’s voice to the mankind.

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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)

Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula, is 'षण्मातुरः' or 'षण्णां मातृणां पुत्रः' in detail, which means 'The son of six (divine) mothers' as he considers the six great goddesses viz. Parvati, Ganga, Lakshmi, Bhudevi, Saraswati, and Gayatri, as his own mothers, and sees himself as an infant in their laps. Together with their respective consorts he considers them as his own parents. He considers their children such as Ganesha, Skanda, Sanatkumara, Narada, Pradyumna etc., as his own siblings; in fact, not different from himself. He loves these six mothers very dearly, and equally loves the divine fathers; however, he has offered his 'devotion' only to Mahadeva! Hence he stands for lord Shiva safeguarding him from his haters. One would know him better from his writings.
Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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  1. Koushik

    I have this concocted “Bhagavadgita As it is”. I was curious to know what Prabhupada has written. For the verse 10.08, in his purport he gave some references from Gopala-tapani upanishad to support Krsna is the source of everything. some of the lines are as below.
    In the Atharva Veda (Gopāla-tāpanī Upaniṣad 1.24) it is said, yo brahmāṇaḿ vidadhāti pūrvaḿ yo vai vedāḿś ca gāpayati sma kṛṣṇaḥ: “It was Kṛṣṇa who in the beginning instructed Brahmā in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past.” Then again the Nārāyaṇa Upaniṣad (1) says, atha puruṣo ha vai nārāyaṇo ‘kāmayata prajāḥ sṛjeyeti: “Then the Supreme Personality Nārāyaṇa desired to create living entities.” The Upaniṣad continues, nārāyaṇād brahmā jāyate, nārāyaṇād prajāpatiḥ prajāyate, nārāyaṇād indro jāyate, nārāyaṇād aṣṭau vasavo jāyante, nārāyaṇād ekādaśa rudrā jāyante, nārāyaṇād dvādaśādityāḥ: “From Nārāyaṇa, Brahmā is born, and from Nārāyaṇa the patriarchs are also born. From Nārāyaṇa, Indra is born, from Nārāyaṇa the eight Vasus are born, from Nārāyaṇa the eleven Rudras are born, from Nārāyaṇa the twelve Ādityas are born.” This Nārāyaṇa is an expansion of Kṛṣṇa.
    I know ISKCON have twisted and turned our scriptures. But I don’t know to what extent their claim is correct and where all they have changed the actual meaning of the verse,10.08.
    Even the link to that verse is here,



    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (Post author)

      Somehow your this comment went into the spam box. There is an automatic spam detection turned ON on my site, hence probably it found links in the post and blocked it..I’m not sure what algorithm it follows.
      Anyway, – from “me” proceeds everything etc., denote the “I (self)” as per Advaita. Different schools of thought might have their own interpretations.

      Best Regards,


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