Hidden Secrets of Bhagawad Gita Revealed -8


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BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.25)


maharsinam bhrgur aham giram asmy ekam aksharam
yajnanam japa-yajno ’smi sthavaranam himalayah | (BG. 10.25)
“I am Bhrigu among the great Rishis, I am the One, undestructible (syllable Om) among words. Of sacrifices I am the Japa-sacrifice. Of immobiles I am the Himavat”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, for the specially customized versions of Vibhhotis we may not be able to trace evidences in Vedas for everything. Vedas have clearly told and yes, told numerous times that whatever exists as mobile or immobile creation including two footed, four footed, winged creatures; and whatever existed in the past, whatever exists at present, and whatever is destined to take birth in future; everything is Rudra himself.

So, there is no point in trying to identify proofs for “Brhigu Rishi”, “Himalaya Mountains” etc. Every one who would have read Vedas and Upanishads would understand beyond doubt that Bhrigu, mountains, etc. forms (vibhhotis) are “subsets” of Rudra’s universal form. In fact Vedas have exhausted the best of tehir limits to describe Mahadeva’s vibhootis in Sri Rudram itself. There is no “Vibhooti Yoga” in any Gita which is as detailed as Rudram hymn. Satarudriya hymn is nothing but the biggest Vibhooti Yoga of Rudra. But still Vedas expressed their inability to describe Mahadeva and said, they know only a quarter fragment of Rudra, his other portion is unknown to them. That is the supreme nature of that illustrious deity, the husband of Bhavani viz. Shiva!

So, I’ll only state here the generic “super set” from Vedas and that should include everything.

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat |
sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha | namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha | namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atharva Veda X-8-28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

These verses proves the fact that it’s only Lord Shiva who is the Poorvaja (Ancient), Jyeshtha (Eldest among the born i.e Hiranyagarbha), and Kanishtha (youngest one which includes every new foetus being born).

The above verses should suffice to understand that everything is Shiva only. Now let me quote evidences from Vedas on the Pranavam (OM) aspect. This is again Lord Rudra who is the indestructible syllable, OM.

“sarvakaraNAni manasi saMpratiShThApya dhyAna.n viShNuH prANaM manasi saha karaNaiH saMpratiShThApya dhyAtA rudraH prANaM manasi sahakaraNairnAdAnte paramAtmani saMpratiShThApya dhyAyIteshAnaM pradhyAyitavya.n sarvamidaM |” (Atharvashika Upanishad 2:1)
“The pranava (the sound of Om) makes all the souls to bow before it. It is the one and only one which has to be meditated upon as the four Vedas and the birth place of all devas. One who meditates like that goes away from all sorrows and fears and gets the power to protect all others who approach him. It is because of this meditation only that Lord Vishnu who is spread every where, wins over all others. It is because Lord Brahma controlled all his organs and meditated upon it, he attained the position of the creator. Even Lord Vishnu , parks his mind in the sound (Om) of the place of Paramathma (ultimate soul) and meditates upon Eeshana, who is most proper to be worshipped. All this is only proper in case of Eeshana”.

“namastaraya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka 8)
“Salutations to Lord Rudra who is the Pranava Mantra – OM”

“tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava (primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also the Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things”.

Conclusion: – Vedas recognize only lord Shiva as everything including the Pranavam (OM). So, doubtless it is that all the Vibhootis are Rudra’s vibhhotis only. Therefore speaker of Gita is again confirmed as Shiva only

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.26 – 10.30)

ashvatthah sarva-vrksanam devarsinam ca naradah
gandharvanam citrarathah siddhanam kapilo munih | (BG. 10.26)
uccaihsravasam asvanam viddhi mam amrtodbhavam
airavatam gajendranam naranam ca naradhipam | (BG. 10.27)
ayudhanam aham vajram dhenunam asmi kamadhuk
prajanas casmi kandarpah sarpanam asmi vasukih | (BG. 10.28)
anantas casmi naganam varuno yadasam aham
pitrnam aryama casmi yamah samyamatam aham | (BG. 10.29)
prahladas casmi daityanam kalah kalayatam aham
mrganam ca mrgendro ’ham vainateyas ca paksinam | (BG. 10.30)
“I am the “Ashwattha” tree among all trees, I am Narada among the celestial Rishis. I am Chitraratha among the Gandharvas and the ascetic Kapila among ascetics crowned with Yoga success. Know me to be Uchchaisravas among horses, brought forth by (the churning for) nectar, Airavata among princely elephants, and the king among men. Among weapons I am the thunderbolt, among cows I am (she called) Kamadhuk. I am Kandarpa the cause of reproduction, I am Vasuki among serpents. I am Ananta among Nagas, I am Varuna among acquatic beings, I am Aryaman among the Pitris, and Yama among those that judge and punish. I am Prahlada among the Daityas, and Time among things that count. I am the lion among the beasts, and Vinata’s son among winged creatures”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here I’m excluding commenting on the “Ashwattha Tree”. That is a beautiful thing to write an elaborated commentary which I would write in Gita verse no. (BG. 15.1) where Ashwattha tree’s concept has been specifically cited.

Thunderbolt is called Vajra, which implies it is the indestructible and terrible weapon. And in Vedas Rudra is called to be wielding Thunderbolt.

“śreṣṭho jātasya rudra śriyāsi tavastamastavasāṃ vajrabāho |
parṣi ṇaḥ pāramaṃhasaḥ svasti viśvā abhītī rapaso yuyodhi |” (Rig Veda 2.33.3)
” In glory thou art the most glorious of all that exists, O Rudra, the strongest of the strong, thou wielder of the thunderbolt! Carry us happily to the other shore of our anguish, and ward off all assaults of mischief”.

In fact Lord Rudra wields all the weapons. There is no weapon that is not his. Even the terrible Sudarshana discus is actually created by Rudra and it belongs to him, which he later donated to Vishnu. Lord Rudra wields thousands of weapons. This is testified by Yajurveda itself.

“Sahasrani sahasradha bahuvostava hetayah Tasamishano bhagavah parachina mukha kridhi |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-10)
“In your arms exist thousands of kinds of weapons in thousands of numbers.But Bhagavan; You art Lord and master of them. Turn their hurtful faces away from us”.

Kamadhuk”, is a wish-fulfilling cow. But it has two meanings here. One generic meaning (ardham) is the celestial cow; and the inner meaning (antarArdham) is that the supreme lord is the one who can give away anything that is desired by the devotee. A God cannot be called Kamadhuk unless he has the capability of giving everything desired. If he has any limitations, he cannot be all-wish-fulfilling one.

The celestial cow in Vedas is called Prishni (and Aditi). She is the consort of Rudra, and since they are one Rudra is the celestial cow Prishni. This is a normal meaning hence not desiring to elaborate on this.

It is Rudra only who is the one true God of Vedas who fulfills everything. Vedas recognize only Lord Rudra as the “bounteous giver” of everything including ‘immortality’. Entire “Chamakam” portion of ‘Satarudriya hymn’ is dedicated to seeking boons and wishes from Rudra. I don’t think anyone can have any other desire in their lifetime on this earth and also after departure apart from what has been listed in Chamakam. Copying everything from Chamakam here is not possible, but one would easily understand by reading Chamakam that Rudra has been asked to provide everything that we can imagine – mansions, prosperity, lands, cattle, progeny, health, longevity of life, peace, wisdom, wealth, fame, name, crops, and what not? Everything you name it, you’ll have it in Chamakam!

Not only these material desires, but even immortality has been asked in Rudram hymn. It would be surprising to note but it is a fact that in all the Vedas only Lord Rudra has been asked to give Salvation (Moksha). Vedas do not recognize any other God (Including Vishnu), who can award immortality. Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra is an example which exists in Rig Veda, and Yajur Veda also. In Rudram hymn it has been clearly mentioned that it is Rudra who ferries men over the ocean of Samsaara and awards them liberation (Moksha) from that vicious cycle of births and deaths.

There is none in the entire Vedas except Rudra, who can confer on us so many boons including immortality.

“kumāraścit pitaraṃ vandamānaṃ prati nānāma rudropayantam |
bhūrerdātāraṃ satpatiṃ ghṛṇīṣe stutastvaṃ bheṣajā rāsyasme |” (Rig Veda 2:33:12)
“I bend to thee as thou approachest, Rudra, even as a boy before the sire who greets him.
I praise thee Bounteous Giver, Lord of heroes: give medicines to us as thou art lauded”.

“ajaata ityeva.n kashchidbhiiruH prapadyate | rudra yatte daxiNaM mukha.n tena maaM paahi nityam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:21)
“It is because you are birthless, that some rare souls, frightened by birth and death, take refuge in you. O Rudra, may your benign face protect me for ever!”

“tvamaghne rājā varuṇo dhṛtavratastvaṃ mitro bhavasi dasma īḍyaḥ |
tvamaryamā satpatiryasya sambhujaṃ tvamaṃśo vidathe deva bhājayuḥ |” (Rig Veda 2:1:4)
“Agni, thou art King Varuṇa whose laws stand fast; as Mitra, Wonder-Worker, thou must be implored. Aryaman, heroes’ Lord, art thou, enriching all, and liberal Aṁśa in the synod, O thou God”.

In above verse it is Agni who is present in all other forms like Varuna, Aryaman, Mitra. However Shatapatha Brahmana (1:7:3:8) clearly tells that Vedas call Rudra only under the name of Agni. In fact Vedas call Rudra under various names due to fear of calling him by his direct names. Based on this, the below verse of Veda is also about Rudra only as being present in all the forms of Gods.

“indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān |
ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:164:46)
“They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garutmān.
To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan”.

Leaving the Puranic vibhootis aside we have seen that most of the Vibhootis are Shiva’s forms as per Vedas. In fact everything is Shiva only.

Conclusion: – Bhagawad Gita is a song of Shiva’s glories. Shiva was the speaker of Gita.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.31)

pavanah pavatam asmi ramah shastra-bhrtam aham
jhasanam makaras casmi srotasam asmi jahnavi | (BG. 10.31)
“Of purifiers I am the wind. I am Rama among wielders of weapons. I am the Makara among fishes, and I am Jahnavi (Ganga) among streams”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Rudra became the Wind god (Vayu) as stated in Shatapatha Brahmana (6:1:3:13). Rudra manifested as Waters as stated in Shatapatha Brahmana (6:1:3:11). Also, Sri Rudram from Yajurveda talks extensively about Rudra’s presence in all sources of waters viz. wells, ponds, rivers, lakes, fountains etc. Hence Ganga is one of the prominent expansion of Rudra among the water bodies.

All creatures are also created by Uma and Shiva and it is they who rule them also.

“yáyor vadhā́n nā́papádyate káś canā́ntár devéṣūtá mā́nuṣeṣu |
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ |” (Atharva Veda IV:28:5)
“Ye from whose blows no one either among gods or men escapes; ye who rule all these twofooted and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble”.

“gaurīrmimāya salilāni takṣatyekapadī dvipadī sā catuṣpadī |
aṣṭāpadī navapadī babhūvuṣī sahasrākṣarā parame vyoman |” (RV 1.164.41)
“Forming the water-floods, the buffalo (cow) hath lowed, one-footed or two-footed or four-footed, she, Gauri, Who hath become eight-footed or hath got nine feet, the thousand-syllabled in the sublimest heaven.

“tasyāḥ samudrā adhi vi kṣaranti tena jīvanti pradiśaścatasraḥ |
tataḥ kṣaratyakṣaraṃ tad viśvamupa jīvati |” (RV 1.164.42)
“From her (Gauri) descend in streams the seas of water; thereby the world’s four regions have their being, Thence flows the imperishable flood and thence the universe hath life”.

Conclision: – Bhagawad Gita vibhootis are also the glories of Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.32)

sarganam adir antas ca madhyam caivaham arjuna
adhyatma-vidya vidyanam vadah pravadatam aham | (BG. 10.32)
“Of created things I am the beginning and the end and also the middle, O Arjuna. I am the knowledge of Supreme Spirit among all kinds of knowledge, and the disputation among disputants”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Beginning, Middle and End of created things implies that the creation (birth), maintenance (protection) and destruction (death) of all the creation is the Supreme Lord. This is again nothing but the attributes of Mahadeva alone. He alone is the creator, preserver and destroyer.

Vedas call only lord Rudra as the creator, preserver and destroyer.

“Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha |
namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha ||” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Him who is the source of all things (Bhava) and to Him who is the destroyer of all ills (Rudra). Salutations to the destroyer of everything (Sharva) and to the protector of all beings in bondage (Pashupati)”.

“namo bhuvantaye varivaskritayaushhadhinam pataye namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to Him who has created the world and spread it broad, the creator of riches and lover of those who are devoted to Him; to the Lord of all vegetation, salutations”.

Rudra is the supreme protector of all the worlds (bhuvanani) not just earth.

“vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:02)
“Rudra is the protector of all the worlds”

Rudra is not just the creator, preserver and destroyer, he is the lord of two more tasks viz. Tirodhana (unveiling by Maya), and Anugraha (unveiling of Maya and rewarding with Salvation).

“namah paryaya chavaryaya cha |
namah prataAranaya chottaranaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether (liberates)”.

From above analysis it is clear that these attributes pointed out in Bhagawad Gita are those of Lord Shiva only.

Conclusion: – Bhagawad Gita is a song of Shiva’s glories and the actual revealer of Gita was Shiva.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.33)

aksharanam a-karo ’smi dvandvah samasikasya ca
aham evakshayah kalo dhataham vishvato-mukhah | (BG. 10.33)
“Among all letters I am the letter A, and (the compound called) Dwanda among all compounds. I am also Time Eternal, and I am the Ordainer with face turned on every side”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

In Sanskrit the sound of the letter `A’ weighs more prominently in every letter, and it makes the pronunciation of the words very sweet and rhythmical. Most of the words or sentences of Saksrit either end in ‘Akara’ or begin with ‘Akara’. It is the first vovel sound also and in all the languages it occupies the first place among the alphabets. This is the reason ‘A’, carries such a great significance.
However that doesn’t mean other letters are insignificant. We should understand that here the Gita is highlighting only the prominent aspects, but in reality everything is the supreme lord only.

Out of all the syllables the foremost sound that exists is Pranavam (OM). The syllable ‘OM’, It is divided into primarily three components viz. A-U-M, where the three letters signify creation, preservation and destruction of the universe. Vedas proclaim that it is Rudra who is the Omkara (Pranava) as Yajurveda states “nama staraya cha” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8), which means, “Salutations to Him (Rudra) who is the TARAKA (Pravana mantra – Om)”. So, Rudra is himself situated in the three letters viz. ‘A’, ‘U’, and ‘M’. So, this is a good evidence to understand that the akaram (‘A’ ) is also Rudra only.

Dwandwa (two) is a type of compound word in Sanskrit language. In fact everywhere we can see the Dwandwa (two fold) entity prevailing. This entire universe and life is based on two concepts viz. Satyam (real) and Mithya (unreal). This duality is caused by Maya and is born out of ignorance. As we know the lord of Maya is Shiva under whose control this world functions; this world which lives in duality (Dwandwa) is caused by Maheshwara only. But when a devotee attaches himself to Maheshwara’s feet and discards all his worldly attachments; Maheshwara blesses him wisdom and then the devotee sees only the Satyam (Real – which is Shiva), and the other aspect of Dwadwa viz. Mithya (false – which is jagat) ceases to exist; and that devotee gets ferried from bondage to salvation. This entire arrangement of Dwandwa is Mahadeva only.

Rudra is only the god who is vishwatomukham (having faces every side). Well, this also has two meanings. In a generic tone yes, Rudra has faces on all sides hence he is the one god whom Vedas call with Vishwatomukham, Sarvatomukham kind of adjectives. However the inner meaning is, the supreme lord is all-pervasise, he sees everything, he hears everything, he is present in everything. In short, it implies all forms (gods, creatures, humans) everything is his own form. In this connection again Vedas call only lord Rudra as possessing that attribute of Brahman.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

And it is again lord Rudra only who is the eternal time (Maha Kala). In Atharva Veda (19:54) there is a hymn to Shiva on his time aspect called ‘Kala Suktam’.

Therefore it is to be understood that it is only Shiva who has been sung in the entire Bhagawad Gita.

Conclusion: – Bhagawad Gita is a song of Shiva’s glories and (BG. 10.33) again proves that God of Bhagawad Gita is Shiva.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.34)

mrityuh sarva-haras caham udbhavas ca bhavisyatam
kirtih srir vak ca narinam smritir medha dhrtih ksama | (BG. 10.34)
“I am Death that seizeth all, and the source of all, that is to be. Among females, I am Fame, Fortune, Speech, Memory, Intelligence, Constancy, Forgiveness”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse also sings only Shiva’s glories.

It is Lord Rudra whose one aspect is Mrityu (Death). All gods and aspects are the forms of Rudra only. Yajurveda hails in one verse the aspect of death as Rudra as follows.

“Ye te sahasramayutam pasha mrityo martyaya hantave |
Tanh yagyasya mayaya sarvanava yajamahe |
Mrityave svaha mrityave svaha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka 11)
“Oh Death in the form of Rudra. Those countless nooses of yours by which You destroy all mortal creatures, we shall loosen them by the efficiency of our worship of you.I offer this sacred food offering in sacrifice to Rudra the Destroyer”.

Rudra is the source of all.

“Namo bhavaya cha ” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Him who is the source of all things (Bhava)”.

The qualities of females viz., Fame, Fortune, Speech, Memory, Intelligence, Constancy, and Forgiveness; all are usually bestowed by Goddess Lakshmi (Sri). She is the goddess who grants these auspicious qualities to females. These qualities are not just materialistic; rather these qualities lead one towards the personality having Satwik nature which inturn enables one towards visualizing divinity more clearly. Of course these qualities are not just copyrighted for females as such even men possess them, but here especially females have been cited because, it is a female which always persuades a male towards goodness; a woman in the form of a mother (in childhood), in the form of a sister (till her marriage), and in the form of a wife (till end of life), remains as a constant companion sharing all pleasures and pains, while at the same time ensuring that the males always do what is right. (of course exceptions do exist, but Sanatana Dharma talks what is the right thing to do). In Vedas & Smritis women have been given a high importance in the society.

“yakshA uvAcha | dharmamarthascha kAmascha paraspara virodhina.h | EshAm nityivaruddhAnAm kathamEkatra sangamaM |
yudhishthirah uvAcha | yadA dharmasya bhAryAm cha parasparavashAnugau |
tadA dharmArdhakAmAnam trayAnAmapi sangamaM |” (Mahabharata, Yaksha Prashna)
“The yaksha is making a query — virtue, welath and desire are three mutually conflicting factors in human life. In pursuing virtue on can face a situation where his wealth is depleted and his personal desires are challenged to their detriment often. The query is as to how these three can be balanced to have a good life. Yudhistira has a very learned answer. The day to day good deeds of a man are mostly under the silent guidance of his wife. Besides the domestic finance cannot be managed without the active support of the good wife..And for an honest man all his desires are fulfilled and enjoyed in the happiness of his wife. Thus if one man has a discerning and wise lady as his wife..there will be absolute control of all his varied aspects of life”.

So, from the above verses from Mahabharata we can see how a woman (wife) with good qualities can fulfil all the three purusharthas for a man. So, this is the reason why this Gita verse hails the good qualities of woman more prominently. She singly can transform the entire life of a man. Now, let’s analyze them further.

All the good virtuous qualities of females are conferred by the grace of goddess Sri. But it is in fact lord Rudra only who exists as Goddess Lakshmi and also as all the superior female goddesses.

Goddess Sri (lakshmi) the goddess of fortune manifested from Prajapati as shown in below verse from Satapatha Brahmana.

“prajāpatirvai prajāḥ sṛjamāno’tapyata tasmācrāntāttapānācrīrudakrāmatsā dīpyamānā |
bhrājamānā lelāyantyatiṣṭhatāṃ dīpyamānām bhrājamānāṃ lelāyantīṃ devā abhyadhyāyan |” (Satapatha Brahmana 11:4:3:1)
“Pragâpati was becoming heated (by fervid devotion), whilst creating living beings. From him, worn out and heated, Srî (Fortune and Beauty) came forth. She stood there resplendent, shining, and trembling. The gods, beholding her thus resplendent, shining, and trembling, set their minds upon her”.

Prajapati is nothing but a framework consisting of space and time.

“tadyāni tāni bhūtāni | ṛtavaste ‘tha yaḥ sa bhūtānām patiḥ saṃvatsaraḥ |” (Satapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:8)
“Now, those beings are the seasons; and that lord of beings (Prajapati) is the year;”.

So, goddess Sri manifested inside the universe. But who is that Sri and where from she manifested? It is again Lord Rudra who takes these forms within the universe (Prajapati).

Athatva Veda has a hymn to Shiva (Vratya) which details out how Shiva first manifested himself within Prajapati and then later details out that it is Shiva who spread inside the Prajapati (universe) assuming the forms of various deities.

“vrā́tya āsīd ī́yamāna evá sá prajā́patiṃ sám airayat || sá prajā́patiḥ suvárṇam ātmánn apaśyat tát prā́janayat || tád ékam abhavat tál lalā́mam abhavat tán mahád abhavat táj jyeṣṭhám abhavat tád bráhmābhavat tát tápo ‘bhavat tát satyám abhavat téna prā́jāyata || (Atharva Veda 15:1:1-3)
sò ‘vardhata sá mahā́n abhavat sá mahādevò ‘bhavat || sá devā́nām īśā́ṃ páry ait sá ī́śāno ‘bhavat || sá ekavrātyò ‘bhavat sá dhánur ā́datta tád evéndradhanúḥ || nī́lam asyodáraṃ lóhitaṃ pr̥ṣṭhám || nī́lenaivā́priyaṃ bhrā́tr̥vyaṃ prórṇoti lóhitena dviṣántaṃ vidhyatī́ti brahmavādíno vadanti ||” (Atharva Veda 15:1:4-8)
“There was Vratya( Ascetic form of Lord shiva) . He roused Prajapati to action. Prajapati beheld gold in himself and engendered it. That became unique, that became distinguished, that became great, that became excellent, that became Brahman, that became Tapas, that became Truth: through that he was born. He grew, he became great, he became Mahadeva.He gained the lordship of the Gods. He became Ishana. He became Eka Vratya. He held a bow, even that Bow of Indra. His belly is dark-blue, his back is red( Nila Lohitam) . With dark-blue he envelops a detested rival, with red he pierces the man who hates him: so the theologians say”.

All gods and all creatures are the forms manifested from Rudra only within this universe (Prajapati / Hiranyagarbha). Atharva Veda makes this clear as follows.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ |
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:8:28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child.As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

Lord Rudra is all the female gods also. He is in fact all males, all females, old men, infants and everything that exists is Rudra alone. Svetaswatara Upanishad also confirms this fact as follows.

“tváṃ strī́ tváṃ púmān asi tváṃ kumārá utá vā kumārī́ |
tváṃ jīrṇó daṇḍéna vañcasi tváṃ jātó bhavasi viśvátomukhaḥ |” (Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:03)
“Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youth and maiden too. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff; it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms”.

So, goddess Lakshmi (Sri) who manifested from Prajapati is nothing but Rudra only. It’s Rudra who exists as Lakshmi (Sri) and in fact all the superior female goddesses viz. Lakshmi, Saraswati etc. all are Rudra’s forms only. They are not different from him. This is confirmed in below verse from Yajur Veda.

“nama uganabhyastrihatibhyashcha vo namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-4)
“Salutations to you O Rudra, who are in the form of the superior female Gods and the fierce vengeful and powerful Goddesses”.

In fact Rudra is all those born on earth and all those born in other worlds (gods, goddesses, sadhyas, pitris, demons, gandhervas, nagas etc. everything):

“Namo sobhyaya cha parthi saryaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to him who is born in earth and to him who is born in other worlds”.

Even in Shiva Sahasranama Stotram from Anushasana Parva of Mahabharata Lord Shiva is eulogized as “Om Ye Namah” which means “Salutations to the Lord who is in the form of goddess Lakshmi”.

This proves that all the female qualities of fortune and prosperity which come from the grace of Sri (lakshmi) are actually derived from Rudra. From a specific potency of Rudra a god / goddess manifests. But original source always remains Rudra only. That is the reason why Vedas requested lord Rudra only to shower all those qualities on the devotees in Chamakam portion of Satarudriya hymn. Sri Rudram Chamakam portion states it clearly that the Lord of Riches is Rudra alone. And hence Vedic hymns of Chamakam request time and again to Lord Rudra to shower proeprity, grace, fame, wealth, etc. on them. Here are few direct extarcts from Chamakam to support this point. “shreyashcha me”, “vasyashcha me”, “yashashcha me”, “arthashcha me”, “dhanam cha me”…etc.

So, this is proven beyond doubt that it is Rudra who is the death, it is Rudra who is the source of everything to be and it is again Rudra from whom all the female qualities take their birth from.

Conclusion: – This is again proven beyond doubt that Bhagawad Gita is spoken by Shiva and it entirely revolves around Shiva’s glories and about the path which leads towards him.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.35)

brihatsaama tathaa saamnaam gaayatree chhandasaamaham
maasaanam maargasheersho’ham ritoonaam kusumaakarah | (BG. 10.35)

Among the Saman-hymns I am the Brihat Saman; among the metres Gayatri I am ; among months I am Margashirsha; and among seasons (I am) the flowery spring.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This Vibhooti Yoga chapter actually states some selectively picked Vibhootis (items or forms), of the supreme lord. But in fact the supreme lord is everything. Well, here also it is a clear cut proof that the speaker of Gita was lord Shiva only. It is lord Shiva who exists in all the hymns, he exists in the Gayatri meter, and he exists in all the seasons.

Rudra is the lord of hymns as well as their creator too. Let’s first see the superset and then we would proceed to the details of the subsets.

The below verse from Rig Veda narrates the lordship of Rudra on the sacred chants and hymns.

“ghāthapatiṃ medhapatiṃ rudraṃ jalāṣabheṣajam tacchaṃyoḥ sumnamīmahe ” (RV 1:43:5)
“To Rudra Lord of sacrifice, of hymns and balmy medicines, We pray for joy and health and strength”.

Atharva Veda’s Vratya Suktam which Is a hymn to Lord Rudra’s ascetic form (Vratya) states that, It is Rudra (Vratya) from whom all the sacred formulas (includes all hymns, rituals etc), and Vedas got manifested.

“sá uttamā́ṃ díśam ánu vy àcalat | tám ŕ̥caś ca sā́māni ca yájūṃṣi ca bráhma cānuvyàcalan |
r̥cā́ṃ ca vái sá sā́mnāṃ ca yájuṣāṃ ca bráhmaṇaś ca priyáṃ dhā́ma bhavati yá eváṃ véda |” (Atharva Veda 15:6.3)
“He went away to the last region. Richas, Sāmans Yajus formulas and Devotion followed him. He who possesses this knowledge becomes the dear home of Earth and Agni and herbs and trees and shrubs and plants”

The same is confirmed in Svetaswatara Upanishad also as mentioned below.

“chhandaa.nsi yaGYaaH kratavo vrataani bhuutaM bhavya.n yachcha vedaa vadanti |

asmaan.h maayii sR^ijate vishvametattasmi.nshchaanyo maayayaa sanniruddhaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:09)
“The sacred verses, the offerings (yajna), the sacrifices (kratu), the penances (vrata), the past, the future and all that the Vedas declare, have been produced from the imperishable Brahman (Rudra). Brahman (Rudra) projects the universe through the power of its Maya. Again, in that universe Brahman (Rudra) as the Jiva is entangled through Maya”.

We have seen the superset in the above discussion. Now let’s focus on each aspect distinctly.

Brihatsaman – Of all the meters in Sama Veda, the meter called `Brihati’ is the most difficult one and the songs composed in this meter are called `Brihatsaman’. And as per Vedas it is lord Rudra only who exists in the form of Brihati meter. In fact Brihati and Ratnatara meters emerged from Rudra only. This is evident from the below verses.

Rudra (Vratya) created Brihati, and Ratnatara meters and projected them towards the eastern region.

“sá úd atiṣṭhat sá prā́cīṃ díśam ánu vy àcalat | táṃ br̥hác ca rathantaráṃ cādityā́ś ca víśve ca devā́ anuvyàcalan |” (Atharva Veda XV:2:1)

“He (Vratya / Shiva) arose and went his way to the eastern region. The Brihat, the Rathantara, the Ādityas and all the Gods followed him”.

Note here that in the above verse, the phrases “he went away… “And “…they followed him” are poetic expressions to state that the meters and gods emerged from Rudra. It should be understood as Vratya (Rudra) manifested these all from him and projected them in the eastern direction. Just in case someone is still not convinced with this point, let me quote an example here to explain the poetic style adopted in this hymn.

Here in the below verse it is stated that when Vratya went towards western region, King Varuna followed him.

“sá úd atiṣṭhat sá pratī́cīṃ díśam ánu vy àcalat | táṃ vairūpáṃ ca vairājáṃ cā́paś ca váruṇaś ca rā́jānuvyàcalan |”

“He arose and went away to the western region. Vairūpa and Vairāja, the Waters, and King Varuna followed him”.

This is a poetic way to state that god Varuna got manifested from Vratya and was projected in western direction. This is made clear in the same hymn in another place as follows.

“sá yát pratī́cīṃ díśam ánu vyácalad váruṇo rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad apò ‘nnādī́ḥ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:3)

“He (Vratya-Shiva), when he went away to the western region, went away having become King Varuna, and having made the Waters eaters of food”.

So, I suppose my previous point has become convincing now to the readers. Let’s now proceed further.

Therefore, all these manifestations are actually not different from Vratya (Rudra) and he himself becomes all these. So, the meters viz. Brihati and Ratnatara were produced by Vratya (Rudra) and in fact he himself is all these. So, he is present in the form of these meters also. Hence, all the hymns which are composed in Brihati meter contain Rudra’s presence in them.

Gayatri – This meter is the most divine and powerful. It has three feet and each foot has eight syllables. Therefore Gayatri meter consists of 24 syllables in total. The hymn composed in this meter is called “Gayatri Mantra” which glorifies the Supreme Being (Rudra) as Savitar (Sun). This discussion is a lengthy one and since I had already written an elaborated article on this, would like to redirect the readers to that article for a detailed understanding of Gayatri. Please read my article titled, “Rudra! – The God of Sandhya Vandanam and Gayatri Mantra”. From that article it would become clear that Gayatri Mantra, God of Gayatri Mantra, the three Sandhya Times, Sandhya Vandanam, the Deity of Sandhya Vandanam everything is Bhagawan Rudra only.

Margasira month & Spring Season – Margasira month marks the end of cold season and initiates the beginning of the pleasant season called spring. Spring is the season which is called “kusumAkarA” because in this season all trees shed theirLink old leaves and create new leaves, and flowers. Spring is the flowery season with all colors, beauty and charm. Hence Margasira and spring are taken as the most pleasant periods of the year, where Margasira is the month and spring is the season. Here these seasons are specifically cited in Gita just because from the aspect of comfort this period remains as the most favorable one among all other seasons. That doesn’t mean other seasons are not the manifestations of the Supreme Being.

And as per Vedas, all the seasons and months emerged from Rudra only. The Hymn to Vratya (Rudra) states that four seasons, and the Year (comprises of 12 months) all were created from Vratya’s breath as follows.

“yò ‘sya pañcamó vyānás tá r̥távaḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.5)
“His fifth diffused breath are the Seasons”.

“yò ‘sya saptamó vyānáḥ sá saṃvatsaráḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.7)
“His seventh diffused breath is the year”.

So, from above discussion it is evident that the Brihatsaman, Gayatri, Margasira, and spring all are the manifestations of Bhagawan Rudra only. So, it is Rudra who is present in these.

Conclusion: – It is once again evident from the above discussion that the speaker of Bhagawad Gita was Lord Shiva and Krishna was just a mode of communicating Shiva’s divine message to the mankind.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.36)

dyutam chalayatam asmi tejas tejasvinam aham
jayo ’smi vyavasayo ’smi sattvam sattvavatam aham | (BG. 10.36)
“I am the game of dice of them that cheat, and the splendour of those that are splendid. I am Victory, I am Exertion, I am the goodness of the good”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

In Vedas we have only one god whom Veda praises as present in everything, viz. good and bad both. In Sri Rudram hymn to lord Rudra which is available in Yajurveda; it has been described at leangth all the vibhootis of Lord Rudra. The Mantra Drashta (seer) of that hymn realized the presence of Rudra in everything right from the rising and setting sun to thieves, robbers, soldiers, commanders, smugglers, wells, ponds, streams, plants, audience, host and in every good and bad thing Rudra’s presence was found to be existing.

Well, in this Bhagawad Gita verse we have very customzed version of vibhootis; which we may not find specifically as it is, but if one reads the Satarudria hymn it would become clear to us that Rudra is not only present in all the good things, but he is present even in thieves, murderers etc. also.

So, definitely these qualities spoken in this Gita verse solely belong to Rudra only. Let’s see some of his attributes described in Satarudriya hymn from where we can understand that Rudra is in fact in everything.

Rudra is in the form of all the kinds of thieves and Cheats:

“stenanam pataye namo |” (Leader of the thieves) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.2)

“thaskaraanam pathaye namo |” (Lord of those smugglers and dacoits who thieve openly, salutations) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.3)

“Vanchathe pari vanchathe sthayoonam pathaye namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who cheats, To him who is the greatest cheat, And to him who is leader of those who steal by cheating.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.4)

Rudra is in the form of all those who sit, sleep, lie down, who are awake, who stands, who runs:

“Aaseenebhya sayanebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who sits, And to him who lies down.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.5)

“Swapadbhyo jagardbhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who sleeps, And to him who is awake) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.6)

“Sthishtathbyo dhavadbyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who stands still, And to him who runs.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.7)

Rudra is the audience (sabha) as well as the speaker (sabhapati):

“Sababhya sabha pathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is one among the audience, And to him who presides over the audience.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.8)

Rudra is the horse as well as the rider also:

“Aswebhyo aswapathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the horse, And to him who is the rider of the horse.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.9)

Rudra is even present in the form of evil spirits:

“Nama avyadheeneebhyo vividhayantheebyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the evil spirits that surround and torment, And to him who is the evil spirits that attack and kill.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.1)

Rudra is in the form of all superior female goddesses and also fierce goddesses. (Means Rudra is Saraswati, Lakshmi, Parvati and he is only Kali, Bhairavi, Durga, Chamunda etc. also):

“Uganabhysthrum hathobyhascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations to you who are in the form of the superior female Gods and the fierce vengeful and powerful Goddesses.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.2)

Rudra is even in those forms who are attached and possessive:

“Gruthsebhyo gruthsa pathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is attached and greedy, And to him who is the chief of those who are attached.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.3)

Rudra is in the form of ascetics and their leader also:

“Vrathebhyo Vrathapathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the assembly of different types of ascetics and people, And to him who is the chief of such assemblies.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.4)

Rudra is the member of a clan and also its chief:

“Ganebhyo ganapathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the member of a clan, And to him who is the chief of a clan.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.5)

Rudra is in all the great men and also in the fallen souls:

“Mahadbhya kshullakebyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a great souls, And to him who is a small being.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.7)

All those who have vehicles, and those who do not have – Rudra exists in all of them equally:

“Radhibhyo aradhebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who rides a chariot, And to him who does not have a chariot.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.8)

Rudra himself is in the form of chariot (vehicles) and also in the form of the driver too:

“Radhebhya radha pathibhyscha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a chariot, And to him who is the leader of the chariot.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.1)

Rudra is in the form of a foot soldier as well as the commander or leader of the armies:

“Senabhya Senanibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the soldier, And to him who is the leader of the armies.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.2)

Rudra dwells is in the carpenters who do wood works:

“Sthakshabhyo rathakarebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a carpenter, And to him who makes chariots.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.4)

Rudra remains in the form of a potter and a blacksmit also:

“Kulalebhya kamaribhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the potter, And to him who is the black smith.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.5)

Rudra remains in the forms of a bird hunter as well as a fisherman:

“Punchishtebhyo nishadebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the hunter of birds who uses nets, And to him who is the fisherman.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.6)

Rudra remains in the form of animal hunter and also in the form of Chandala:

“Mrugayubhya swanibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who hunts animals, And to him who drags dogs using a rope.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.8)

Rudra is even in the form of dogs and the owner of the dogs:

“Swabhya swapathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a dog,
And to him who protects the dogs.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.9)

Rudra is all those born on earth and all those born in other worlds (gods, sadhyas, pitris, demons etc. everything):

“Namo sobhyaya cha parthi saryaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is born in earth and to him who is born in other worlds.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.5)

Rudra is the Yama and Indra too:

“Namo yaamyaya cha kshemyaya cha |” (Salutations to him to him who punishes in hell and to him who grants favours in heaven.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.6)

Rudra is in the fields and in the gardens:

“Namo oorvarya cha khalyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the fields and who is in gardens.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.7)

Rudra is in the Vedas and in the Vedanta (Upanishads):

“Namo shlokyaa cha vasanyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is praised in the Vedas and to him who is praised at the end of Vedas.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.8)

Rudra is in forests, trees, and plants:

“Namo vanyaya cha kakshyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who exists as tree in forest and to him who exists as plants in bushes.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.9)

Rudra is the sound and Rudra is the Echo:

“Namo sravaya cha prathisravaaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is of the form of sound and to him who is in the form of echo.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.10)

Rudra is the cavalries and troops:

“Nama aasushenaaya cha asuradhaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is the fast moving troops and to him who is the fast moving cavalry.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.2.1)

Rudra is in the form of all heroes and knights:

“Nama sooraya cha avabindhathe cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of heroes and to him who is in the form of knights.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.2.2)

Rudra is the drum as well as the drumstick:

“Namo dunthubhyaya cha hananyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is kettle drum and to him who is the drumstick.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.1)

Conclusion: – From this we can conclude that there is nothing where Rudra’s presence cannot be found. Hence (BG. 10.36) is also a glorification of him only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.39)

yac capi sarva-bhutanam bijam tad aham arjuna
na tad asti vina yat syan maya bhutam caracaram | (BG. 10.39)
“That which is the Seed of all things, I am that, O Arjuna. There is nothing mobile or immobile, which can exist without me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Rudra is the seed of all things. In Sanskrit “Bhavati” means “whatever exists”. And Rudra is called “Bhava”, because he is the source of all existences. Means, everything mobile or immobile that has its existence in this universe, including the very superior Gods to lowest of the creatures; everything derives its existence from Rudra. Therefore Rudra is the seed of all existences.

“Namo bhavaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Him who is the source of all things (Bhava)”.

Vedas have sung Rudra’s glories very extensively. We have discussed these numerous times, but still since the context has come up once more; let’s revisit Rudra’s glories once more. In fact no other God’s glories as the source of everything has been sung so extensively in the Vedas except Rudra because Rudra is verily the Brahman on whom everything subsists. There is nothing that can live independently leaving Rudra.

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutations.”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu” (Yajur Veda 5:5:9:i or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“Bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣamtásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ” (Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
“Bhava rules the sky (àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth (pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

In Atharvaveda there is a hymn to lord Rudra’s Jwala-Linga form which is called Skhambha. It says,

“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam |
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa |” (Atharvaveda X:7.35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.

“skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ |
skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát |” (Atharvaveda X:8.2)
“Upheld by Skambha’s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye”.

“ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ |” (Atharvaveda X:8.13)
“He with one half engendered all Creation (bhuvanam). What sign is there to tell us of the other?”

Earth (Bhuloka) and Heaven (Swargaloka) are one of the 14 Bhuvanam (abodes). Hence from above verse from Atharvaveda it is very clear that Lord Rudra from “HALF” of his Jwala-Linga form (Skhambha) generated all Jagats. Therefore Lord Rudra is infinite and in reality Lord Rudra is higher than the Heaven (Swarga). He alone supports Heaven, Earth, all abodes and created beings. Also, all 14 Bhuvanams are inside the Hiranyagarbha (shining visible universe) and as per the below quote it becomes clear that Lord Rudra is higher than Hiranyagarbha hence he is the limitless infinite Para-Brahman.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetasvathara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.

Lord Rudra is the superlative degree of all sorts of comparative terms. He is ‘greater than the Greatest’, he alone fills the entire universe and there is no place where he is absent:

“etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:90)
“So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa”.

Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) declares Rudra as the Purusha, “purusho vai rudrah” and correlating this with the above Rig Vedic verse we can infer that Veda Purusha Rudra is the highest. He stands alone, there is no one apart from Rudra who exists. Whatever exists, whatever existed once upon a time, and whatever will exist in future all is this Mahadeva only. This is also supported by the following verses.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Svetaswatara. Upanishad. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.

Yajurveda Sri Rudram (Anuvaka-4) states, “vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo”, which means, “Salutations to Lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam”. Again, Yajurveda Sri Rudram (Anuvaka-9) states, “devana hridayebhyo namah”, means, “Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller of the heart of all Gods”. Therefore Rudra exists as the Atman (Spirit) of even the celestial Gods also. So, all the Gods are Lord Rudra’s forms and not different from him.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Svetaswatara Upanishad. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

The below verse also confirms that everything that is there is Rudra only. All forms are Lord Rudra’s forms.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

From above verses we read that Rudra is, the indweller / present in the hearts of all Gods, and he is also the indweller of all beings. So, who is left without being a form of Shiva? This proves that Vedas recognize Lord Rudra as the one who entered all beings (including Gods). Rudra is the past, present and future too. He is the one who existed once upon a time, he is the one who exists now and he is the one who will manifest in future, this is supported in below verse.

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha | namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha | namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.

Conclusion: – It is Lord Shiva who is the seed of all exitences, he is the support of all existences and there is nothing which can sustain itself without Rudra’s support. Therefore (BG. 10.39) is a glorification of Shiva’s qualities. This proves oncemore that Bhagawad Gita is spoken by Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 10.41), (BG. 10.42)

yad yad vibhutimat sattvam srimad urjitam eva va
tat tad evavagaccha tvam mama tejo-’msa-sambhavam | (BG. 10.41)
atha va bahunaitena kim jnatena tavarjuna
vistabhyaham idam krtsnam ekamsena sthito jagat | (BG. 10.42)
“Whatever of exalted things (there is) or glorious, or strong, understand thou that everything is born of a portion of my energy. Or rather, what hast thou to do, by knowing all this in detail, O Arjuna? Supporting this entire universe with only a portion (of myself), I stand“.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This Gita verse is the STRONGEST proof that Bhagawad Gita was spoken by Bhagawan Shiva only and not by Krishna. Bhagawad Gita is again the song of Lord Shiva’s glories only.

Whatever glorious things exist, everything gains their glory from Rudra. Whatever things shine (shining refers to intelligence also), all such luminaries gain splendor from Rudra. This is evident from the below verse.

“na tatra suuryo bhaati na chandrataaraka.n nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kuto.ayamagniH |
tameva bhaantamanubhaati sarva.n tasya bhaasaa sarvamida.n vibhaati | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:14)
“The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less this fire. When he shines, everything shines after him; by his light all this is illuminated”.

In this Gita verse the speaker says that with only a portion of the supreme being entire universe is supported. This is sufficient to understand that God of Gita is Shiva only.

This entire universe actually sprang from Rudra who is the Veda Purusha. From a portion of the infinite Jwala-Linga (Skhamba) form of Rudra this universe sprang forth. Let’s see the evidences from Shruti now.

Tattiriya Aranyaka states clearly that Lord Shiva (Ardhanareeshwara) is the param-brahman, purusha, truth, and righteousness.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness (rita) and Truth (satyam), is the androgynous purusha the Umamaheshvara (or Ardhanareeshwara), dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste (having semen rised up) and possessing uneven eyes (three eyed) . Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe, or whose form is the universe”.

Lord Shiva is the supreme Purusha stated in Vedas. The below verse from Ekakshara Upanishad states that from a quarter portion of Shiva this universe is created and pervaded.

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“praaNaH prasuutirbhuvanasya yonirvyaapta.n tvayaa ekapadena vishvam.h |
tva.n vishvabhuuryonipaaraH svagarbhe kumaara eko vishikhaH sudhanvaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3)
Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art the Principle of life; Thou the manifestation (the manifested world); Thou the source of the world; by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world. Thou art the world’s birth, the cause, the life supreme, and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow”.

Note the above verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly states that from Lord Rudra’s one quarter only this entire creation emerged. This is the same thing stated in Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda about Bhagwan Rudra as follows.

“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ | tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi |” (Rig Veda 10:90:4)
“Three quarters of his are beyond all this; all of this creation is but from one quarter of him. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not appeared from this one quarter of His.”

Vedas time and again sing lord Shiva’s glories only, in various ways. In Atharva Veda there is a hymn to Jwala Linga form of Shiva called ‘Skhambha Suktam’. It also states that a portion of Shiva became this universe.

“yátra skambháḥ prajanáyan purāṇáṃ vyávartayat | ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásya purāṇám anusáṃviduḥ |” (Atharva Veda 10:7:26)
“Where Skambha (Agni-Linga) generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha (Linga) as the Ancient World.”

“ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ” (Atharvaveda X:8.13)
“He with one half engendered all Creation (bhuvanam). What sign is there to tell us of the other?”

Well, in Skhambha Suktam it says that with one half Rudra generated this world, and Purusha Suktam says from one fourth part of himself, Purusha (Rudra) generated this world, is this confusing? Certainly not! Purusha is nothing but infinitely extending pillar of fire of consciousness which is otherwise called as Skhambha or Brahman. It is limitless, and infinite. And even mathematics tell us that any portion of infinity is infinity only. So, “half of infinity = one quarter of infinity = one-fourth part of infinity“. All these terms are just to teach that only from a portion Rudra created this universe, still his other infinite portion is not known to Vedas.

Rudra is the Brahman above whom there is nothing superior.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidyasmaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyekastenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:09)
“The whole universe is filled by the Purusha (Rudra), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing either smaller or greater; who stands alone, motionless as a tree, established in His own glory”.

From above analysis it must be clear that Bhagawad Gita verses (BG. 10.41 – BG. 10.42) are features of Lord Rudra’s infinite nature.

Conclusion: – There is no room for any confusion about the speaker of Bhagawad Gita. It is Mahadeva who spoke Gita not Krishna!

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 11.6), (BG. 11.7)

pasyadityan vasun rudran asvinau marutas tatha |
bahuny adrsta-purvani pasyascaryani bharata | (BG. 11.6)
ihaika-stham jagat krtsnam pasyadya sa-caracaram |
mama dehe gudakesha yac canyad drastum icchasi | (BG. 11.7)
“Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Aswins, and the Maruts. Behold, O Bharata, innumerable marvels unseen before (by thee). Behold, O thou of curly hair, the entire universe of mobiles and immobiles, collected together in this body of mine, whatever else thou mayst wish to see”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here starts the chapter named “Viswaroopa Sandarsana Yoga” (display of cosmic form). Well, here all those verses which describe how Arjuna prayed to lord etc. kind of miscellaneous verses I’m excluding from this analysis. I’ll include only those which require to be interpreted.

Well, these verses (BG. 11.6 – BG. 11.7) again show the Virat form of Bhagawan Rudra only. We have earlier studied that as per Vedas Aditya (all twelve luminaries) are Rudra’s manifestations, Vasus (Ashtamurty forms) are also Rudra’s manifestations and also we had seen earlier in our analysis that the eleven Rudras (maruts) are also Rudra’s manifestations (sons).

All these gods reside in the body of Rudra only. He is the only god whom Vedas say as having a Vishwaroopam. Yajurveda clearly calls Rudra in Satarudriya hymn as following:

“vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-4)
“Salutations to lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam”.

There are 33 classes of Gods in total viz. 11 Rudras, 12 Adityas, 8 Vasus, Prajapati and Indra. It is a misinterpretation by other religions (and even by some ignorant Hindus) when they consider “33 koti” as 33 crores. “Koti” means “class” like “uccha Koti (Upper class)”, “nimna koti (lower class)” etc. So, the number – 33 koti gods means 33 class (types) of gods. And other gods like Ashwins, Gandhervas etc. are all various forms of these gods and their progeny only.

All these 33 classes of Gods viz., Adityas, Rudras, Prajapati, and Indra are situated in Lord Rudra’s body only. The hymn to Jwala-Linga (Skhambha) form of Rudra confirms this fact as follows.

“yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge sárve samā́hitāḥ |
skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:13)
“Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha He in whose body are contained all three-and-thirty Deities?”

“yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge gā́trā vibhejiré |
tā́n vái tráyastriṃśad devā́n éke brahamvído viduḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:27)
“The three-and-thirty Gods within his body were disposed as limbs: Some, deeply versed in Holy Lore, some know those three-and- thirty Gods”.

Not only the gods, in fact all the mobile and immobile creation also subsists on Rudra’s form that’s why he is called as having Vishwaroopam in Yajurveda. Here is the evidence for the same.

“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa |” (Atharva Veda X:7:35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air (Antariksham) between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.

The same is stated in another hymn for Rudra as follows:

“bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣam |
tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ |” (Atarva Veda IX:2:27)
“Bhava rules the sky(àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth(pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

So, not only the Gods and creatures, but all the abodes (of heaven), all the worlds (of Antariksham) and even Earth everything together with the mobile and immobile creation exists within the body of Rudra. He rules all of them pervading within them.

So from above analysis it becomes doubtlessly clear that Arjuna had seen Lord Rudra’s Vishwaroopam.

Conclusion: – Verily Bhagawad Gita is lord Shiva’s glorious song and the speaker was Shiva himself.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 11.15)

arjuna uvaca |
pasyami devams tava deva dehe sarvams tatha bhuta-visesa-sanghan |
brahmanam isam kamalasana-stham rsims ca sarvan uragams ca divyan | (BG. 11.15)
“Arjuna said, ‘I behold all the gods, O God, as also all the varied hosts of creatures, (and) Brahma seated on (his) lotus seat, and all the Rishis and the celestial snakes”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, one important thing that I would like to mention here is, I have not taken translations of Bhagawad Gita verses from any of the Vaishnava works. Since all Vaishnava translations of Bhagawad Gita are incorrect at many places, especially in this verse.

This verse is Incorrectly (and purposely) translated by the Vaishnava websites as :

“Arjuna said: My dear Lord Krishna, I see assembled in Your body all the demigods and various other living entities. I see Brahma sitting on the lotus flower, as well as Lord Shiva and all the sages and divine serpents.”

However this translation is NOT authentic.

The phrase in 11.15 is “brahmanam isham kamalasana-stham”. Because the word “isham” appears between “brahmanam” and “kamala-asana-stham” it is a designation of Brahma who sits on the lotus, and hence the CORRECT translation should be – “Brahma who is the lord, is found seated on his lotus seat”. It very strongly proves that the sandwiched “Isham” is the quality of lordship and not a proper name. Therefore it refers to Brahma and states, “Lord Brahma is seated on a lotus”.

Ramanuja and Madhva both suggest that “isha” means Shiva who is seated on Brahma who is on the lotus seat. In his Bhashya Ramanuja writes, “tatha isham kamalasana-stham kamalasane brahmani sthitam” and Madhva follows Ramanuja here. However Adi Shankaracharya CORRECTLY interprets it that “isham” refers to Brahma in this verse and not to Shiva. In his bhashya Shankaracharya writes, “brahmanam chatur-mukham isham ishataram prajanam kamalasana-stham” and all the western translators (including Robert Zaehner who followed Ramanuja throughout differs with him and adopts Shankara’s interpretation as correct for this verse) follow Shankara. Brahma is “isham” because of his lordship over all creatures. Adi Shankaracharya is more reliable saint than the Ramanuja and Madhwa. Hence here Shankara’s words needs to be taken as true.

Ramanujacharya and Madhwacharya were not open to non-dualism principle, they propounded philosophies favoring Vishnu, and hence it becomes obvious why that attempt was made by them and subsequent Vaishnavas to explain the verse in that way but it is rather unlikely.

Even the great Sanskrit scholar Mr. Kesari Mohan ganguly (KMG) who translated the Vyasa Mahabharata from Sanskrit to English in the period 1883-1896; even he did not err the way Ramanuja and Madhava erred in translating verse BG 11:15. He didn’t give importance of word “isha” at all. He simply translated it as follows:

“Arjuna said, ‘I behold all the gods, O God, as also all the varied hosts of creatures, (and) Brahma seated on (his) lotus seat, and all the Rishis and the celestial snakes”. I have taken translation of KMG in my work here.

Therefore it should have become clear by now that Lord Shiva was not captured in the Vishwaroopa of Bhagwad Gita. In fact Lord Shiva is called as possessing Vishwaroopa in Vedas – “vishwaroopebhyo namah” (Sri Rudram of Yajurveda).

But a question may arise why was Lord Shiva not seen in the body of the universal form? There are two aspects that need to be told to answer this question. One is, “Vishwaroopam” that Arjuna had seen, was that of Lord Shiva’s only since as per Shruti (Vedas and Upanishads) the only one god who possesses Vishwaroopam is Lord Shiva. So, definitely the Vishwaroopam of Gita was Shiva’s cosmic form. In his cosmic form he displayed all other deities, how can shiva display himself within himself, which is absurd?

Secondly, the form which we call as “Vishwaroopam” is nothing but virAt rUpam. For those who do not understand Vedanta let me explain that there are three aspects of the supreme Brahman viz. Eshwara, Hiranyagarbha and Viraat”. Eshwara is Brahman in active state, Hiranyagarbha is the sum total of all the subtle bodies (minds) of the universe and Viraat is the sum total of all the gross bodies of the universe. Here we’ll not dig into the details of the first two, we’re interested only in the third one viz. Viraat. All the beings which were born having a gross body in the universe; sum total of all their bodies is Viraat. And except Shiva all other Gods were born within the universe (in fact Shiva only created all Gods). So, Viraat cannot display that entity which is unborn. That’s the reason Viraat form could display all gods including Brahma and Vishnu (who is one among the Adityas), but Shiva cannot be displayed in Virat as he is beyond. Shiva himself is the Brahman and in his threefold form, the other two are Hiranyagarbha and Viraat. Although Shiva is Viraat or in other words, although Shiva has Virat form which contains everyone, yet Shiva cannot exist within that because Shiva is unborn, eternal god and is beyond Virat and Hiranyagarbha because Shiva is Brahman as confirmed in the following Shruti-Vakyam.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetasvathara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is Brihat (= Brahman) and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.

So, again it gets proved here that the cosmic form that Arjuna had seen, was that of lord Shiva’s cosmic form not that of Krishna’s.

Conclusion: – Vishwaroopam that was displayed, that belongs to Shiva. And again it clearly proves that God of Gita was Shiva not Krishna.

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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)

Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula, is 'षण्मातुरः' or 'षण्णां मातृणां पुत्रः' in detail, which means 'The son of six (divine) mothers' as he considers the six great goddesses viz. Parvati, Ganga, Lakshmi, Bhudevi, Saraswati, and Gayatri, as his own mothers, and sees himself as an infant in their laps. Together with their respective consorts he considers them as his own parents. He considers their children such as Ganesha, Skanda, Sanatkumara, Narada, Pradyumna etc., as his own siblings; in fact, not different from himself. He loves these six mothers very dearly, and equally loves the divine fathers; however, he has offered his 'devotion' only to Mahadeva! Hence he stands for lord Shiva safeguarding him from his haters. One would know him better from his writings.
Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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4 Comments

  1. Dhyey Bhatt

    Namaste Santoshji,

    Let me make clear that I ‘ve nither studied Vedas under any Learned Guru Nor I m having any Detailed knowledge about the same.So Reading 1 of your enlightening article namely “Hidden Secret of Bhagwat Geeta-8” I came across 1quote from Rig-Veda
    [RIG-VEDA1:164:46] “And he is heavenly nobly winged Garutman.So my question is What Actually Vedas are reffering to Garutman here?does it means Garuda-vehicle of Shri Hari?Pls.reply as soon as you get some time from your Occupied Schedule.By the way I m reading all your articles which help me lot to Understood Umiversal Vedic Religion.Thanks.

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      garutman is garuda in outward sense and ‘hamsa’ (prana) in internal meaning.

      Reply
  2. Dhyey Bhatt

    Thanks Santoshji for reply .

    1)Moreover May I copy your quotation from articles of “Hidden Secrets of Bhagvat Gita” .Actually I m plaaning to stick that Quotation in the Bhagwat Gita which I m Personally reading.I’ve already Downloaded it in pdf format.

    2).In one of your article(I forget the name)you have enlightened the seekers like me about the name “Puroshatam”-is actually dedicated to Lord Shiva as per shruti,would you please mention the name of that article.

    3)Santoshji,Your blog really helps us lot to understand Actual Hinduism.But is there anyway to get rid of BOGUS scriptures and Influence of So Called AACHARYA’S (you know whoms) As Such People preach ridiculous path to society.And it has reached to such an extent that even people blindly follow them, In todays situation ” Influenced People” trained by so called Aachraya consider Role of Lord shiva just as Destoyer and nothing else,Some Says he is obeyer of Shri Vishnu.Yeah I don’t have any Objection when Someone Glorifies Lord Shri Hari.But when Glorification turns into Fanatism and consider My Beloved God Shiva as Servent of Gau-loka.It’s really an Overzealous Mindset of such Fanatic AACHARYA to insult Lord Shiva.So is there anyway to bring back the Original Vedic Religion in society?Awaiting for your reply.
    Once Again Thanking You…

    You are doing the great Job by posting your enlightened article.May Lord Shiva And Maa Shakti bless you.

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      Thank you for the wishes.

      1) For personal readings / usage you may surely copy the quotations. I’m actually planning to update all the Bhagavad Gita articles with more robust evidences and quotes, in fact I may even write on complete BG itself. But it would take time. Therefore, since it is bound to undergo upgrade/update in future, I would request you not to re-publish these articles anywhere else, otherwise there would be content differences later. But for all personal studies or usage, by all means, copy.

      2) The explanation of ‘Purushottama’ name as referring originally to Shiva, was explained in this link (LINK)

      3) The amount of destruction that those *acharyas* had done to Hinduism, is so massive that one life is not enough to restore the state to original form. But my aim is to minimize the impact of that damage to the extent that is possible within the limits of my capabilities and under the grace of the lord. So, whatever extend Maheshvara would wish to cure via me, I would be able to do, and rest is again left in his hands.

      Reply

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