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Sunday, January 8, 2012

Hidden Secrets of Bhagavad Gītā Revealed! – A Śaiva Commentary

PRAYER


I bow to Lord Ganesha the remover of all obstacles, I bow to Goddess of learning Saraswati, who is my mother, seeking her blessings to gain enough reasoning and intelligence, and I bow to the sages Nara and Narayana – the eternal devotees of Lord Shiva, and seek their blessings to reveal hidden truths of Bhagawad Gita through this work of mine. I pray to my mother Uma who bestowed Brahmavidya on Indra, and I bow my head unto my father Shiva who is the source of all knowledge as Dakshinamurti.

INTRODUCTION

Let me begin this article with a quotation by the great poet Kalidasa, which very much aptly applies to the present article’s context.

“purāṇamityeva na sādhu sarvaṃ nacāpi kāvyaṃ navamityavaryaṃ ।
santaḥ parīkṣyābhinavat bhajante mūḍhaḥ parapratyanaiikabuddhiḥ |
|” (vide ‘mālavikāgnimitram’ authored by mahākavi kālidāsa)
“Nothing need to be justified just because it is mentioned in a Purana; and novel ideas of reasoning need not be rejected just because of their recent origin. The discerning people apply the test of logic before accepting anything, but the idiot simply follows things just because there were precedents”.

In this article I would reveal the Hidden Secrets of Bhagavad Gita! Well, before we begin, let me define myself here to set the right expectations. Well, in computer world we have two terminologies viz., ‘Hacker’ and ‘Cracker’. These are the most misunderstood terminologies in the world of computer security. Hacker is a term coined by “Steven levy” in his book “Heroes of the Computer Revolution”, where he had talked in detail about the ‘hacker culture and ethics’. A hacker and a cracker both intrude / break into systems by breaking the enforced security through any available backdoor; but a hackers breaks into it to find all loopholes and then they devise solutions to fix them, whereas a cracker enters only to bring destruction and loss to the owner. There is a thin line difference between these two persons, where the former is a hero whereas the latter stands as a villain; but mostly the ignorant masses, mistakes hackers as villains.

The same difference lies in between a “Critic” and an “Abuser” also! I would like to make it clear in the beginning itself that I may sometimes be a critic, a hacker of Hinduism scriptures. I do not blindly follow what others have said. I get insights from within and I truly feel that it is Mahadeva who teaches me from within. Therefore following those insights I do my own research without digressing away from ‘saMpradAya (tradition)’ and keeping myself firmly grounded in the scriptures given by the great sages, I dig out the hidden truths which have never been revealed before. I like to show, what I am able to see. In that process while following the pointers given by my lord via the inner voice, I analyze scriptures with the power of my three tools viz., ‘Logic’, ‘Reasoning’ and ‘Proof by Contradiction’ while wielding them in the light of scriptures. Well, many a times in my reasoning I do some criticism which might irritate the blind followers out there; but one who reads my points as criticism and not as abuse, that man can really understand the reality that I try to reveal. In this current work on ‘Hacking into Bhagawad Gita’ to reveal certain truths; I have again adopted the same style, which in no way intends to hurt any true devotee of Krishna. Vasudeva is a great god, but incorrect interpretations of Gita and Krishna have actually damaged the fabric of our Sanatana Dharma. So, requesting the readers to read my work with an open mind in order to understand the real secrets hidden in Bhagawad Gita.

Bhagwad Gita is a great Vedantic text which has been passed to us by Lord Sri Krishna. Gita is the essence of all the Upanishads and is a ‘Moksha Shastra’ (a scripture which shows us the path towards liberation). It would not be an exaggeration if i say that Bhagwad Gita is the most misinterpreted scripture as well. Instead of treating it as a book of Vedantic knowledge, it is being considered as a book of supremacy talk. It looks funny to see that people have formed groups / organizations / institutions based on this Bhagwad Gita considering it as a text of Supremacy discussion. When Sri krishna says, “I am Supreme”, people foolishly interpreted it as ‘Sri Krishna is Supreme’, and consequently they created many FAKE and BOGUS samhitas, interpolated many scriptures, and purposely mistranslated many sections in order to call all other Vedic, Aitihasic, and Pouranic super-powers as demi-gods and made them the servants of Krishna – the so called ‘supreme personality of Godhead’. But the fact is – Vedas and Vedanta recognize only one Supreme entity called – ‘Brahman’ which is non-dual in nature. Vedanta says that the ‘self (Atman)’ of every being is verily the same Brahman and hence there is nothing superior than ‘Self’. Therefore when Krishna said, “I am Supreme”, it actually means ‘I (the ‘Self’) is Supreme’, and it doesn’t mean in anyway that ‘Krishna is Supreme’. Bhagwad Gita is completely a text which describes the oneness of Atman with Brahman erasing all dualities and establishes the supremacy of Atman persuading us to ‘realize our true self’.

But some headstrong fanatics spread false theories to establish their favorite god ‘Krishna’ as more superior than every other God; especially ‘Lord Shiva’. But truth is that, without Lord Shiva nothing can survive, everything rests upon Lord Shiva who is the supreme self. This article of mine is written with an intention of revealing the true facts about Bhagwad Gita where with profound analysis it would be revealted that Bhagwad Gita is actually a glorification of Lord Shiva only; because, a deeper and careful study of Vedas / Upanishads would make it clear that Lord Shiva is the ‘Brahman’ of Vedas, he is the ‘Purusha’, he is the ‘Atman’ as described in Vedas and Upanishads. If a careful study of Vedas is done, one would realize that there is nothing beyond Shiva. Therefore, although it’s true that ‘I’ of Bhagwad Gita refers to the ‘Self’, and that ‘Self (Atman)’ is Brahman, but it is also true that the same ‘Brahman (Self)’ is nothing but ‘Shiva’ who is the Veda Purusha.

1. Bhagawad Gita was NOT spoken by Sri Krishna – It was spoken by Shiva through Krishna as the medium



Well, it would be shocking to everyone if i claim that it was Lord Shiva who used Krishna as his instrument to deliver the science of Vedanta (as Bhagwad Gita) to the mankind. It was Lord Shiva who spoke through Krishna. It was under the trance or possession effect (control) of the supreme spirit (Shiva) that Krishna spoke Bhagwad Gita by focusing himself in Yoga.

Sounds shocking and false, right? I can understand that. Well, there are many secrets of Lord Krishna which the Vaishnava Acharyas hide purposely and never allow anyone to know and reveal. Everyone preaches life of Krishna as given in Bhagawatam which is a text containing hyperbolic glorification of Krishna. Of course, Sri Krishna is a great god, but still, to say that he never had any limitations or he didn’t have limits is exaggeration and not the reality! The fact is – Sri Krishna always worked under the blessings of Mahadeva. There is none in the three worlds who were greater devotees of Lord Shiva than Nara & Narayana; and that great sage Narayana was this Krishna. And there is no one who is dearer to Shiva than Krishna because Krishna had always shown outstanding devotion towards Mahdeva. The following are the words spoken by lord Shiva to Ashwatthama in ‘Souptika Parva’ of Mahabharata.

“satyaśaucārjava tyāgais tapasā niyamena ca |
kṣāntyā bhaktyā ca dhṛtyā ca buddhyā ca vacasā tathā | (Mahabharata 10.7.60)
yathāvad aham ārāddhaḥ kṛṣṇenākliṣṭakarmaṇā |
tasmād iṣṭatamaḥ kṛṣṇād anyo mama na vidyate |” (Mahabharata 10.07.61)
“With truth, purity, sincerity, resignation, ascetic austerities, vows, forgiveness, devotion, patience, thought, and word, I have been duly adored by Krishna of pure deeds. For this there is none dearer to me than Krishna”.

I can cite instances from Mahabharata where Sri Krishna resorted to Bhava the illustrious deity of unparalleled glory and sought his shelter for achieving various deeds. Shankara’s protection always makes the protected stand invincible since there is only one lord as per Vedas, who remains unvanquished in battles; that is the god Mahadeva! Well, I would keep those sections of Mahabharata out of scope from this article since this article is only to talk about Bhagawad Gita.

1.1. Krishna expressed his inability to discourse Bhagavad Gita again when requested by Arjuna


Okay, here the point was to reveal a shocking fact which is always kept unrevealed to the devotees by their Vaishnava Acharyas. That fact is – Sri Krishna didn’t recite Bhagwad Gita on his own. Another heavenly super power spoke that Gita through Krishna, and Krishna was just an instrument in that act, nothing more than that. Here is the excerpt from Mahabharata where Sri Krishna himself reveals that truth.

“viditaṃ me mahābāho saṅgrāme samupasthite।
māhātmyaṃ devakīmātastacca te rūpamaiśvaram॥ 5
yattadbhagavatā proktaṃ purā keśava sauhṛdāt।
tatsarvaṃ puruṣavyāghra naṣṭaṃ me bhraṣṭacetasaḥ॥ 6
mama kautūhalaṃ tvasti teṣvartheṣu punaḥ punaḥ।
bhavāṃstu dvārakāṃ gantā na cirādiva mādhava॥ 7
vaiśampāyana uvāca
evamuktastu taṃ kṛṣṇaḥ phālgunaṃ pratyabhāṣata।
pariṣvajya mahātejā vacanaṃ vadatāṃ varaḥ॥ 8
vāsudeva uvāca
śrāvitastvaṃ mayā guhye jñāpitaśca sanātanam।
dharmaṃ svarūpiṇaṃ pārtha sarvalokāṃśca śāśvatān॥ 9
abuddhyā nāgrahīryastvaṃ tanme sumahadapriyam।
na ca sādya punarbhūyaḥ smṛtirme sambhaviṣyati॥ 10
nūnamaśraddadhāno’si durmedhā hyasi pāṇḍava।
na ca śakyaṃ punarvaktumaśeṣeṇa dhanañjaya॥ 11
sa hi dharmaḥ suparyāpto brahmaṇaḥ padavedane।
na śakyaṃ tanmayā bhūyastathā vaktumaśeṣataḥ॥ 12
paraṃ hi brahma kathitaṃ yogayuktena tanmayā।” (MBH 14:16:5-13a)


English translation is available in SECTION XVI – Book 14: Aswamedha Parva:

“'[Arjuna said]: O–mighty-armed one, thy greatness became known to me upon the approach of the battle. O son of Devaki, thy form also, as the Lord of the universe, then became known to me! What thy holy self said unto me at that time, O Kesava, through affection, has all been forgotten by me, O chief of men, in consequence of the fickleness of my mind. Repeatedly, however, have I been curious on the subject of those truths. Thou again, O Madhava, wilt repair to Dwaraka soon.’

Vaisampayana continued, ‘Thus addressed by him, Krishna of mighty energy, that foremost of speakers, embraced Phalguna and replied unto him as follows.

‘Vasudeva said, ‘I made thee listen to truths that are regarded as mysteries. I imparted to thee truths that are eternal. Verily, I discoursed to thee on Religion in its true form and on all the eternal regions. It is exceedingly disagreeable to me to learn that thou didst not, from folly, receive what I imparted. The recollection of all that I told thee on that occasion will not come to me now. Without doubt, O son of Pandu, thou art destitute of faith and thy understanding is not good. It is impossible for me, O Dhananjaya, to repeat, in detail, all that I said on that occasion. That religion (about which I discoursed to thee then) is more than sufficient for understanding Brahma. I cannot discourse on it again in detail. I discoursed to thee on Supreme Brahma, having concentrated myself in Yoga’”.

Few questions arise here. Why did Krishna say the recollection of all the Gita would not come to him? Why did he say it was ‘impossible’ for him to recite all that what he had discoursed on an earlier occasion? When he could go into Yoga last time, why couldn’t he enter Yoga trance again?

This conversation is recorded in Ashwamedha Parva section of Mahabharata where the war had already ceased. So, there is no room for assumptions like – ‘may be due to time constraints caused by the war situation Krishna made such an excuse’. That’s impractical to assume here because when amidst the battle field when Krishna could recite eighteen huge chapters to Arjuna; how could he deny his request when already peace was established. In fact they had enough time to recollect entire war also through gossip. And another most important point to note is – Arjuna was not any insignificant person for Krishna. In Mahabharata section (MBH. 10:12:27) Krishna said,

“yasmāt priyataro nāsti mamānyaḥ puruṣo bhuvi | nādeyaṃ yasya me kiṃ cid api dārāḥ sutās tathā |” (MBH 10:12:27)
“Other than Phalguna I have no dearer friend on earth, that friend to whom there is nothing that I cannot give including my very wives and children…”

Not only this, In Harivamsa Parva of Mahabharata after lifting the Govardhana hill and making Indra his friend, Indra requests Krishna always to protect his son Arjuna by all means. There Krishna agrees and also gives a promise saying he would do like a servant, whatever Arjuna asks him to do.

“yacca vakṣyati māṃ śakra tanūjastava so’rjunaḥ ।
bhṛtyavattatkariṣyāmi tava snehena yantritaḥ ॥” (Harivamsa Parva 2:19:101)
“shakra (indra)! Whatever your son Arjuna asks me, I will do as a servant, because I am bound by your affection.”.

When Krishna could say that he could give his wives and children also to Arjuna when asked, when Krishna gave a promise to Indra that whatever Arjuna would ask him, he would do as a servant then how come he dismissed his request of repeat recitation of Gita? How could Krishna scold Arjuna calling him “destitute of faith”, and why did Krishna feel Arjuna’s act as “extremely disagreeable” to him? From this it is clear that had it really been under the control of Krishna to recite Gita once more, he would have done that truly for his beloved friend viz. Partha, but it wasn’t! So, as an alternative Krishna told him a narrative from ancient history and preached him good knowledge in the form of ‘Anu Gita’.

Therefore it is evident that Sri Krishna was not the original speaker and he summoned some higher heavenly power through Yoga and that ‘Adhrushya (invisible) Nirguna Shakti’ spoke through Krishna the science of Bhagwad Gita. Note that Krishna said it was ‘impossible’ for him to recite the same again. It becomes clear that he didn’t have authority and control over the superior power who spoke Gita through him, and to benefit the mankind that supreme power wanted to convey Gita and hence used Krishna as his messenger, and it was a onetime effort only. Hence summoning the superior power again and again by entering into Yoga was not possible for Krishna.

Even if you disagree at this stage, never mind! I didn’t expect everyone to readily accept my point at this very point itself. However, by and by one would realize the truth; and after reading this entire article it would become clear to everyone that it was none other than Lord Shiva who spoke Bhagwad Gita through Krishna’s mouth.

2. ‘Ishvara Gita’ of lord Shiva is what is passed on to us as Bhagawad Gita by Krishna


This section has been added by me 5 years after I first posted this article. This is because whatever claim I have made about Bhagawad Gita to be a song of Shiva, was later found to be supported by scriptures. Hence added as supporting evidences to my claims. I
t always happens with me that certain unique thoughts take birth in my heart by the voice of my inner self (‘antah sphurana’), and later the same lord shows me the evidences to support these insights too.  My claim that Bhagawad Gita was a discourse spoken by lord Shiva via the mouth of lord Krishna – is truly the opinion of scriptures also.

2.1. Krishna was one of the AchArya-s who handed ‘Ishvara Gita’ of lord Shiva to Arjuna under the name ‘Bhagavad Gita’.


In Kurma Purana there is an excellent Vedantic discourse taught by lord Shiva. That discourse is called ‘Ishvara Gita’. The prelude to that discourse begins with a discussion between the brahmavadi sages to Lomaharshana, where they request him to discourse about the ‘brahman’. Meanwhile guru of Romaharshana viz. Vyasa comes there and then romaharshana requests his guru Vyasa to narrate to the sages about the Brahman. Vyasa begins narration of an ancient discourse of former times where lord Vishnu in the form of kurma (tortoise) had discoursed that knowledge to sages of those times. That narration by Kurma was again a reminiscence of yet another ancient lecture that lord Shiva taught to sages in presence of Narayana. Therefore the original discourse was by lord Shiva, which passed on to Vyasa via a tradition and Vyasa passed on to the sages of the recent times.

There, after the narration of the entire ‘ishvara gita’, the tradition through which that Gita was passed further, is described. It is said that Sanatkumara passed it on to satyavrata, Sanandana passed it on to Gautama, sage angira discoursed that to bharadwaja. Similarly it narrates how Kapila, jaigishavya, Panchashika, parashara, and Valmiki obtained that knowledge.

Then comes the most interesting secret, a great fact gets revealed there. It says that the ‘ishvara gita’, which was originally discoursed by lord Shiva, and which was transmitted by various other personalities to sages mentioned above, in same lines, Bhagavan narayana also himself as Krishna, the son of Devaki had discoursed to Arjuna.

“nārāyaṇo ‘pi bhagavān devakītanayo hariḥ |
arjunāya svayaṃ sākṣāt dattavānidamuttamam ||” (kurma purana 2:11:131)

“Also the lord Narayana, who is called Hari, had himself passed on that excellent knowledge to Arjuna in the form of Krishna, the son of devaki”.

In Kurma Purana, there is yet another chapter where Vyāsa and Arjuna converse on the topic of symptoms and duties of Kali age. In that chapter, Vyāsa stresses many a times on the necessity of worship of Lord Rudra, and finally with much delight Vyāsa touches Arjuna with both his hands and calling him as the greatest of the devotees of Shiva praises him for being the luckiest to have witnessed the cosmic form of lord Shiva during the Bhagavad Gītā discourse that hṛṣīkeśa spoke to him.

dṛṣṭavānasi taṃ devaṃ viśvākṣaṃ viśvatomukham |
pratyakṣameva sarveśaṃ rudraṃ sarvajaganmayam ||60
jñānaṃ tadaiśvaraṃ divyaṃ yathāvad viditaṃ tvayā |
svayameva hṛṣīkeśaḥ prītyovāca sanātanaḥ ||” (Kurma Purana 1:28:61)
“[Vyasa says]:You have directly perceived that Lord Rudra who has his eyes everywhere, who has his faces everywhere, who is the very embodiment of the universe. That divine lordly knowledge (of śiva) has been precisely understood by you. That ancient Hrsikesha (Krishna) himself had recounted it to you out of delight”.

Therefore my insights about Bhagawad Gita are not baseless. Bhagavad Gita was the same discourse of Shiva passed on to us by the teacher (Acharya) Krishna, in his yogic trance where through Krishna Shiva spoke the Gita. Hence Krishna is our gitacharya.

2.2. Bhagawad Gita cannot be discoursed by anyone other than Lord Shiva


We have seen above that in Mahabharata, Krishna had clearly expressed his inability to discourse Bhagawad Gita for a second time and stated that earlier he had discoursed that to Arjuna by concentrating himself in Yoga. The word ‘yoga’ means ‘to unite’. Krishna had united himself with Shiva through the power of yoga and Shiva had discoursed that Gita to Arjuna through the mouth of Krishna.

This inability of discoursing on the highest principle is not new. It was for the same reason that Narayana had requested Shiva to narrate that Ishvara Gita (which is now named as Bhagawad Gita in Mahabharata) to the sages desirous to know the ‘atman’, desired for knowing the science of supreme Brahman (who is shiva).

In badarikashrama, a group of celestial sages were doing penance desirous to know about the atman-tatva. They were all blemishless at heart. They wanted to know about the Brahman.

“sanatkumāraḥ sanakastathaiva ca sanandanaḥ |
aṅgirā rudrasahito bhṛguḥ paramadharmavit 16
kaṇādaḥ kapilo yogī vāmadevo mahāmuniḥ |
śukro vasiṣṭho bhagavān sarve saṃyatamānasāḥ || 17
parasparaṃ vicāryaite saṃśayāviṣṭacetasaḥ |
taptavantastapo ghoraṃ puṇye badarikāśrame ||” (kurma purana 2:1:16-18)

“The sages like Sanatkumara, sanaka, sanandana, angira, rudra, bhrigu, kumada, kapila, garga, vamadeva, sukra, vashishtha, and all such sages, whose mind were under control, consulting among themelves, had performed the severe penance at Badarikashrama”.

Meanwhile from nowhere the two great sages nara and narayana appear in front of them.

“apaśyaṃste mahāyogamṛṣiṃ dharmasutaṃ śucim |
nārāyaṇamanādyantaṃ nareṇa sahitaṃ tadā ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:19)

“Then they saw the great Yogi Narayana, the son of sage dharma, who was beyond the begining or the end, alongwith sage nara”.

Then all those sages prayed to those two great personalities with various hymns and offered their salutations to sage narayana. Sage narayana although being aware of the desire of the sages, yet asks them what was their desire.

“vijñāya vāñchitaṃ teṣāṃ bhagavānapi sarvavit |
prāha gambhīrayā vācā kimarthaṃ tapyate tapaḥ ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:21)

“Becoming aware of the desire of the sages, the omniscient lord spoke in deep voice, “what for are you performing the tapas (penance)?””.

They all revealed their desire to get clarified on some of the questions related to the science of Brahman. They said that for the same reason, knowing sage Narayana to be the knower of everything they had come to that place. They enquired questions on atman-tatva such as – Who is the cause of the world? What is atman? What is liberation? Who is the lord of the universe? Etc., as follows.

“kiṃ kāraṇamidaṃ kṛtsnaṃ ko ‘nusaṃsarate sadā |
kaścidātmā ca kā muktiḥ saṃsāraḥ kiṃnimittakaḥ ||26
kaḥ saṃsārayatīśānaḥ ko vā sarvaṃ prapaśyati |
kiṃ tat parataraṃ brahma sarvaṃ no vaktumarhasi ||” Kurma purana 2:1:26-27)

“[They enquired]: Who is the cause of this entire world? Who always moves in this world? Who is ‘Atman’? What is liberation?  What is the motive behind the world? Who is the supreme lord of the universe? Who is the one who witnesses all? What is the Brahman beyond him? You kindly tell us the answers for all these”.

These questions are all vedantic and are exactly the essence of Bhagawad Gita as well. Then the sage Narayana discarded his sagely form and established himself in his native form of Vishnu holding discus, conch, mace and bow in his hands, having srivatsa mark on his chest and even Lakshmi appears there adorning his side. By his splendour in his Vishnu form, the sage nara becomes almost invisible. This point needs to be noted that here, it is now Vishnu, and no more sage narayana who was sitting in front of the sages.

“evamukte tu munayaḥ prāpaśyan puruṣottamam |
vihāya tāpasaṃ rūpaṃ saṃsthitaṃ svena tejasā || 28
vibhrājamānaṃ vimalaṃ prabhāmaṇḍalamaṇḍitam |
śrīvatsavakṣasaṃ devaṃ taptajāmbūnadaprabham ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:29)

“Thus speaking, the sages started looking at the purushottama (sage narayana), who had established himself in his true form as Vishnu and was looking spotless furnished with a brilliant effulgence. His chest bore the mark of Srivatsa, the splendour of which resembled the molten gold”.

“śaṅkhacakragadāpāṇiṃ śārṅgahastaṃ śriyāvṛtam |
na dṛṣṭastatkṣaṇādeva narastasyaiva tejasā ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:30)

“He held the conch, discus, mace and the bow as his ornaments. He was accompanied by lakshmi, and the lustre emanating from his body made sage Nara invisible”.

Then, the way sage Narayana had emerged in the scene knowing the reason for the penance of the sages, after knowing the questions that were asked by them, suddenly Mahadeva appears in the scene.

“tadantare mahādevaḥ śaśāṅkāṅkitaśekharaḥ |
prasādābhimukho rudraḥ prādurāsīnmaheśvaraḥ ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:31)

“In the meantime, the great god, Maheshvara, with his head adorned with the crescent moon, also emerged on the scene”.

Then everyone praised Mahadeva glorifying various of his great attributes. Then Maheshvara embracing Vishnu asks him what for does Vishnu need him there. This question itself reveals us the answer to the question on why from nowhere suddenly Shiva emerged there in that vicinity even though Vishnu in his native form was present and was ‘considered’ capable of removing those doubts by those sages.

“saṃstuto bhagavānīśastryambako bhaktavatsalaḥ |
samāliṅgya hṛṣīkeśaṃ prāha gambhīrayā girā || 36
kimarthaṃ puṇḍarīkākṣa munīndrā brahmavādinaḥ |
imaṃ samāgatā deśaṃ kiṃ vā kāryaṃ mayācyuta ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:36-37)

“After having been thus adored, lord Ishvara, who is graceful on his devotees, embraced Lord Hrishikesha, and spoke in deep voice, ‘O lots-eyed one, what for have these ascetics, the spokespersons on Brahman, have arrived here? O Achuta what for do you need me?'”.

Vishnu prays to Shiva asking him to speak about the excellent science of Brahman. Note here carefully the words where Vishnu requests Shiva to speak about the divine knowledge which is about him (shiva). Also, note carefully the words of Vishnu where he says, “only you are well aware of yourself, and there is none else who knows you better”. This is the reason the great god Vishnu himself secretly summoned Mahadeva there.

“yadi prasanno bhagavān munīnāṃ bhāvitātmanām |
sannidhau mama tajjñānaṃ divyaṃ vaktumihārhasi || 40
tvaṃ hi vettha svamātmānaṃ na hyanyo vidyate śiva |
tatastvamātmanātmānaṃ munīndrebhyaḥ pradarśaya ||” (Kurma purana 2:1:40-41)

“In case, you are pleased with these rishis, then you kindly bestow your divine knowledge on them in my presence. O Siva, only you are well aware about yourself, there is none else who knows you better”.

Now, recall the questions of the sages. Those sages didn’t ask “tell me about lord shiva”. They asked Vishnu to reveal the knowledge of the one who is known as ‘atman’, who is the ‘brahman’, who is the cause of the world and yet who is the witnesser of everything. And here Vishnu is asking Shiva to talk about himself, and clearly says that there is none who knows Shiva better than Shiva himself.

Relating both instances, what do we infer? The inference is clear that – it is Shiva who is the Supreme Being; other than Shiva no one including Vishnu is competent to discourse about himself.

This is what exactly happened during Mahabharata war as well. Arjuna resorted to Krishna as a disciple the way these sages resorted unto sage narayana (Krishna’s original aspect). The way sages enquired about the supreme knowledge, Arjuna resorted to Krishna to free him from the delusion and tell him what constitutes the highest good. Bhagawad Gita is not a lecture for persuading a hero to kill his relatives. It is indeed atman-vidya. And then what did Krishna do? The way without the knowledge of the sages, Vishnu had silently summoned Maheshvara to that vicinity to talk about the highest knowledge of shiva-tatva; here without the knowledge of Arjuna, Krishna went in communion with Shiva through yoga and Shiva delivered the lecture on Vedanta through Krishna’s mouth.

Actually Bhagawad Gita was certain to manifest in this world in those times. Krishna and Arjuna were only instrumental in helping that ‘ishvara gita’ manifest under the name of ‘bhagawad gita’.  Bhagawad Gita itself says that in olden times that science was present, but due to long lapse of time, it got lost.

“evaṃ paramparāprāptam imaṃ rājarṣayo viduḥ | sa kāleneha mahatā yogo naṣṭaḥ paraṃtapa ||
sa evāyaṃ mayā te ‘dya yogaḥ proktaḥ purātanaḥ | bhakto ‘si me sakhā ceti rahasyaṃ hy etad uttamam ||” (BG 4:2-3)

“Descending thus from tradition, the Royal sages came to know it. But, O chastiser of foes, by (lapse of a) long time, that knowledge became lost to the world. Even the same knowledge hath today been declared by me to thee, for thou art my devotee and friend, (and) this is a great mystery”.

Therefore, the agenda of Shiva was to make this science manifest in the then current world again, hence made use of Arjuna’s delusion as a tool to get Krishna into yoga union with himself and that Mahadeva imparted to this world, that highest science about himself. It was not at all meant for Arjuna, it was all to bring the lost knowledge to benefit the mankind. That science was documented by Veda Vyasa in Mahabharata for all of us, and hence the purpose of shiva was served, the goal of Shiva got completed. For this reason, Krishna couldn’t recall or retell that science to Arjuna again as it was something which only Mahadeva can discourse none else as clearly stated by Vishnu in Kurma Purana. Note that Gita was not just theory, but practical demonstration using cosmic form as well, which Shiva alone was capable to display that highest form none else.

Also, the lord introducing to Arjuna about himself mentions the following words in (BG 4:6) – “ajo ‘pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvarah…”, which means, “Though (I am) unborn and of essence that knoweth no deterioration, (I am) the lord of all creatures”. Here ‘isvara’ means ‘lord’ which again is a synonym of ‘pati’. When we re-word this, we get that lord to be ‘bhūtānām pati’, and all ‘bhutas’ are bound by his ‘pasha’ hence they all are ‘pashus’, hence that word becomes ‘pashunam pati’ which results in the lord being – verily the great ‘pashupati’ himself!

Conclusion: – From this analysis we can clearly see that Bhagawad Gita cannot be discoursed by anyone else other than Shiva, as it is a science which reveals about Shiva only. For that reason, it has always been revealed by Shiva only. In former times when Vishnu was asked to reveal the atman-vidya, he requested Shiva to narrate about himself; and in Dwapara yuga when that knowledge was almost lost and it was needed to manifest for the benefit of the world, Vishnu (as Krishna) helped that science manifest again, by uniting himself with Shiva through yoga and letting Shiva speak that knowledge via his mouth to Arjuna, which got recorded for the entire mankind. Since it got manifested in this world as a part of Vyasa’s Mahabharata; there was no need for Shiva to obey repeat telecast commands from anyone. Hence Krishna said it was impossible for him to narrate that Gita once again.

2.3. Bhagawad Gita is indeed ‘Ishvara Gita’


The terms ‘Ishvara’ and ‘bhagavAn’, both mean same. Shruti clearly recognizes lord Rudra alone as ‘Bhagavan’, which is evident from the below verse from Atharvashira Upanishad.

“yo vai rudraḥ sa bhagavān ||” (Atharvashira Upanishad 1:01)
“He who is Rudra, is verily the bhagavan”.

The supreme lord is termed as ‘Ishvara’ and ‘Bhagavan’ is a synonym denoting the same ‘ishvara’. There is no difference. Therefore ‘Bhagavad Gita’ is identical in meaning to the term ‘Ishvara Gita’. Therefore, both are the lectures teaching about the glory of Mahadeva alone.

2.4. Adi Shankara clearly recognizes Bhagawad Gita as ‘ishvara Gita’ in Brahmasutra bhashya


In his commentary on brahmasutras, Sri Adi Shankaracharya cites Bhagawad Gita verse in BSB (2:3:45), but terms it as ‘ishvara Gita’.

“īśvaragītāsvapi ca īśvarāṃśatvaṃ jīvasya smaryate mamaivāṃśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ iti ||” (Shankara’s Brahmasutra Bhashya 2:3:45)
“In the Isvaragita (Bhagavad-gîtâ) also it is said that the soul is a part of the Lord, ‘an eternal part of me becomes the individual soul in the world of life. [This verse is from Bhagavad Gita (BG 15:07)]”.

Clearly, he knows that Bhagavad Gita is not any different Gita, rather, it is the very same Shiva whose Ishvara Gita was spoken in more elaborate way by himself via the mouth of Krishna, while maintaining the core message of Vedanta identical.

3. ‘Padma Purana’ attesting my inferences gives more evidence

 

Padma Purana, which is one of the so called ‘sAtWika purANa’, in its Uttara Khanda, there is a section dedicated to the discussion on the greatness of the Bhagavad Gita, i.e., gIta-mAhAtmayaM. It exists as a dialogue between Shiva and Parvati where Shiva narrates the glory of Gita as narrated by Vishnu to Lakshmi earlier. Here three great facts are revealed which are in agreement with my inferences drawn above. – 1) Vishnu tells that his indweller is Maheshvara and on him he meditates via yoga. 2) The lord of Bhagavad Gita is Shiva of five faces. 3) Bhagavad Gita’s form itself is the form of lord Shiva..

3.1. Vishnu sleeps while being in union with his inner self Maheshvara through Yoga


In that context, Vishnu is shown sleeping on his snake bed deeply immersed in his inner-self. Lakshmi remains seated alongside and she enquires her husband about the reason why does he lazily remains on the bed sleepy as mentioned in the below verse.

“śrīruvāca |
śayālurasi dugdhābdhau bhagavankena hetunā |
udāsīna ivaiśvaryaṃ jagaṃti sthāpayanniva ||” (Padma Purana:UK:175:5)
“O revered one, You, despite being the sustainer of the world, you being indifferent (passive) towards your glory, are sleeping on this milky ocean, what’s the reason behind this?”.

Then the lord replies that he wasn’t sleeping as such, rather he was in contemplation and was in communion with his true form of lord Shiva which is his indwelling spirit.

“śrībhagavānuvāca |
nāhaṃ sumukhi nidrālurnijaṃ māheśvaraṃ vapuḥ |
dṛśā tatvānuvarttinyā paśyāmyaṃtarnimagnayā ||” (Padma Purana:UK:175:7)
“[The lord said]: O you of beautiful face, I’m not sleeping, rather, by the vision which sees (follows) the truth, I am contemplating by being fixed (nimagna) in my true form of lord Maheshvara (lord Shiva)“.

The above verse is again very significant one. It is in sync with Mahabharata as well as Kurma Purana incidents. The way in Mahabharata, Krishna was in communion with Shiva via Yoga and then delivered Bhagavad Gita, the way Narayana remembered Shiva and silently called him to the vicinity to recite Ishvara Gita to the seekers, here Vishnu was again in oneness with Shiva in his Yoga, and then when Lakshmi started asking questions he stated answering, it is as like as Krishna started answering to Arjuna’s questions in Mahabharata in Bhagavad Gita.

Here Lakshmi gets perplexed to know that Vishnu was meditating within himself on something superior than him. She asks him to reveal what or who is that who is different and higher than him.

“śrīruvāca |
bhavāneva hṛṣīkeśa dhyeyo’si yamināṃ sadā |
tasmāttvattaḥ paraṃ yattacchrotuṃ kautūhalaṃ hi me ||14
carācarāṇāṃ lokānāṃ karttā harttā svayaṃ prabhuḥ |
yathāsthitastato’nyatvaṃ yadi māṃ bodhayācyuta ||” (Padma Purana:UK:175:14-15)
“O Hrishikesha! You alone are always to be meditated upon by the self-controlled ones. Therefore, I have a great curiosity to hear from you, about that which is higher than you. O Achuta, tell me if there is something different from you who are the lord, the creator, and the destroyer of the worlds”.

3.2. Vishnu’s form is illusion, in his ‘Original’ aspect he is five faced lord Shiva


Then Vishnu replies her saying that his ‘Vishnu’ form is actually illusionary (made of Maya) which is given the tasks of creation, maintenance and withdrawal of the world. He tells her that the nature of his inner self is different from his body, the self is the form of the ‘Ishvara (lord)’, which can be known only through the unity with it. He says that this is what is told in Bhagavad Gita also.

“śrībhagavānuvāca |
māyāmayamidaṃ devi vapurme na tu tātvikam |
sṛṣṭisthityopasaṃhārakriyājālopabṛṃhitam || 16
ato’nyadātmanorūpaṃ dvaitādvaitavivarjitam |
bhāvābhāvavinirmuktamādyaṃtarahitaṃ priye ||17
śuddhasaṃvitprabhālābhaṃ parānaṃdaikasuṃdaram |
rūpamaiśvaramātmaikyagamyaṃ gītāsu kīrtitam ||” (Padma Purana:UK:175:16-18)
“[Lord Vishnu said]: O goddess, this my body is illusory and not real, and is augmented with the mass of the acts of creation, maintenance and withdrawal. O dear one, the nature of the self is different form this. It is without duality and unity. It is free from existence and non-existence; and without beginning or end. It is pure consciousness, has acquired luster, is beautiful due to great joy, is the form of the Ishvara (lord), can be known only through the unity with the self, and this is what is told in the Gita”.

Then goddess Lakshmi seeing an apparent contradiction enquires further as follows.

“ityākarṇya vaco devi devasyāmitatejasaḥ |
śaṃkamānā ha vākyeṣu parasparavirodhiṣu ||19
svayaṃ cetparamānaṃdamavāṅmanasagocaram |
kathaṃ gītā bodhayati iti me cchiṃdhi saṃśayam ||” (Padma Purana:UK:175:19-20)
“Hearing the words of him of an unlimited lustre, she having doubt to contradictory statement said: ‘If you are highest joy, and not known through speech and mind, then how does Gita make you known. Remove this doubt of me!'”.

Then the narrator of this discussion viz. Lord Shiva (to Parvati), tells what Vishnu had spoken to Lakshmi as follows. Vishnu reveals a great secret about himself here. Recall from previous verse where he told Lakshmi that his form (as Vishnu) is just illusionary. Now he reveals about himself who he originally is! He tells that he is (originally) the Atman (self) which has two aspects – Higher (as nirguNa Shiva, the inactive, witness brahman) and lower (as the Ishvara, the active Brahman). He says that his Ishvara (active form) is of two types BOTH having five faces viz. Panchavaktra (sadashiva) and Maheshvara (kailasa-pati).

This is in sync with Shiva Purana also. Shiva originally is the nirguNa-brahman, he becomes active and assumes the form of five faced Sadashiva (who is the Vedantic Ishvara). Then post creation of the universe he enters into the universe and resides in Kailasha having five faces and is called Maheshvara, where essentially this Mahesvara is not different from the Sadashiva. In Shakta Puranas these two forms are explained as residing in Manidweepa (Sadashiva) and Kailasha (Maheshvara).

Then Vishnu says further that the realization about his nature of five-faced lord is dependent upon the study of Gita. He then teaches entire Bhagavad Gita to Lakshmi. Recall that Vishnu was already in yogic communion with his indwelling lord ‘Maheshvara’ when this discussion between him and Lakshmi started, and now he is able to recite Gita as like as Krishna recited Gita to Arjuna after uniting himself in Yoga. So, there is no confusion or contradiction here. Vishnu and his incarnation(s) have always been successful in reciting Bhagavad Gita ONLY after uniting themselves with Shiva via Yoga, period!

Here in below verses Vishnu tells that Bhagavad Gita is all about the study or knowledge of Vishnu’s original forms of Shiva i.e., Sadashiva and Maheshvara. He had already said that his Vishnu-form is illusory, here he is revealing who he originally is! Yes, Vishnu is none other than Lord Shiva who assumes the illusionary form of Vishnu for the cosmic functions related with the world. What more can be true that the fact that the very Yajur Veda in the Sri Rudram has stated that it is Shiva who assumes the form of Vishnu – “namo giriśāya ca śipiviṣṭāya ca ||” (Yajur Veda IV:5:5:f), which means, “Salutations to Rudra who is the lord of the mountains and salutations to Rudra who is in the form of shipivishta (Vishnu)”. This same truth is being explained in detail by Vishnu himself in below verses.

“īśvara uvāca |
śriyaḥ śrutvā vacoyuktamitihāsapuraḥsaram |
ātmānugāminīṃ dṛṣṭiṃ gītāṃ bodhitavānprabhuḥ ||20
ahamātmā pareśāni parāparavibhedataḥ |
dvidhā tataḥ paraḥ sākṣī nirguṇo niṣkalaḥ śivaḥ ||21
aparaḥ paṃcavaktro’haṃ dvidhā tasyāpi saṃsthitiḥ |
śabdārthabhedato vācyo yathātmāhaṃ maheśvaraḥ ||22
gītānāṃ vākyarūpeṇa yannirucchidyate dṛḍhaḥ |
madīyapāśabaṃdho’yaṃ saṃsāraviṣayātmakaḥ ||23
yadābhyāsaparādhīnau paṃcavaktramaheśvarau |
iti tasya vacaḥ śrutvā gītāsāramahodadheḥ ||24
idaṃ paravibhedena budhyate bhavabhīrubhiḥ |
tamapṛcchadidaṃ lakṣmīraṃgapratyaṃgasaṃsthitam ||25
māhātmyaṃ setihāsaṃ ca sarvaṃ tasyai nyavedayat |26a” (Padma Purana:UK:175:20-26a)
“[Lord Shiva said]: Having heard the proper words of Lakshmi, the lord told her the Gita, the vision leading one towards the self, along with an historical account. “O great lordess, I am the ‘self’ differentiated in two ways, – as higher and lower. The higher is a witness, attributeless, partless, ShivaAs the lower one, I am ‘panchavaktra (of five faces)’ it also remains in two forms. I, Maheshvara, am the self, am to be explained through the distinction in words and meanings, as, through the words of the Gita, my strong noose of the nature of objects in the worldly existence, is completely cut off; since (realization of my two forms) ‘Panchavaktra’ and ‘Maheshvara’, are dependent on its study“. Hearing these words of him (which were) the great ocean of essence of the Gita, those afraid of the worldly existence know it through the difference between this and that. Lakshmi asked thus to him. He told her about the Mahatmayam (greatness) along with the corresponding historical accounts (stories) in its major and minor details.”.

3.3. Bhagavad Gita itself is the body of Lord Shiva – implies – Bhagavad Gita teaches the ‘swarUpa jnAna’ of lord Shiva only


Then Vishnu explains the swarUpa (form) of Bhagavad Gita itself. He says the eighteen chapters are the various body parts of the five faced lord Shiva. The first five chapters are the five faces of the lord Shiva. The next ten chapters are the ten hands. The sixteenth chapter is the belly and the final two i.e., the seventeenth and eighteenth chapters are the two feet of the lord.

“śṛṇu suśroṇi vakṣyāmi gītāsu sthitimātmanaḥ ||26
vaktrāṇi paṃca jānīhi paṃcādhyāyānanukramāt |
daśādhyāyā bhujāścaika udaraṃ dvau padāṃbuje ||27
evamaṣṭādaśādhyāyā vāṅmayī mūrtiraiśvarī |
vijñeyā jñānamātreṇa mahāpātakanāśinī ||28
atodhyāyaṃ tadardhaṃ vā ślokamarddhaṃ tadardhakam |
abhyasyati sumedhā yaḥ suśarmeva samucyate ||” ((Padma Purana:UK:175:26b-29)
“[Lord Vishnu said]: O you, beautiful lady, I’ll tell you about my firm existence in the Gita. The five chapters are the five faces in order. The (next) ten chapters are the (ten) hands; one is the belly, and the (remaining) two are the lotus like feet. Thus the eighteen chapters are the divine forms of words. It, destroying great sins, should be known through knowledge only. Therefore, he, the very intelligent one, who studies a chapter, or half of it, or a verse of a half-verse is liberated like ‘Susharma’”.

Thus from above discussion it is clear that Vishnu understands his true nature as that of Shiva because Vishnu is Shiva’s own form among his ‘Panchabrahma’ manifestations. Vishnu clearly recognizes his ‘Vishnu’ form as illusionary and the original form as that of Shiva of five faces (when in the active saguNa state) and as attributeless Shiva (when in the inactive nirguNa brahman state). Vishnu says Bhagavad Gita’s all chapters constitute the parts of the body of the fife faced Sadashiva, the supreme being. Thus he clearly indicates that Bhagavad Gita teaches about the swarUpa (nature) of lord Shiva only!

(Then he goes about narrating how some sinner by name ‘susharma’ got liberated by listening the first chapter of Gita etc. Subsequent discussion focusses on the greatness of each chapter of Gita by explaining via some stories like how someone by reciting the second chapter of Gita got liberated. So on so forth, each chapter has a story associated with someone. Hence there is nothing important to our discussion in those verses. Hence we need to close this discussion of Padma Purana here).

4. Vishvarupa of Bhagawad Gita was unique form of Mahakala only


Well, a question may arise in the minds of the readers “if Krishna was not the speaker of Bhagawad Gita and if it was Shiva who spoke through Krishna and showed Shiva’s cosmic form, then how could Krishna show Viraat form in Hastinapur Sabha and also later to a sage named Utanka?” Well, answer to this is – in both these cases Krishna showed his supreme Vaishnava form, which is not the Viraat form. Vishwaroopa that was seen in Bhagawad Gita, that cosmic form cannot be seen with normal eyes of flesh, it needs divine eyes. That divine Vishwaroopa was witnessed only by Arjuna and Sanjaya; where both of them had the divine eyes, the former obtained from Krishna and the latter obtained it as a gift from Vyasa.

Here one who has studied Mahabharata may have two questions or objections on the above mentioned points related to Vishvarupa. First objection could be – “Even in the hastinapura sabha Krishna gave divine sight and showed his divine form, then how come you say Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form his not krishna’s and belongs to Shiva?” The second question or objection could be – “In the case of display of cosmic form to sage Utanka, of course Krishna didn’t give divine eyes to Utanka, but vaishampayana mentions clearly that he was shown the divine ‘vaishnava’ form which was shown to Arjuna. How would you explain this?”

Both these objections get easily refuted if we analyse all these chapters carefully. Let me answer them one by one.

4.1. Cosmic form that was displayed in Kuru sabha in Udyoga Parva


In the case of hastinapura sabha, Krishna displayed a divine form which was not the one shown during the battlefield gita session. The form that he displayed was a sum total of celestial ‘support’ that was with him. Krishna says to Duryodhana how foolish was the latter’s understanding about Krishna that the latter considered Krishna to be alone and designed plans to make him captive, Krishna’s divine form was a response to Duryodhana’s foolishness where he showed that it was impossible for Duryodhana to succeed in his motives.

” vaiśampāyana uvāca
vidureṇaivamuktastu keśavaḥ śatrupūgahā।
duryodhanaṃ dhārtarāṣṭramabhyabhāṣata vīryavān॥ 1
eko’hamiti yanmohānmanyase māṃ suyodhana।
paribhūya sudurbuddhe grahītuṃ māṃ cikīrṣasi॥ 2
ihaiva pāṇḍavāḥ sarve tathaivāndhakavṛṣṇayaḥ।
ihādityāśca rudrāśca vasavaśca maharṣibhiḥ॥ 3
evamuktvā jahāsoccaiḥ keśavaḥ paravīrahā॥“ (MBH 05:131:1-2)

“Vaisampayana said, ‘After Vidura had said this, Kesava, that slayer of hostile divisions, endued with great energy, addressed Dhritarashtra’s son, Duryodhana, and said, ‘From delusion, O Suyodhana, thou regardest me to be alone, and it is for this, O thou of little understanding, that thou seekest to make me a captive after vanquishing me by violence. Here, however, are all the Pandavas and all the Vrishnis and Andhakas. Here are all the Adityas, the Rudras, and the Vasus, with all the great Rishis. Saying this Kesava, that slayer of hostile heroes burst out into a loud laughter”.

Then in his divine form are seen, five pandavas surrounding him from all sides, and protecting him with upraised arms. There were rudras, adityas, vasus surrounding Krishna in all sides. On his forehead appeared Brahma, on his chest appeared Rudra and from his other parts other gods issued forth. There appeared his brother Balarama standing by his left side wielding his plough, Arjuna manifested with his bow stretched standing by his right side. Behind Krishna were seen standing Bhima, Yudhishthira, Nakula and Sahadeva. In front of Krishna were seen andhakas, vrishnis, headed by Krishna’s son Pradyumna all with their upraised arms and ready to strike. And Krishna was seen in his native Vishnu form holding discus, conch, mace, bow, nandakam (Vishnu’s sword), and many other weapons. From his eyes, and pores of his body emanated fierce sparks of fire mixed with smoke.

One may refer to the verses 3-13 from chapter 131 of Udyoga Parva from Mahabharata for these details. I’m skipping quoting them because of the length of those verses and translation. The summary has already been provided, which should suffice.

People may easily consider this as the same Vishvarupa seen by Arjuna, but it is not so. We need to carefully read the further verses here. This divine form was doubtlessly great but didn’t require divine eyes to be seen. Everyone was able to that awful form by their eyes of flesh. However the sinful people got terrified seeing that form and closed their eyes. For the pious hearted people such as Bhishma, Drona, Sanjaya, Vidura and the various ascetics and sages who were present there – Krishna had bestowed a divine sight because of that divine sight they were able to behold him without getting scared. That’s it.

“taṃ dṛṣṭvā ghoramātmānaṃ keśavasya mahātmanaḥ॥ 13
nyamīlayanta netrāṇi rājānastrastacetasaḥ।
ṛte droṇaṃ ca bhīṣmaṃ ca viduraṃ ca mahāmatim॥ 14
sañjayaṃ ca mahābhāgamṛṣīṃścaiva tapodhanān।
prādātteṣāṃ sa bhagavāndivyaṃ cakṣurjanārdanaḥ॥”  (MBH 05:131:13b-15)

“And beholding that awful form of the high-souled Kesava, all the kings closed their eyes with affrighted hearts, except Drona, and Bhishma, and Vidura, endued with great intelligence, greatly blessed Sanjaya, and the Rishis, possessed of wealth of asceticism, for the divine Janardana gave unto them this divine sight on the occasion”.

This clearly shows that the divine form shown in the kuru sabha, could be seen by everyone without needing any divine eyes, however, without divine sight that form was scary to look at, and for the good people Krishna gave the divine sight which helped them appreciate the grandeur of that form instead of getting frightened.

Now, let’s recall Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form. There Arjuna asked Krishna to display the cosmic form. Krishna however said to Arjuna that with his normal eyes of flesh he wouldn’t be able to see that cosmic form and gave him divine eyes as stated in below verse.

“na tu māṃ śakyase draṣṭumanenaiva svacakṣuṣā।
divyaṃ dadāmi te cakṣuḥ paśya me yogamaiśvaram॥“ (MBH 6:35:08)

“Thou art, however, not competent to behold me with this eye of thine. I give thee celestial sight. Behold my sovereign mystic nature’”.

This is unlike the kuru sabha episode where everyone was able to see the form with normal eyes, whereas divine sight was given only to eradicate fear. Here however, only after getting the divine eyes, Arjuna was able to see that cosmic form. Otherwise, all the kauravas and pandavas who were wondering what were these two fellows doing in the centre of battlefield gossiping instead of beginning the war – all of them could have also witnessed that cosmic form.

Here another noteworthy point is that – despite having received divine sight, Arjuna kind of brave warrior who even crushed the army of demons called ‘nirvatkavachas’ with his might, who fought hand to hand with Mahadeva and pleased him – such a brave warrior on seeing this cosmic form, trembled with fear like a tree trembling under storm.

“nabhaḥspṛśaṃ dīptamanekavarṇaṃ vyāttānanaṃ dīptaviśālanetram।
dṛṣṭvā hi tvāṃ pravyathitāntarātmā dhṛtiṃ na vindāmi śamaṃ ca viṣṇo॥“ (MBH 6:35:24)

“Indeed, touching the very skies, of blazing radiance, many-hued, mouth wide-open, with eyes that are blazing and large, beholding thee, O Vishnu (all pervading one), with (my) inner soul trembling (in fright), I can no longer command courage and peace of mind”.

In Kuru sabha’s divine form, people got frightened no doubt, but nobody trembled to that extent that anybody could have prayed to Krishna to withdraw that form. Krishna withdrew that form voluntarily, nobody pleaded. However, in Bhagawad Gita episode, we know that Arjuna pleaded Krishna to withdraw that terrible form and appear in his pleasing form. So, all these reasoning proves that definitely this cosmic form what Arjuna had seen, was not the one seen in Kuru sabha.

I know there would still remain some adamant fanatics, who wouldn’t want to let any amount of valid reasoning to enter their adamantine skulls, therefore, foreseeing all these issues, to support my viewpoint, the lord of Bhagawad Gita had already given the verdict in Bhagawad Gita itself. He clearly stated that the cosmic form of Bhagawad Gita was not displayed before.

“śrībhagavānuvāca |
mayā prasannena tavārjunedaṃ rūpaṃ paraṃ darśitamātmayogāt।
tejomayaṃ viśvamanantamādyaṃ yanme tvadanyena na dṛṣṭapūrvam॥“ (MBH 6:35:47)

“The Holy One said, ‘Pleased with thee, O Arjuna, I have, by my yogic power, shown thee this supreme form, full of glory, Universal, Infinite, Primeval, which hath been seen before by none save thee”.

So, that should settle all doubts and arguments to rest! Let’s move on.

4.2. Cosmic form that was displayed to utanka in Ashvamedhika Parva

Sage Utanka requested Krishna to display his supreme form. Krishna obliged to his devotee’s request and displayed his divine form. Here noteworthy point is that Krishna didn’t provide any divine sight to Utanka. He asked and Krishna displayed. However, Vaishampayana who was narrating this chapter, made a comment saying:

“tataḥ sa tasmai prītātmā darśayāmāsa tadvapuḥ।
śāśvataṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ dhīmāndadṛśe yaddhanañjayaḥ॥“ (MBH 14:55:4)

“Vaisampayana continued, ‘Gratified with him, the holy one then showed Utanka that eternal Vaishnava form which Dhananjaya of great intelligence had seen”.

This may make the haters of Shiva to conclude that Bhagawad Gita and its Vishwaroopa was of Vishnu only. However, there is a catch in the statement of vaishampayana. Here he uses the words ‘vaishnava form’ which he said ‘was witnessed by dhananjaya’.

I never claimed anywhere that Vishnu doesn’t have a cosmic form. All I say is Bhagawad Gita is entirely Shiva’s glory and the vishvarupa of Bhagwad Gita is supreme Mahakala’s form. We shouldn’t forget that Vishnu himself means ‘all pervasive’. Lord Vishnu is himself this entire cosmos. Hence the very sahasranama begins with ‘Vishvam’ as the first name of that god, meaning, he is all that is there in this universe because being all-pervasive. So, it is very much true that Vishnu has a cosmic form. In fact as per Puranas Brahma had entered inside Vishnu’s body and witnessed entire creation present within his body. So, was the case with Brahma as well when Vishnu entered Brahma’s body! These gods are not petty creatures, they are the most prominent forms assumed by Shiva. Hence in these ‘vibhootis’ Mahadeva’s nature shines.

Now, coming back to Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form, for Krishna who was Vishnu, it was not impossible to show his own divine cosmic form, even if Arjuna requests a hundred times. But still Krishna failed to repeat the discourse (along with displaying cosmic form), to Arjuna a second time. Let’s see why.

In Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form, there are two parts to the cosmic form viz. – all-pervasive thousand heads, thousand feet form, and second aspect was frightfulness having mouths grinding all the kauravas under the teeth. The thousand heads, thousand feet, all pervading aspect is common to every superior god whosoever displayed cosmic form – say Skanda, Vishnu, etc., however, the fear inspiring kala aspect belongs to Shiva (in his role as Mahakala).

Arjuna not only beheld a form spread in all the directions, but also beheld the supreme Mahakala standing in his terrible cosmic form, devouring the entire enemies of pandavas grinding them under his terrible fangs. This form was all pervasive, hence although Shiva is all-pervasive; the ‘all-pervasiveness’ can be attributed to Vishnu also. Hence it needs to be considered that Shiva’s Mahakala form took possession on top of the all pervading ‘vaishnava’ form which was the base.

To explain more clearly, consider a bald headed person who is ashamed of his baldness and hence wears various wigs (false hair) – when he wears a wig of braided hair, he would look different, when he wears a wig of kinky hair, he would look different, when he wears a wig of blonde colour, he would look different, but remove his wig, and he would be in his base form of being a bald headed person. Similarly, an ugly woman may apply any coats of makeup and may look beautiful in different ways, but when makeup is removed, the original face remains unchanged. The wigs vary; the makeup varies but the base (bald head or ugly face) remains same.

Therefore, the base all-pervasive divine form having thousand heads and thousand feet was same Vaishnava form which was possessed by Mahakala, therefore it frightened Arjuna like anything.

Here in Utanka’s case, we need to consider vaishampayana’s words as speaking only about the base ‘vaishnava’ form which was displayed to Arjuna as all-pervading in all directions. This would become clear with the below reasoning and at the end of this section, I would again show how the lord has already clarified all these potential objections during gita discourse itself.

After Uttanka witnessed the cosmic form, he described it while praying to Krishna. Mahabharata clearly describes Uttanka’s reaction after seeing that form. Nowhere Uttanka gets ‘frightened’. He only becomes filled with wonder (vismayaM) and his narration of that form depicts only and only the all-pervasiveness and not even a hint of it being terrible is available in his words. He had seen the soumya (soft) cosmic form of Vishnu hence it was a vaishnava form. We’ll come to this point shortly, but let’s discuss some observations.

This prayer of Uttanka has been found to exist in two different variations. It could be ‘pATha-bheda’ or ‘whatever’. Let’s see how. The Mahabharata Kumbhakonam edition as well as the version that Nilakantha followed (Nilakantha’s version was the one followed by ‘Sri KM Ganguly’ for his English translation); in both these versions, the prayer of Uttanka after seeing the vaishnava form has some verses found to be lesser. This version of Mahabharata describes krishna’s Vishnu form as follows:

“viśvakarman namas te ‘stu yasya te rūpam īdṛśam
padbhyāṃ te pṛthivī vyāptā śirasā cāvṛtaṃ nabhaḥ ||6
dyāvāpṛthivyor yan madhyaṃ jaṭhareṇa tad āvṛtam
bhujābhyām āvṛtāś cāśās tvam idaṃ sarvam acyuta ||7
saṃharasva punar devarūpam akṣayyam uttamam
punas tvāṃ svena rūpeṇa draṣṭum icchāmi śāśvatam ||” (MBH 14:55:6-8)

However, the southern recension of Mahabharata published by Vavilla Ramaswamy Sastrulu and Sons, Madras; and the Gita press recension have a different reading of the prayer of Uttanka. These recensions have some additional verses as posted below. Noteworthy point is that BORI version also has the below additional verses in their version and after the below verses, come the verses that are shown above.

uttaṅka uvāca
(namo namaste sarvātmannārāyaṇa parātpara।
paramātmanpadmanābha puṇḍarīkākṣa mādhava॥
hiraṇyagarbharūpāya saṃsārottaraṇāya ca।
puruṣāya purāṇāya cāntaryāmāya te namaḥ॥
avidyātimirādityaṃ bhavavyādhimahauṣadhim।
saṃsārārṇavapāraṃ tvāṃ praṇamāmi gatirbhava॥
sarvavedaikavedyāya sarvadevamayāya ca।
vāsudevāya nityāya namo bhaktapriyāya te॥
dayayā duḥkhamohānāṃ samuddhartumihārhasi।
karmabhirbahubhiḥ pāpairbaddhaṃ pāhi janārdana॥)

viśvakarmannamaste’stu viśvātmanviśvasambhava।
padbhyāṃ te pṛthivī vyāptā śirasā cāvṛtaṃ nabhaḥ॥ 7
dyāvāpṛthivyoryanmadhyaṃ jaṭhareṇa tavāvṛtam।
bhūjābhyāmāvṛtāścāśāstvamidaṃ sarvamacyuta॥ 8
saṃharasva punardeva rūpamakṣayyamuttamam।
punastvāṃ svena rūpeṇa draṣṭumicchāmi śāśvatam॥“ (MBH 14:55:7-9)

In either case the prayer is totally focussed only on the two factors viz. – Firstly, the all pervasive nature of the form and second, Vishnu’s glorification by various names of his, such as ‘padmanabha’ etc. This is purely Vishnu’s form, and there is no depiction of terrible fangs and mouths devouring entire creation grinding them under the sharp teeth etc.

This point gives yet another strong evidence in support of my view as follows – Uttanka on seeing the divine ‘vaishnava’ form, clearly recognized it as ‘vishnu’ and sang praises in his glorification which were ‘vishnu specific’ using various names such as – narayana, padmanabha, madhava, vasudeva etc. Whereas contrasting with Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form we see that, Arjuna could not clearly recognize whom he was witnessing. Arjuna asked that lord to reveal who he was, as quoted in below verse.

“ākhyāhi me ko bhavānugrarūpo namo’stu te devavara prasīda।
vijñātumicchāmi bhavantamādyaṃ na hi prajānāmi tava pravṛttim॥“ (MBH 6:35:31)

“Tell me who thou art of (such) fierce form. I bow to thee, O chief of the gods, be gracious to me. I desire to know thee that art the Primeval One, I do not understand thy action”.

And in reply to his question, in the immediately next verse, the lord says – “I am ‘kala’”.

“śrībhagavānuvāca
kālo’smi lokakṣayakṛtpravṛddho lokānsamāhartumiha pravṛttaḥ॥” (MBH 6:35:32a)

“The Holy One said, “I am ‘kāla (Time)’, the destroyer of the worlds, fully developed. I am now engaged in slaying the race of men”.

So, our assumption is correct that Bhagawad Gita’s form was Mahakala’s fear inspiring ‘ghora’ form superimposed over Vishnu’s all-pervasive ‘soumya’ form. Hence Arjuna had definitely seen the vaishnava form but that was possessed by Mahakala’s form hence was extremely terrible to behold at.

Moreover, in Anugita episode Krishna had clearly expressed inability and said that it was “impossible” for him to discourse BG once more. And the supreme Mahakala form of chapter 11 of Bhagawad Gita was a part of that discourse which was also shown by resorting to Yoga. Hence if Utanka is assumed to have seen the same form, then it contradicts the words of Krishna in ‘Anu-gita’ section.

Once again, for the adamant fanatics who may not be willing to accept this reasoning, the lord of Bhagawad Gita, foreseeing such people of kaliyuga, had already given his verdict saying that – no one after Arjuna would ever be able to see that form even if one does penances, sacrifices, or any other meritorious activities.

“śrībhagavānuvāca
na vedayajñādhyayanairna dānairna ca kriyābhirna tapobhirugraiḥ।
evaṃrūpaḥ śakya ahaṃ nṛloke draṣṭuṃ tvadanyena kurupravīra॥ 48
mā te vyathā mā ca vimūḍhabhāvo dṛṣṭvā rūpaṃ ghoramīdṛṅmamedam।
vyapetabhīḥ prītamanāḥ punastvaṃ tadeva me rūpamidaṃ prapaśya॥” (MBH 6:35:47-49)

“The Holy One said, ‘Except by thee alone, hero of Kuru’s race, I cannot be seen in this form in the world of men by anyone else, (aided) even by the study of the Vedas and of sacrifices, by gifts, by actions, (or) by the severest austerities. Let no fear be thine, nor perplexity of mind at seeing this awful form of mine. Freed from fear with a joyful heart, thou again see Me assuming that other form”.

This is enough to understand that Uttanka didn’t see the cosmic form of Mahakala which Arjuna had seen.

4.3. Cosmic form of Bhagawad Gita was Mahakala form similar to the form exhibited in Ishvara Gita


The supreme lord in Bhagawad Gita tells Arjuna who he is. He clearly says that he is the supreme ‘Kala’. This Kala is not ‘Yama’, rather, is the supreme ‘Mahakala’ the very destructive aspect of lord Shiva. The lord says that he has already slain all the enemies of Arjuna such as ‘Bhishma, Drona, Karna etc.’ and tells Arjuna that Arjuna was just an instrument who was visible in this world engaging in killing.

“śrībhagavānuvāca
kālo’smi lokakṣayakṛtpravṛddho lokānsamāhartumiha pravṛttaḥ।
ṛte’pi tvāṃ na bhaviṣyanti sarve ye’vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu yodhāḥ॥ 32
tasmāttvamuttiṣṭha yaśo labhasva jitvāśatrūnbhuṅkṣva rājyaṃ samṛddham।
mayaivaite nihatāḥ pūrvameva nimittamātraṃ bhava savyasācin॥ 33
droṇaṃ ca bhīṣmaṃ ca jayadrathaṃ ca karṇaṃ tathānyānapi yodhavīrān।
mayā hatāṃstvaṃ jahi mā vyathiṣṭhā yudhyasva jetāsi raṇe sapatnān॥” (MBH 6:35:32-34)

“The Holy One said, “I am ‘kāla (Time or Death)’, the destroyer of the worlds, fully developed. I am now engaged in slaying the race of men. Without thee all these warriors standing in the different divisions shall cease to be. Wherefore, arise, gain glory, (and) vanquishing the foe, enjoy (this) swelling kingdom. By me have all these been already slain. Be only (my) instrument. O thou that can’st draw the bow with (even) the left hand. Drona and Bhishma, and Jayadratha, and Karna, and also other heroic warriors, (already) slain by me, do thou slay. Be not dismayed, fight; thou shalt conquer in battle (thy) foes”.

The same is narrated by Krishna in Shanti Parva in chapter 342. Krishna tells to Arjuna the same fact which Vyasa had also revealed to Arjuna earlier. He says that Rudra is known as “Kala” and tells Arjuna that all the foes that Arjuna had slain, had actually been slain beforehand by Kala (Rudra). Therefore relating both these instances we can easily understand that the terribel cosmic form displayed in Bhagavad Gita instance was Mahakala form of bhagavan Rudra!

“yastu tē sō’gratō yāti yuddhē sampratyupasthitē.
taṁ viddhi rudraṁ kauntēya dēvadēvaṁ kapardinam. 138
kālaḥ sa ēva kathitaḥ krōdhajēti mayā tava..
nihatāstēna vai pūrvaṁ hatavānasi yānripūn.139
apramēyaprabhāvaṁ taṁ dēvadēvamumāpatim.
namasva dēvaṁ prayatō viśvēśaṁ haramakṣayam |” (MBH 12:342:138-140)
That Being whom, at the time of all thy battles, thou beheldest stalking in thy van, know, O son of Kunti, is no other than Rudra, that god of gods, otherwise called by the name of Kaparddin. He is otherwise known by the name of Kala, and should be known as one that has sprung from my wrath. Those foes whom thou hast slain were all, in the first instance, slain by him. Do thou bend thy head unto that god of gods, that lord of Uma, endued with immeasurable puissance. With concentrated soul, do thou bend thy head unto that illustrious Lord of the universe, that indestructible deity, otherwise called by the name of Hara.’”

Not only these kauravas, but even the Yadavas, the five sons of Draupadi, and even the Ravana and his demoniac forces in Valmiki Ramayana – all those were actually slain by Mahakala Shiva and Mahakali alone. Even Krishna and Balarama were just instruments in the wipe-out of Yadava race, and in fact they too couldn’t rise superior to the sway of all-destroying Kala. These details have been written in a separate article altogether how Mahakala was the original slayer of all kuru armies and other dynasties also. One may go through it entirely or specifically the section 4 of my article titled “The unfading glory of Mahakala – The Primordial and Eternal Supreme Time!”. This article explains entire nature of Mahakala in great details.

In Ishvara Gita also, lord Shiva exhibits his supreme nataraja form having thousands of head, thousands of feet and dances in the firmament. In Shiva’s ‘vama-bhaga’ (left side) remains Vishnu (because he is in fact Shiva’s wife Uma in male form). Shiva is described in Ishvara Gita as having terrible fangs and sharp teeth as follows.

“brahmāṇḍaṃ tejasā svena sarvamāvṛtya ca sthitam |
daṃṣṭrākarālaṃ durdharṣaṃ sūryakoṭisamaprabham ||” (Kurma purana_2,5.10)

“The one who is established in the world with his own lustre, who has the terrible fangs, which are aweful possessing the lustre of crores of suns”.

This is in similar fashion (although may not necessarily be same, as these forms are all formed of Maya and are taken for specific purposes) seen in Bhagawad Gita also.

“daṃṣṭrākarālāni ca te mukhāni dṛṣṭvaiva kālānalasannibhāni।
diśo na jāne na labhe ca śarma prasīda deveśa jagannivāsa॥“ (MBH 6:35:25)

“Beholding thy mouths that are terrible in consequence of (their) tusks, and that are fierce (as the all-destroying fire at the end of the Yuga), I cannot recognise the points of the horizon nor can I command peace of mind. Be gracious, O God of gods, O thou that art the refuge of the Universe”.

Even if we see the events in the destruction of Daksha’s sacrifice, Veerabhadra is always shown as having terrible fangs and sharpened teeth. That is a trademark awful form of Mahakala aspect of lord Shiva. So, lord Shiva had shown his Mahakala form over his Nataraja aspect to sages in Ishvara Gita; whereas in the battlefield of Kurukshetra he had shown his terrible Mahakala form on top of the all-pervasive form to Arjuna.

Conclusion:

•    Krishna’s divine form shown in Kuru sabha was not the same as the Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form
•    The cosmic form witnessed by sage Uttanka was again not the same as that of Bhagawad Gita’s incident
•    Bhagawad Gita’s cosmic form was nothing but supreme Mahakala’s form seen by Arjuna
•    The form Arjuna had seen, was neither seen by anyone before Arjuna nor anyone would be able to see thereafter
•    Bhagavad Gita’s cosmic form was that of Mahakala Shiva only

 

5. Refuting the authenticity of the narration of Vibhooti yoga in Srimad Bhagavatam


Well, another question may also arise here and especially if the reader is a follower of Srimad Bhagawatam; she/he would surely ask the following question – “If Krishna was unable to repeat Bhagwad Gita once more, then how did he preach ‘Vibhooti Yoga’ chapter to Uddhava in Canto 11 Chapter 16 of Bhagawatam?”

Well, that’s a good question, but i fear that my answer would be too harsh to be read. I’m sorry to say that, that particular chapter of Bhagawatam is totally fake. When we do a comparison of Vibhooti Yoga of Gita from Mahabharata and Vibhooti Yoga of Bhagawatam (as recited to Uddhava) it would reveal us the truth that Bhagawatam’s chapter is cooked up one and can’t be true. Here are the reasonable evidences.

5.1. Defects in Vibhooti Yoga of Krishna’s Srimad-Bhagawatam


Let’s see some defects in Bhagawatam now.

“viśvāvasuḥ pūrvacittir gandharvāpsarasām aham
bhūdharāṇām ahaḿ sthairyaḿ gandha-mātram ahaḿ bhuvaḥ |” (SB. 11.16.33)
“Among the Gandharvas I am Viśvāvasu, and I am Pūrvacitti among the heavenly Apsaras. I am the steadiness of mountains and the fragrant aroma of the earth”.

Whereas the Bhagawad Gita states,

“aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ devarṣīṇāḿ ca nāradaḥ
gandharvāṇāḿ citrarathaḥ siddhānāḿ kapilo muniḥ |” (BG. 10.26)
“Of all trees I am the banyan tree, and of the sages among the gods I am Nārada. Of the Gandharvas I am Citraratha, and among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila”.

Oh! In Mahabharata time while speaking Bhagwad Gita Krishna was ‘Chitraratha’ among the ‘Gandhervas’ and by the time Bhagawatam was composed he became ‘Vishvavasu’ among the Gandhervas? Wow! That’s a nice transition in charecters! Well, before someone mentally frames the idea of equating Chitraratha and Vishvavasu let me state that both were Gandhervas but they were not same. Chitraratha (also called as Chitrasen) was the king (leader) of Gandhervas and Vishvavasu was also a prominent Gandherva but different from their host Chitrasena. Vishvavasu received a curse and became a demon called ‘Kabandha’ who was killed by Rama and Lakshmana. Also, chapter 7 from book-2 of Mahabharata has a description of Indra’s court and the deities seated therein as described by Narada. There the names Vishvavasu and Chitraratha are distinctively used to refer to the two primary Gandhervas.

“bhago viśve ca sādhyāśca guruḥ śukrastathaiva ca।
viśvāvasuścitrasenaḥ sumanas taruṇastathā॥” (MBH 2:7:22)

“…Bhaga, Viswa the Sadhyas, the preceptor (Vrihaspati), and also Sukra; and Vishwavasu and Chitrasena, and Sumanas, and also Taruna…”.

Let’s see few more marvelous defects in Bhagawatam now. Read the following verses carefully.

“tīrthānāḿ srotasāḿ gańgā samudraḥ sarasām aham
āyudhānāḿ dhanur ahaḿ tripura-ghno dhanuṣmatām |” (SB 11.16.20)
“Among sacred and flowing things I am the holy Ganges, and among steady bodies of water I am the ocean. Among weapons I am the bow, and of the wielders of weapons I am Lord Śiva”.

Let’s see the below two verses from Bhagwad Gita now.

“pavanaḥ pavatām asmi rāmaḥ śastra-bhṛtām aham
jhaṣāṇāḿ makaraś cāsmi srotasām asmi jāhnavī |” (BG 10:31)
“Of purifiers I am the wind, of the wielders of weapons I am Rāma, of fishes I am the shark, and of flowing rivers I am the Ganges”.

“āyudhānām ahaḿ vajraḿ dhenūnām asmi kāmadhuk
prajanaś cāsmi kandarpaḥ sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ |” (BG 10.28)
“Of weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows I am the surabhi. Of causes for procreation I am Kandarpa, the god of love, and of serpents I am Vāsuki”.

Oh! Again a shocking transition in forms! In the verse from Bhagawatam, we learn that Krishna says he is “Bow” among all weapons, but earlier in Bhagwad Gita time in Mahabharata i thought he was “Thunderbolt” among all the weapons! Is it that Krishna didn’t like that thunderbolt much and switched over to bow? When he was “Rama” among the wielder of “ALL weapons” during the times of Mahabharata (Bhagwad Gita), then by the time of Bhagawatam how did he become Lord Shiva among the bowmen (and wielder of weapons)?

Well, I understand that supreme lord is everything – the good, the bad, the ugly, and the beautiful. So, that’s perfectly understood that lord is thunderbolt as well as Bow both. But there cannot be variations in Gita from one version to another; that erases the sanctity of it. If I were to write and Publish Gita, If I add a new Vibhooti to Lord’s discourse saying, “Of all the terrorists I am Osama, of all the influencial speakers I am Obama”; It would still be correct, since nothing is different from supreme lord hence these two are also Lord’s Vibhootis; but would that book of mine be considered authentic? If someone says, “Yes such variations we can bring in Gita versions”; then Bhagawatam’s Vibhooti Yoga is correct; if someone says “No”; then Bhagawatam’s that portion is not valid! I leave the decision of acceptance / rejection at the readers’ discretion!

Hope this above criticism is enough to understand that the Vibhooti Yoga chapter of Bhagawatam is NOT authentic and could be just an imaginary tale added by the author even though it might not have really happened!

In fact it would be again too harsh on my part to speak out the truth about Bhagawatam which is; – Bhagawatam itself is NOT an authentic scripture. Bhagawatam is not authored by Vyasa (contrary to everyone’s belief), the reasons behind doubting the authenticity of entire Bhagawatam as a scripture are documented as a separate article titled, “Top N Reasons to call Bhagawatam a BOGUS Scripture”. Interested parties may read it.

Therefore, based on Lord Krishna’s own words from Mahabharata it becomes clear that Krishna didn’t repeat Bhagwad Gita anywhere after the Mahabharata incident and he was not the original speaker of Bhagwad Gita, he was just a mediator through which another supreme power broadcasted his message to Arjuna. Now, to extend this analysis further, let me reiterate my claim here that it was Lord Shiva who spoke Bhagwad Gita through Krishna’s mouth, and Bhagwad Gita is totally a song of the glories of Lord Shiva who is the Parabrahman, Purusha, Atman as stated in Vedas. To explain this point of mine, let me prove my words by analyzing the verses of Bhagwad Gita. Let’s proceed!

6. BHAGAWAD GITA ANALYSIS


Please note that, even though Bhagwad Gita is an essence of Upanishads, it is illogical to try to search for exact verses of Bhagwad Gita in Upanishads or in Vedas since Gita was a dialogue and wasn’t an exact copy-paste of Vedas / Upanishads. That’s why it is called as “essence of Upanishads”. Also, it included many context sensitive phrases like “O Arjuna…O Bharata” etc. So, in this article we will do a “reverse engineering”, to trace Bhagawad Gita’s “concepts” back to Vedas and Upanishads. The Vedic verses and Upanishad verses may not be identical to Bhagwad Gita verses; but by meaning, they would remain same. With this caveat in mind, let’s proceed.

Secondly, this is not a Bhagwad Gita Bhashya (commentary) by me. Already there are great commentaries available, and I don’t like to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article has already been outlined above. So, I am not interested to analyze and map the generic, trivial verses of Bhagwad Gita with Vedas. I would cover only those verses and portions of Gita where I smell a superiority complex being stated.

Well, for my analysis, I have identified 154 verses out of the total 700 verses of Bhagawad Gita which is 22.0% of the actual bulk. And believe me, this 22% only is used by Shiva-Haters to malign lord Shiva. I doubt if the so called Krishna devotees really ever read the other verses apart from this fragment! But in all these 154 verses it has been observed that Gita actually sings the glories of Lord Shiva only, and this is a pretty significant number which reveals the presence of Shiva in them, hence one really needs to ponder about this idea. In fact entire Bhagwad Gita, Vedanta, and Vedas sing only the glory of Lord Shiva, which people fail to understand.

But still let’s not conclude so quickly. Let’s read the in-depth analysis.



Lord Shiva giving Bhagavad Gita discourse via Lord Krishna

Understanding the clause, ‘Sri Bhagavan Uvacha”

Bhagawad Gita discource begins with the designation of the speaker as “sri bhagAvan uvAcha” which means, “The supreme Lord is speaking”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Let me begin this analysis with a simple fact. Bhagwad Gita narration states “Sri Bhagawan Uvacha“, which means, “Sri Bhagawan said”. Nowhere Bhagwad Gita ever mentioned, “Sri Krishna Uvacha“.

“Bhagawan” is not an ordinary designation. ISKCON Acharyas translate the word “Bhagawan” as “Supreme Personality of Godhead”, which in simple language is nothing but the “Supreme Lord” above whom there is no one.

This attribute belongs only to Bhagawan Rudra because he is the Purusha, he is the Parabrahman as per Vedas.

“purusho vai rudrah |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
“Lord Rudra is the Purusha of Vedas”.

Shruti clearly calls Rudra as the boss of all gods, who created all gods and gave them their respective powers, positions and designations. Shruti denies the existence of any boss who controls Rudra who is the Purusha.

Atharvasiras Upanishad clearly states that Lord Shiva is supreme. It says that nothing in past neither was ever greater than him nor can ever be in future.

“yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
“There is none greater than him, on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future”.

Svetaswatara Upanishad also voices similar thoughts as shown below.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
“There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord”.

So, it’s clear from above verses that there is nothing superior to Lord Rudra. He is the Supreme personality of Godhead. Now we’ll see in below verse that it is lord Rudra alone who created all Gods and blessed them with their positions and designations.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Sve Upa. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

“sa hi kṣayeṇa kṣamyasya janmanaḥ sāmrājyena divyasya cetati |
avannavantīrupa no duraścarānamīvo rudra jāsu no bhava ||” (Rig Veda 7:46:2)
“He (Rudra) through his lordship rules on beings of the earth, on heavenly beings (gods) through his high imperial sway (controlling influence or power). Come willingly to our doors that gladly welcome thee, and heal all sickness, Rudra. in our families”.

Well, an interesting FACT I would like to put here in context. Well, this fact is related to the word “Bhagawan”; It would be surprising for the readers to note that Vedas hailed ONLY Lord Shiva with the title -“Bhagawan”.Yes, initially it surprised me also when i learnt that from my friend’s blog and to my surprise when i researched, i found his point as correct. As I said, its discovery is not my original work; it has been discovered by my learned friend. So, here the readers have two brains which testify this fact. Originally it was my friend’s work which was “re-verified” within the limits of my capabilities, by me.

Vedas have not used the title called “Bhagawan” for any other god including Vishnu. They have used that designation exclusively only for Lord Rudra. Sri Rudram hymn from Yajurveda begins with the salutations to Rudra as the Bhagawan of Vedas. It says, “Om namo bhagawate rudraya |”, which means, “Salutations to lord Rudra who is the Bhagawan (Supreme personality of godhead)”. All other gods who received title as ‘Bhagawan’ received that title from Puranas not from Vedas. In fact in later texts (puranas), even Narada, Vyasa also got referred with that title, hence it became very colloquially used title for everyone in later texts. Bhagawan Vishnu’s names as ‘Om namo bhagawate Vasudevaya’ etc mantras are all Pouranic and not Vedic. In Vedas only Lord Rudra (Shiva) is the Bhagawan. And since Bhagwad Gita is an essence of Vedas and Upanishads it is enough to hint us that it was Bhagawan Rudra who was speaking the Gita from the mouth of Krishna.

Not only this; in fact Rudram hymn has used the words “Bhagawate”, “Bhagavo” etc at many places addressing Rudra. Even Upanishads have greeted Rudra with this exhalted title.

“yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
“He who is Rudra, he alone is Supreme god (Bhagawan). He is the Supreme Light and we salute him again and again”.

“tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH | praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH | yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n | yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM | brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya | IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava (primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman (parabrahman). That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also called Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God (BHAGAWAN) and it is also the lord of all things”.

So, it is evident beyond doubt that the God who preached Bhagawad Gita was “Bhagawan” aka “Lord Shiva”.

Conclusion: – God who spoke Bhagawad Gita was lord Shiva and Krishna only transmitted Shiva’s message like a live telecast of Radio / TV to the mankind.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 2.16), (BG. 2.17), (BG. 2.18), and (BG. 10.20)

nasato vidyate bhavo nabhavo vidyate satah
ubhayor api drsto ’ntas tv anayos tattva-darshibhih | (BG. 2:16)
avinasi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam
vinasam avyayasyasya na kascit kartum arhati | (BG. 2:17)
antavanta ime deha nityasyoktah saririnah
anasino ’prameyasya tasmad yudhyasva bharata | (BG. 2:18)
“There is no (objective) existence of anything that is distinct from the soul; nor non-existence of anything possessing the virtues of the soul. This conclusion in respect of both these hath been arrived at by those that know the truths (of things).
Know that [the soul] to be immortal by which this entire [universe] is pervaded. No one can compass the destruction of that which is imperishable.
It hath been said that those bodies of the Embodied (soul) which is eternal, indestructible and infinite, have an end. Do thou, therefore, fight, O Bharata”.

Here the speaker is describing the attributes of Atman in detail but in chapter 10 of Bhagawad Gita the speaker says he is the atman of all. Therefore, because these two are related, instead of analyzing that verse separately, I’m combining that verse also here.

aham atma gudakesha sarva-bhutasaya-sthitah
aham adis ca madhyam ca bhutanam anta eva ca | (BG. 10.20)
“I am the self (Atman), O thou of curly hair, seated in the heart of every being, I am the beginning, and the middle, and the end also of all beings”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here, since the soul (Self) is being praised with excellent attributes in this verse, and also in (BG. 10.20) the speaker identifies himself with that Atman. So, let me take this opportunity to primarily focus on the aspect of finding who that Atman (Soul) is! In this context let’s see what Shruti speaks about.

Vedas proclaim that the Brahman (also called Purusha) is himself the Atman (Self or soul) of all and if we analyze Vedas carefully, we would understand that Lord Shiva is the Brahman of Vedas. And he is the Atman (Self) of all. Let’s see few references in support of this.

“kasmAduchyate paraM brahma yasmAtparamaparaM parAyaNa.n cha |
bR^ihadbR^ihatyA bR^i.nhayati tasmAduchyate paraM brahma |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad)
“He (Rudra) is called Para Brahmam (Supreme Brahman – the ultimate reality), because he is the highest and excellent of all, though he is inside every thing, he is in and out of everything, he is the refuge of every thing and bigger than the biggest. That’s why he is called Parambrahma”.

Taittiriya Aranyaka (10.16.2) of Yajurveda calls lord Shiva as:

“aatmaaya namaH |” (Salutations to Him, He who is the Spirit – Atman – dwelling in all creatures)
aatmali~Ngaaya namaH |” (Salutations to Him, He who is concealed in the heart of all creatures being their inmost Self.)

So, it is Lord Rudra who is the Atman of all and hence the Brahman of the Vedas. Further the following references also support this truth.

“yatparaM brahma sarvaatmaa vishvasyaayatanaM mahat.h |
suukShmaatsuukshmataraM nityaM tattvameva tvameva tat.h |” (Kaivalya Upanishad 16)
“That which is the Supreme Brahman, the soul of all, the great support of the universe, subtler than the subtle, and eternal – that is thyself, and thou art That”.

In the above verse it is stated that the Atman of all is nothing but the Parabrahman. Now the below verse clarifies who is the Atman of all. It is Rudra who is the Atman and the Parabrahman.

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA | (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is truly one. For the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second. He rules all worlds by his power. He dwells as the inner Self (Atman) of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.

The below verse describes the properties or qualities of the Atman (which is verily the Brahman) in detail.

“hR^itpuNDariikaM virajaM vishuddhaM vichintya madhye vishadaM vishokam.h |
achintyamavyaktamanantaruupaM shivaM prashaantamamR^itaM brahmayonim.h |” (Kaivalya Upanishad 6)
“(That Who is) unthinkable, unmanifest, of endless forms, the good, the peaceful, Immortal, the origin of the worlds, without beginning, middle, and end, the only one, all-pervading, Consciousness, and Bliss, the formless and the wonderful”.

Note the properties of Atman described in above verse. Atman is the source of all, and immortal (means eternal and imperishable). Now, this same Upanishad further clarifies that the same Soul which is the Brahman is none other than Bhagwan Shiva as follows. It states that Shiva is the origin of all and is eternal. And knowing him only one gets liberated, it says that there is no other way to liberation. These are verily the same qualities that Vedanta attribute to Brahman. So, it is doubly confirmed now.

“umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |” (Kaivalya Upanishad 7)
sa eva sarvaM yadbhuutaM yachcha bhavyaM sanaatanam.h |
j~naatvaa taM mR^ityumatyeti naanyaH panthaa vimuktaye | (Kaivalya Upanishad 9)
“Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him (Shiva) who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya). He alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him, one transcends death; there is no other way to freedom”.

Although it is clear by now, yet let’s see many more evidences to make a firm impression on our doubtful mind.

As evident from the below verse it’s Lord Shiva who resides in the heart as the Atman (Brahman) of all. And this explains who is the lord spoken in (BG. 10.20), “aham atma gudakesha sarva-bhutasaya-sthitah”, meaning, “I am the self (Atman), O thou of curly hair, seated in the heart of every being”. So, here it is crystal clear that Bhagawad Gita was preached by Lord Shiva through the mouth of Krishna. But let’s not stop here, let’s learn some more stuff.

“aya.n hR^idi sthitaH saakshii sarveshhaamavisheshhataH |
tenaaya.n hR^idayaM proktaH shivaH sa.nsaaramochakaH |” (Panchabrahmopanishat 36)
“Lord Shiva, who grants salvation to one, from this day- to-day life of the world, exists as witness without differentiation in the heart of all beings and is called Hrudayam (That which exists within)”.

Lord Shiva who is the Atman of all, is the Parabrahman as confirmed in below verse clearly.

“yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also called Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things”.

Well, the above analysis has covered pretty much the concept of soul, its properties and its identity with Brahman (who is Shiva). Therefore the Bhagwad Gita verses (BG. 2:16 – 2:18 and BG. 10.20) have been pretty much covered. So, these Bhagwad Gita verses clearly speak about the glories of the Atman which is non-different from Shiva. Hence, these verses actually glorify Lord Shiva alone. We could have put a period here and moved on to the next verse of Bhagwad Gita for our analysis, but learning more is always good and I have some more stuff to share. Therefore I would take this opportunity to extend our analysis of the concept of Atman (Self) to some more extent. We’ll also see that the Atman (supreme self) which remains untouched by illusion and Avidya, the same Atman who is Shiva remains as the Jiva (individual self) in all the beings. We would learn that the Jiva, Atman, Brahman and Purusha are all essentially the same and they all are the names of Bhagawan Rudra only. Let’s precede our discussion further.

Well, here I recommend the readers to read with firm attention since the below analysis is a bit complex and involves complex correlations.

Self, the Atman is of the form of fire, the self-effulgent one. It is the same who is called as Purusha or Brahman or Skhambha or Vaiswanara in Shruti. The nature of self as being the fire is described in Taittiriya Aranyaka of Yajurveda as:-

“ha.nsaH shuchishhadvasurantarikshasaddhotaa vedishhadatithirduroNasat.h |
nR^ishhadvarasadR^itasadvyomasadabjaa gojaa R^itajaa adrijaa R^itaM bR^ihat.h |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.6)
“That which is the sun who abides in the clear sky, is the Vasu in the mid-region, is the fire that dwells in the sacrificial altar and in the domestic hearth as the guest, is the fire that shines in men and in the gods, as the Soul, is the fire that is consecrated in the sacrifice, is dwelling in the sky as air, is born in water as submarine heat, is born in the rays of the sun, is the fire that is directly seen as the luminary, and is born on the mountain as the rising sun – that is the Supreme Truth, the Reality underlying all”.

Note the above verse carefully,I’ll use this verse shortly for correlation. The above verse glorifies fire as the supreme truth (Brahman) which is present in all beings as the Atman (soul). This describes the Atman as the same fire which exists in sacrifice. But understand that Vedas have sometimes esoteric and double meanings associated to various terms. Here the sacrifice not only means ‘Yajna’ but actually also means the inflow and outflow of ‘Prana’ (breaths) which keep kindling the fire (Atman) within us. So, here sacrifice in general is ‘Yajna’ which is true, and also the in-depth meaning of the same is Prana (life breaths). The same Agni even dwells as the innermost soul (Atman) of all Gods also, hence Agni being the immortal Atman (Soul), it gives the confidence of immortality and invincibility to Gods. Of course Gods cannot be immortal but their inner self (Atman) always remains immortal, and that Atman extends their life span and they get the full measure of life. This is evident in the below verse from Shatapatha Brahmana.

“athainaṃ devāḥ | antarātmannādadhata ta imamamṛtamantarātmannādhāyāmṛtā
bhūtvāstaryām bhūtvā staryāntsapatnānmartyānabhyabhavaṃstatho evaiṣa
etadamṛtamantarātmannādhatte nāmṛtatvasyāśāsti sarvamāyuretyastaryo haiva
bhavati na hainaṃ sapatnastustūrṣamāṇaścana stṛṇute
tasmādyadāhitāgniścānāhitāgniśca spardhete ‘āhitāgnirevābhibhavatyastaryo hi khalu
sa tarhi bhavatyamṛtaḥ |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:2:2:14)
“The gods then established that (fire) in their innermost soul; and having established that immortal element (Agni) in their innermost soul, and become immortal and unconquerable, they overcame their mortal, conquerable enemies. And so this one now establishes that immortal element in his innermost soul; and–though there is for him no hope of immortality–he obtains the full measure of life; for, indeed, he becomes unconquerable, and his enemy, though striving to conquer, conquers him not. And, accordingly, when one who has established his fires and one who has not established his fires, vie with each other, he who has established his fires overcomes the other, for, verily, he thereby becomes unconquerable, he thereby becomes immortal”.

Note that in the above verses ‘gods established Agni in their innermost soul’, should be understood as gods have Agni as their innermost soul. Since without soul the body is inert and one can’t establish an externally available soul within oneself. Vedas are little esoteric in meaning and complex in poetic style. This expression simply means that Gods have Agni (Rudra) as their soul, the same is confirmed in Yajurveda (IV:5:9:p) which states, “devana hridayebhyo namah”, which means, “salutations to the Lord Rudra who is the in-dweller of hearts of all gods (as Atman)”. Therefore it is clear here that Vedas have called Rudra only under the name of Agni in above sections, and all the Gods have Rudra (Agni) as their Atman within them.

Now, how the fire of Atman is constantly lit in our bodies is described as follows. The inflow-outflow of Prana is the sacrifice that keeps the innermost Vaiswanara fire (Atman) always lit. But these Pranas (breaths) are also nothing but fire. That is to say, the sacrificer (Creatures who breathe), kindles the fire by using fire (kindles Atman by using Prana). The below verse confirms this fact that Agni is indeed this Prana which inturn produces Agni (Atman).

“tadyatrainamado manthanti | tajjātamabhiprāṇiti prāṇo vā
agnirjātamevainametatsantaṃ janayati sa punarapāniti tadenamantarātmannādhatte so
‘syaiṣo ‘ntarātmannagnirāhito bhavati |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:2:2:15)
“Now, when, on that occasion, they produce that (fire) by churning, then he (the sacrificer) breathes (blows) upon it, when produced; for fire (Agni) indeed is breath (prana): he thereby produces the one thus produced. He again draws in his breath: thereby he establishes that (fire) in his innermost soul; and that fire thus becomes established in his innermost soul”.

The below verse clarifies in more detail about the Prana being fires.

“te vā ete prāṇā eva yadagnayaḥ | prāṇodānāvevāhavanīyaśca gārhapatyaśca vyāno
‘nvāhāryapacanaḥ |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:2:2:18)
“The (sacrificial) fires, assuredly, are those breaths: the Âhavanîya and Gârhapatya are the out-breathing and the in-breathing; and the Anvâhârya-pakana is the through-breathing”.

The same Agni which is the innermost soul (Atman) is also the same which is the Agni of the sacrifice (N.B: – This we had noted carefully as stated in verse from Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.2.6).

If one has understood everything that’s said till now, one must have understood that VAISWANARA AGNI which is in our body as the Atman, is kindled using Pranas (which are again Agni), and it is the same Agni which exists in “Sacrifice” also. And this inflow-outflow or breath is itself as Sacrifice. Now, the secret truth would be revealed.

The same Agni which is the innermost soul (Atman) is also the same which is the Bhokta (enjoyer) of the sacrifice. But this Agni is verily Lord Shiva only who is praised by the name ‘Agni’ since Agni is the purifier hence most auspicious name it is. In this connection let’s see evidence from Shatapatha Brahmana to stay in sync with Shruti.

“tadvā agnaya iti kriyate | agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā
ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti
tānyasyāśāntānyevetarāṇi nāmānyagnirityeva śāntatamaṃ tasmādagnaya iti kriyate
sviṣṭakṛta iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8)
“That (offering) then is certainly made to ‘Agni,’ for, indeed, Agni is that god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni . The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious (sânta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ‘Agni,’ and to (him as) the Svishtakrit”.

So, from above verses from Vedas it is clear that the innermost self (Atman) which is called Agni is verily the Lord Rudra only. This proves that Atman of all the creatures including the Gods is Bhagawan Rudra. And Atman is verily the Brahman, so it is Rudra who is called as ‘Brahman’ in Vedanta.

Now, let’s see some more verses from Upanishads also. Shvetaswatara Upanishad states that the one, who is called as the Atman or Self (soul) of all, is none other than Bhagwan Rudra.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

“etajGYeya.n nityamevaatmasa.nstha.n naataH para.n veditavya.n hi kiJNchit.h |
bhoktaa bhogyaM preritaara.n cha matvaa sarvaM prokta.n trividhaM brahmametat.h | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:12)
“The enjoyer (jiva), the objects of enjoyment and the Ruler (Isvara)—the triad described by the knowers of Brahman—all this is nothing but Brahman (Rudra). This Brahman (Rudra) alone, which abides eternally within the self, should be known. Beyond it, truly, there is nothing else to be known”.

Ekakshara Upanishad also voices the same opinion in this regards as follows.

“ya eva.n nitya.n vedayate guhaashayaM
prabhuM puraaNa.n sarvabhuuta.n hiraNmayam.h |
hiraNmayaM buddhimataaM paraa.n gati.n
sa buddhimaanbuddhimatiitya tishhThatiityupanishhat.h |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 13)
“Whoso thus knows the eternal Dweller (soul) in the cave of the heart, the ancient Lord who has become the all, the golden, the supreme goal of the wise, is wise. He stays transcending all (forms of) wisdom. This is the secret doctrine”.

Now the same Upanishad reveals who is that lord in the very opening verse itself as,

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some
sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH
parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world”.

Sage Atri enquired to Yajnavalkya about the realization of the self. He got the following response.

“atha hainamatriH paprachchha yaaj~navalkya.n ya eshho.ananto.avyakta | aatmaa ta.n kathamaha.n vijaaniiyaamiti | sa hovaacha yaaj~navalkyaH so.avimukta upaasyo ya | eshho.ananto.avyakta aatmaa so.avimukte pratishhThita iti |” (Jabala Upanishad 2.01)
“Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How am I to realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied: That Avimukta (Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite and unmanifest, is established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara, possessed of attributes)’”.

So far we have analyzed the concept of Atman in its pure state. But another truth is that the same Atman (Shiva) gets mingled with his own Maya and blankets himself with his power of illusion and becomes the Jiva, the individual self of all beings. Shruti confirms this fact as follows.

“deho devaalayaH proktaH sa jiivaH kevalaH shivaH .
tyajedaj~naananirmaalya.n so.ahaMbhaavena puujayet.h |” (Maitreyi Upanishad II:1)
“The body is said to be the temple; the individual Self (Jiva) is Shiva alone. One should discard the faded flowers in the form of spiritual ignorance and worship God (with the conviction) ‘He and I are one’.

“nama ataryaya chaladyaya cha |”(Sri Rudram, Yajurveda IV:5:8:o)
“Salutations to Him (Rudra) who is born again and again in Samsara and who tastes the fruits of Karmas in the form of Jiva”.

“pashupatiraha~NkaaraavishhTaH sa.nsaarii jiivaH sa eva pashuH |” (Jabali Upanishad 1.2)
“Jeeva (being) is nothing but Shiva (the Lord of all beings – Pasupathi) himself who is acting the role of egoism”.

Therefore the individual self (Jiva), the inner self (Atman) are both one and the same and that is nothing but lord Shiva who si the Brahman (also called as Purusha). It is Lord Shiva who pervades every being (plus Gods) and dwells in their hearts as the Atman. So, the Gita verse (BG. 10.20) is definitely a proof that Bhagawad Gita was actually spoken by lord Shiva and not Krishna (as the traditional belief goes).

Conclusion: – It is therefore analyzed and proved that the Atman (Self or soul) of all beings which is described in the Bhagwad Gita verses 2:16, 2:17, and 2:18 is infact Lord Shiva only and these verses of Bhagwad Gita glorify only lord Shiva under the name of ‘Atman (Self)’.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 2.20), (BG. 2.23)

na jayate mriyate va kadacin nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah|
ajo nityah sasvato ’yam purano na hanyate hanyamane sarire | (BG. 2.20)
nainam chindanti shastrani nainam dahati pavakah|
na cainam kledayanty apo na sosayati marutah | (BG. 2.23)
“It is never born, nor doth it ever die; nor, having existed, will it exist no more. Unborn, unchangeable, eternal, and ancient, it is not slain upon the body being perished. Weapons cleave it not, fire consumeth it not; the waters do not drench it, nor doth the wind waste it. It is incapable of being cut, burnt, drenched, or dried up”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

The above verses of Gita have been exactly adapted from the below verses of Atma Upanishad.

“na jAyate na mriyate na shuShyati na klidyate na dahyate na kampate
na bhidyate na chChidyate nirguNaH sAkShibhUtaH shuddho niravayavAtmA kevalaH
sUkShmo nirmamo nira~njano nirvikAraH shabdasparsharUparasagandhavarjito nirvikalpo
nirAkA~NkShaH sarvavyApI so.achintyo nirvarNyashcha punAtyashuddhAnyapUtAni .
niShkriyastasya sa.nsAro nAsti |” (Atma Upanishad 1:4)
“He (The supreme self) is not born, does not die, does not dry, is not wetted, not burnt, does not tremble, is not split, does not sweat. He is beyond the gunas, is spectator, is pure, partless, alone, subtle, owning naught, blemishless, immutable, devoid of sound, touch, colour, taste, smell, is indubitable, non-grasping, omnipresent. He is unthinkable and invisible. He purifies the impure, the unhallowed. He acts not. He is not subject to empirical existence”.

Well, we have already analyzed in BG. 2:16-2:18 that the Atman (Self or soul) is none other than Shiva who is the Brahman. So, the same truth applies here as well. This Atman whose qualities are being glorified here in these verses of Bhagwad Gita is again the qualities and glories of Bhagawan Shiva alone beyond doubt. But for the sake of elaborating the point let’s see few more verses from Atma Upanishad.

“Atmasa.nj~naH shivaH shuddha eka evAdvayaH sadA |
brahmarUpatayA brahma kevalaM pratibhAsate |” (Atma Upanishad 2:1)
“The Atman – the Shiva, is pure, one and non-dual always, in the form of Brahman. Brahman alone shines forth”.

“daivena nIyate deho yathA kAlopabhuktiShu |
lakShyAlakShyagati.n tyaktvA yastiShThetkevalAtmanA | (Atma Upanishad 2:19)
shiva eva svaya.n sAkShAdayaM brahmaviduttamaH |
jIvanneva sadA muktaH kR^itArtho brahmavittamaH |” (Atma Upanishad 2:20)
“By fate is the body borne into contexts of experiences at appropriate times. (On the contrary) he who, giving up all migrations, both knowledge and unknowable, stays as the pure unqualified Self, is himself the manifest Shiva. He is the best of all Brahman-Knowers. In life itself the foremost Brahman-Knower is the ever free, he has accomplished his End”.

Conclusion: – We have clearly mapped the Bhagwad Gita verses to the Upanishad from where they have been adapted into the Gita lecture. And also it’s been seen that the Atman whose qualities have been proclaimed in the verses BG. 2:20 and BG. 2:23 are essentially the qualities of Bhagawan Shiva. So, this concludes that the Bhagwad Gita verses BG. 2:20 and BG. 2:23 are actually the glorification of Lord Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 3.15)

karma brahmodbhavam viddhi brahmakshara-samudbhavam
tasmat sarva-gatam brahma nityam yajne pratisthitam | (BG. 3.15)
“Know that work proceeds from the Vedas; Vedas have proceeded from Him who hath no decay. Therefore, the all-pervading Supreme Being is installed in sacrifice”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here we need to find out who is that Supreme Being without decay from whom the Vedas have originated. Svetaswatara Upanishad clearly mentions that Vedas, Sacrifices and Penances all originated from Maheshwara the lord who is the controller of his Maya.

“chhandaa.nsi yaGYaaH kratavo vrataani bhuutaM bhavya.n yachcha vedaa vadanti |
asmaan.h maayii sR^ijate vishvameta-ttasmi.nshchaanyo maayayaa sanniruddhaH |” (Swetasvatara Upanishad 4:09)
“The Lord of Maya projects the Vedas, sacrifices, spiritual practices, past and future, religious observances, all that the Vedas declare, and the whole world including ourselves. The lord of Maya, again, is bound by Maya in this [in the form of Jiva].”

The same Upanishad explains further and informs us that the Lord of Maya is Maheshwara as follows.

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h |” (Swetasvatara Upanishad 4:10)
“Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ (art), and the Maheshwara the Mâyin (maker); the whole world is filled with what are his members (forms)”.

In Atharvaveda there is a hymn to Kala which sings the praise of the lord Mahakala (Shiva) who is the time, the cause which makes everything happen and cease to happen on time. Mahakala himself determines who should originate, when should originate, who should cease to exist and when should that happen. This hymn to Kala of Kala – Mahakala states that Vedas have sprung from him as follows:

“kāló ha bhūtáṃ bhávyaṃ ca putró ajanayat purā́
kālā́d ŕ̥caḥ sám abhavan yájuḥ kālā́d ajāyata |” (Atharva Veda 19:54:3)
“In Kala erst the text produced what is and what is yet to be. The Riks arose from Kala, the Yagus was born from Kala”.

Again another hymn to Vratya – the ascetic form of Shiva explains that, not only Vedas but Itihasa (Epics), Puranas, Gaathaas and Naarasansis all originated from Shiva. Here the poem esoterically describes in a unique style stating that when Vratya (Shiva) moved away to a region all these sacred texts viz. Vedas et al and also devotion followed him. Scriptures and devotion can’t be considered as mobile creatures which can walk to follow Shiva. Here the verses mean that the scriptures sprang from Vratya (Shiva) in the direction where he projected them.

“sá uttamā́ṃ díśam ánu vy àcalat |
tám ŕ̥caś ca sā́māni ca yájūṃṣi ca bráhma cānuvyàcalan |
r̥cā́ṃ ca vái sá sā́mnāṃ ca yájuṣāṃ ca bráhmaṇaś ca priyáṃ dhā́ma bhavati yá eváṃ véda |” (Atharva Veda 15:6.3)
“sá br̥hatī́ṃ díśam ánu vy àcalat |
tám itihāsáś ca purāṇáṃ ca gā́thāś ca nārāśaṃsī́ś cānuvyàcalan |
itihāsásya ca vái sá purāṇásya ca gā́thānāṃ ca nārāśaṃsī́nāṃ ca priyáṃ dhā́ma bhavati yá eváṃ véda |” (Atharva Veda 15:6.4)
“He went away to the last region. Richas, Sāmans Yajus formulas and Devotion followed him. He who possesses this knowledge becomes the dear home of Earth and Agni and herbs and trees and shrubs and plants. He went away to the great region. Itihāsa and Purāna and Gāthās and Nārāsansis followed him. He who possesses this knowledge becomes the dear home of Earth and Agni and herbs and trees and shrubs and plants”.

The same fact is stated in Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda (10:90) which is again a hymn to the Bhagawan Rudra who is the Veda Purusha as stated in Taittiriya Aranyaka (10:24:1), “purusho vai rudrah”. This hymn also states that all Vedas emerged from Purusha (Shiva) through a sacrifice called ‘Sarvahuta’.

“tasmād yajñāt sarvahuta ṛcaḥ sāmāni jajñire |
chandāṃsijajñire tasmād yajustasmādajāyata |” (Rig Veda 10:90:9)
“From that great general sacrifice Ṛcas and Sāma-hymns were born:
Therefrom were spells and charms produced; the Yajus had its birth from it”.

Lord Shiva is not only the creator of the Vedas and all source of sacred knowledge; he is their protector (preserver) also as stated in Taittiriya Aranyaka as follows. Probably this is the reason why whenever there is a decline in Vedic righteousness Lord Shiva discends as Adi Shankaracharya and reestablishes the Vedic glory.

“iishaanaH sarvavidyaanaamiishvaraH sarvabhuutaanaaM |
brahmaadhipatirbrahmaNo.adhipatirbrahmaa shivo me astu sadaashivom.h |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.21.1)
“May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge, controller of all created beings, the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha, be benign to me. I am the Sadasiva described thus and denoted by Pranava”.

Well, let’s finally look at a verse from Upanishad which also speaks the same truth calling Mahadeva as the father of Vedas.

“prabhu.n vareNyaM pitaraM mahesha.n yo brahmaaNa.n vidadhaati tasmai |
vedaa.nshcha sarvaanprahiNoti chaagrya.n ta.n vai prabhuM pitara.n devataanaam.h |
mamaapi vishhNorjanaka.n devamiiDyaM yo.antakaale sarvalokaansa.njahaara |” (Sharabha Upanishad 2-3)
“I am saluting that primeval God who is the Lord, who is the best, who is the father of the world, who is the greatest among gods, who has created Brahma, who gave all Vedas to Brahma in the beginning, who is the father of Vishnu and other devas, who merits praise, and who at the time of deluge destroys the world. He is the only one who is greater than every body, who is the best and who rules over others”.

Also, it is lord Shiva only who is the leader of sacrifice. He is established in sacrifice. The sacrifice, leader of sacrifice, the priest of sacrifice, the remuneration (dakshina) offered in the sacrifice, and the eater of the sacrifice all is lord Shiva only. Let’s see few evidences in support of this statement.

“R^icho yajuu.nshi prasavanti vaktraatsaamaani samraaDvasuvantariksham.h |
tva.n yaj~nanetaa hutabhugvibhushcha rudraastatha daityagaNaa vasushcha |” (Ekakshara Upanishat 7)
“The Vedic verses, prose formulas and songs proceed from Thy mouth. Thou shinest best (as) the Vasus and the sky. Thou art the leader of the sacrifice; thou art the all-pervading fire and the Rudras. So also (art Thou) the hosts of demons and Vasus”.

“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire-Jataveda). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”

Atharva Veda’s hymn to Vratya (Shiva) states that his breaths are sacrifice and remuneration as well.

“yò ‘sya ṣaṣṭhò ‘pānáḥ sá yajñáḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.6)
“His sixth downward breath is Sacrifice”.
“yò ‘sya saptamò ‘pānás tā́ imā́ dákṣiṇāḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.7)
“His seventh downward breath are these sacrificial fees”.

“brahma vā agniḥ” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:5:4:8)
“Agni is the priesthood”.

And Agni is just another name to state facts about Shiva. Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8 clarifies that Rudra is the god who is called by the name of ‘Agni’. So, Shiva himself is the priesthood.

“rudro yaj~na umaa vedistasmai tasyai namo namaH |” (Rudrahridayopanishad 20)
“Rudra is Yajna. Uma is Vedi. Prostrations to Him and Her”

So, it is to be understood that Lord Rudra is in three-fold existence when it comes to sacrifice viz. the sacrificer(priest), the sacrifice(Yajna), and the sacrificial remuneration (Dakshina). In fact, the ‘Chamakam’ portion of Shatarudriya hymn prays to lord Rudra requesting him to grant all the necessities to perform Yajna. There is no god who can bestow better boons that Rudra, Mahabharata calls Mahadeva as ‘boon giving’ numerous times. Even Rig Veda (2:33:15) calls Rudra as “Bounteous Giver”.

Conclusion:- Therefore Bhagwad Gita verse 3.15 which states that Vedas have originated from the decayless lord who is established in sacrifice; is actually a statement about Lord Shiva. This verse is proved beyond doubt.


BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 3.22), (BG. 3.23), (BG. 3.24) and (BG. 4.14)

na me parthasti kartavyam trisu lokesu kincana
nanavaptam avaptavyam varta eva ca karmani | (BG. 3.22)
yadi hy aham na varteyam jatu karmany atandritah
mama vartmanuvartante manushyah partha sarvasah | (BG. 3.23)
utsideyur ime loka na kuryam karma ced aham
sankarasya ca karta syam upahanyam imah prajah | (BG. 3.24)
“There is nothing whatever for me, O Partha, to do in the three worlds, (since I have) nothing for me which hath not been acquired; still I engage in action. Because if at any time I do not, without sloth, engage in action, men would follow my path, O Partha, on all sides. The worlds would perish if I did not perform work, and I should cause intermixture of castes and ruin these people”.

Combining a related verse here as follows:

na mam karmani limpanti na me karma-phale sprha
iti mam yo ’bhijanati karmabhir na sa badhyate | (BG. 4.14)
“Actions do not touch me. I have no longing for the fruits of actions. He that knoweth me thus is not impeded by actions”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse seemingly looks like applicable at the earthly plane but it says the worlds would perish if he didn’t engage in action. Therefore this verse actually talks about the entire cosmos as a matter of fact and is not just limited to earthly plane. Well, on earthly plane also it applies aptly on the life of Lord Krishna which we’ll discuss in short and then proceed with the real meaning and we’ll see in real on whom this verse actually applies.

Sri Krishna was a perfect Yogi, he didn’t actually have anything to be obtained from the world, but to uplift Dharma and fulfil the need of his birth he had to take interest in external state’s affairs (Hastinapur), and despite being a charioteer whose duty would end only by safeguarding his master, he still engaged himself in protection of Arjuna, Bhima, and to-be born foetus called Parikshit from Vaishnavastra, Narayanastra, and Bramhashirastra respectively. Had he not involved himself into action there was a sureshot peril for those righteous men. So, Krishna’s life is a great example and a perfect role model for the humanity. But here in this Gita verse neither the peril of humans or governance of country Bharatvarsha is the subject under discussion nor am I writing a commentary on Mahabharata or Krishna’s biography. So, let me come back to the Gita now.

This verse of Gita is actually a universal law that is being stated. It states that if the Supreme Lord doesn’t engage himself into action, the worlds would perish and there would also be intermixtures of Varnas. It is strange to notice that entire cosmos follows a discipline. Planets revolve around the sun, sun rises and sets every day without fail, upagrahas (satellites) revolve around the planets and never go off the track, earth rotates around her own axis causing timely seasons, Indra, Parjanya, Varuna kind of gods shower rains on time in autumn without fail, moon waxes and wanes periodically without any deviation. All these are governed by some external supreme power under whose supervision the entire cosmos functions. One may imagine the chaos that would arise in absence of that boss who controls all these functions. If sun, moon, and mother earth takes a holiday or break, then the flora and fauna would die, crops wouldn’t grow if seasons malfunction. So, this is the beauty of the supreme boss who supervises all these functions and with the fear of which these cosmic functions and gods do their job.

The supreme entity called Purusha (Brahman) is the supreme consciousness which is just a witnesser and doesn’t really require indulging into action. But with the involvement with Prakriti it functions as the government (Eshwara). The supreme Brahman is the same which is called Atman (Self), and as per Shruti Rudra is the Brahman of Vedas as the Sri Rudram of Yajurveda (IV.5.5.i) says, “namo brihate cha” (Salutations to Lord Rudra who is ‘Brihat’ i.e., Brahman), Rudra is the Purusha described in Vedas as the Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) says, “purusho vai rudrah” (Rudra is the Veda Purusha).

The same lord Shiva is beyond the cosmos (Hiranyagarbha) and Viraat and also is present as the self of all as evident in the following verse.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetasvathara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast (Brihat=Brahman) and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.

Supreme self, Brahman (Atman) who is Shiva himself, doesn’t require to work (or act) as stated in below verse from Atma Upanishad.

“punAtyashuddhAnyapUtAni niShkriyastasya sa.nsAro nAsti |” (Atma Upanishad 1:4)
“He (The supreme self) purifies the impure, the unhallowed. He acts not. He is not subject to empirical existence”.

However, the same Bhagwan Rudra who is beyond the universe (Hiranyagarbha) appears within the Hiranyagarbha (cosmos) and remains there as the saguna Brahman involving himself into actions and governance of the universe. Supreme lord Rudra who is beyond the Hiranyagarbha (prajapati) appears inside the Prajapati (cosmos) again as stated in Shatapatha Brahmana (9:1:1:6). He assumes diverse forms inside the Hiranyagarbha (cosmos) and creates various deities, pancha bhutas, and all creatures. Regarding this Taittiriya Aranyaka (10:24:1) of Yajurveda says “sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” which means, “All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations”. It further states, “vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” which means, “The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Similarly Shatapatha Brahmana (6.1.3.12 – 6.1.3.17) gives account of Lord Rudra’s Asthamurthy forms by names Pashupati (Plants got manifested from this name), Ugra (God Vayu manifested from this name). Asani (God Indra manifested from this name), Bhava (Parjanya the rain god manifested from this name), Mahadeva (the prajapati Brahma and Moon manifested from this name), Isana (Sun god Aditya manifested from this name). And every time after taking a new name and form Lord Rudra mentioned that he is mightier than all of them. Atharva Veda (15:14) section details out the same story in a different poetic manner where it also speaks of many other forms of lord Shiva including Brihaspati, Vishnu, Maruts to name a few.

Well, true that entrie cosmos, living beings, Devatas (gods) and every mobile and immobile creation is he himself, but then why can’t he stay without indulging himself into action? What would happen if he doesn’t work? Why should he remain strict, and angry? We’ll discuss these points now.

In any system, be it the cosmos or just a country or any organization; law and order are the most significant things which are indispensable. Where there is no law and order, there one can expect only total chaos. Any organization which functions well, its success is only based on the discipline, law, and order. Same rule holds true for cosmos and gods also.

It is because of the fear of Bhagwan Rudra everyone in the cosmos functions with discipline. Sri Rudram of Yajurveda begins its praise to Rudra by offering salutations to Rudra’s anger as follows.

“namaste rudramanyavautota ishhave namah |
namaste astu dhanvane bahubhyamuta te namah |” (Sri Rudram, Yajurveda IV: 5:1: a)
“Oh! Rudra! My salutations to your anger and also to your arrows. My salutations to your bow and to your two hands”.

And the immediately following verses talk about his auspicious nature as follows.

“yaa te rudra shiva tanu raghoraapapakashini |
taya nastanuva shantamaya girishantabhichakashihi |”(Sri Rudram, Yajurveda IV: 5:1: c)
“Lord Rudra, you who dwell on Mount Kailas and who confer happiness, by that form of yours which is not terrible, which will not injure us, and which is highly auspicious, behold and illuminate us”.

How can Rudra behave as a terrible god and at the same time be caring and calm natured as well? It’s all like a fatherly preceptor who loves his disciples as his own children but in order to mend their ways he also gives punishments. Same case holds true on a caring father who also has a stern aspect.

It’s because of the fear of Bhagawan Rudra that the cosmos functions perfectly. This is evident from the below verses of Shruti.

“yadida.n ki.n cha jagat.h sarvaM praaNa ejati niHsR^itam.h |
mahad.hbhayaM vajramudyataM ya etadviduramR^itaaste bhavanti |” (Katha Upa. II.3.2)
“All this universe, evolved (from Prana), moves in prana (Rudra); the most frightful like an uplifted thunderbolt. Those who know this become immortal”.

“bhayaadasyaagnistapati bhayaattapati suuryaH |

bhayaadindrashcha vaayushcha mR^ityurdhaavati paJNchamaH |” (Katha Upa. II.3.3)
“For fear of Him, fire burns; For fear of Him, shines the sun;
For fear of Him, Indra and Vayu function; For fear of Him, death, the fifth, stalks on the earth”.

The below verse is directly spoken by Lord Shiva himself.

“so.aha.n sarvAkAraH . yato vA imAni bhUtAni jAyante |
yena jAtAni jIvanti . yatprayantyabhisa.nvishanti . taM mAmeva
viditvopAsIta . bhUtebhirdevebhirabhiShTuto.ahameva . bhIShAsmAdvAtaH
pavate . bhIShodeti sUryaH . bhIShAsmAdagnishchendrashcha . somo.ata
eva yo.aha.n sarveShAmadhiShThAtA sarveShA.n cha bhUtAnAM
pAlakaH . so.ahaM pR^ithivI . so.ahamApaH . so.aha.n tejaH . so.aha.n vAyuH |
so.aha.n kAlaH . so.aha.n dishaH . so.ahamAtmA . mayi sarvaM pratiShThitam.h |
brahmavidApnoti param.h . brahmA shivo me astu sadAshivom.h |” (Bhasma Jabala Upanishad)
“I myself am that Great Lord Siva, God of all gods, and the Supreme Controller of all the universes. I am that Brahman, I am Omkara; I am the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of all. Through My terror only, vayu blows, through my terror only Surya shines, through my terror only fire burns, Indra et al also function properly through my terror. I am this world and the five elements. I am the Highest Truth that exists, the Brahman of the Upanishads”.

Rudra’s terror is so fearsome that for that reason even the Vedic seers fear to take his names directly. For that reason, in Vedas the seers have composed hymns under various names (of other gods) but actually meaning to praise Rudra only. All the hymns which speak high about any deity are actually the glories of Bhagawan Rudra alone sung under those various names. That’s the reason Rig Veda (RV 1.164.46) says, “ekam sat viprah bahudha vadanti |“ which means, “there is only one God whom learned seers call by various names”. Hence, a lot of places we find Agni, Indra, Soma, Vishnu, Vishwakarman, Prana, Skhambha, Kala, Kama, Vratya etc. kind of names have been used calling them as supreme and as the creators of heaven, earth and universe. All those names are just dummy (indirect) names they all are the glories of Bhagawan Rudra only which praise his various aspects. A perfect example which establishes this truth is present in Shatapatha Brahmana (1:7:3:8) where the sacrifice is actually offered to Rudra but seers out of fear preferred to call him as ‘Agni’ since that indirect calling was felt as auspicious by them; as given below. Here ‘inauspicious’ means ‘fearsome’ since they are his direct names.

“tadvā agnaya iti kriyate | agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā
ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti
tānyasyāśāntānyevetarāṇi nāmānyagnirityeva śāntatamaṃ tasmādagnaya iti kriyate
sviṣṭakṛta iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8)
“That (offering) then is certainly made to ‘Agni,’ for, indeed, Agni is that god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni . The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious (sânta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ‘Agni,’ and to (him as) the Svishtakrit”.

Bhagawan Rudra commands and rules over all gods and created beings with his high imperial power of authority as stated in below verse from Rig veda.

“sa hi kṣayeṇa kṣamyasya janmanaḥ sāmrājyena divyasya cetati |” (Rig Veda 7:46:2)
“He (Rudra) through his lordship thinks on beings of the earth, on heavenly beings through his high imperial sway (controlling influence or power)”.

So, all gods who control the cosmic functions work under the imperial authority of Rudra fearing his strictness and discipline, including Brahma and Vishnu also. In this connection Atharvashika Upanishad says that Brahma and Vishnu meditate on OM (which is lord Rudra only) and do their jobs as creator and preserver. It clearly states that Vishnu meditates upon Eeshana (Rudra) as follows.

“sarvakaraNAni manasi saMpratiShThApya dhyAna.n viShNuH prANaM manasi saha karaNaiH saMpratiShThApya dhyAtA rudraH prANaM manasi sahakaraNairnAdAnte paramAtmani saMpratiShThApya dhyAyIteshAnaM pradhyAyitavya.n sarvamidaM |” (Atharvashika Upanishad 2:1)
“The pranava (the sound of Om) makes all the souls to bow before it. It is the one and only one which has to be meditated upon as the four Vedas and the birth place of all devas. One who meditates like that goes away from all sorrows and fears and gets the power to protect all others who approach him. It is because of this meditation only that Lord Vishnu who is spread every where, wins over all others. It is because Lord Brahma controlled all his organs and meditated upon it, he attained the position of the creator. Even Lord Vishnu , parks his mind in the sound (Om) of the place of Paramathma (ultimate soul) and meditates upon Eeshana, who is most proper to be worshipped. All this is only proper in case of Eeshana”.

That should be enough to clarify beyond doubt that Rudra rules over all Gods and all beings. But then a question may arise, on whose command does lord Rudra function? Is there any boss who rules above Bhagawan Rudra? The answer has been clearly established by sage Svetaswatara as follows.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him (Rudra), no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
“There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord”.

Not only does Rudra command and keep the cosmic functions disciplined, he in fact punishes the one who disobey or deviate from his prescribed duties. That’s why Rudra’s darts, arrows and bow are the most feared objects in all the four Vedas. Even the great lord Vishnu in his incarnation of lion-man (Narasimha), failed to subdue his ‘tamasic’ nature arising out of drinking the blood of the demon Hiranyakashyap; and his failure in controlling his own fiersome warth, became a threat to the universe and its beings. Then it’s the same lord Rudra who without any hesitation killed Narasimha by taking the form of a Sharabha monster as per the following verses from Sharabha Upanishad. This shows that Rudra is not partial, Vishnu who is his own half of the body (they being hari-hara) since Vishnu is a male form of Uma (as Rudra Hridayopanishad clarifies), and Vishnu is the greatest devotee of Rudra and closest to his heart. This is a classic example of Lord Rudra’s blemishless management where his character is always white. Anything grey is black as per his rule. So, whosoever causes disturbance to the cosmic functions without his permission would get punished without any prejudice. He killed Narasimha when Narasimha lost control on his own wrath as follows:

“yo ghora.n veshhamaasthaaya sharabhaakhyaM maheshvaraH .
nR^isi.nha.n lokahantaara.n sa.njaghaana mahaabalaH |” (Sharabha Upanishad 4)
“kR^ipayaa bhagavaanvishhNu.n vidadaara nakhaiH kharaiH .
charmaambaro mahaaviiro viirabhadro babhuuva ha |” (Sharabha Upanishad 6)
“That very strong Maheswara took the horrifying form of Sarabha and killed Narasimha who was destroying the world. (Sarabha is the avatar of Shiva which is a combination of eagle, lion and man). That god with his sharp claws tore, Vishnu who took the form of Narasimha. He who was wearing the hide became Veerabhadra”.

Similarly, as stated in Shatapatha Brahmana (1:7:4:3), Shatapatha Brahmana (1:7:4:6), and Shatapatha Brahmana (1:7:4:7) he respectively destroyed the unethical sacrifice (read Prajapati), made Bhaga blind who was trying to eat the fruit of the unethical sacrifice, and also broke the teeth of Pushan who also tried to eat the sacrificial share which was not fit for being accepted. So, it becomes clear now, that everyone who deviates away from the path of their prescribed duties, or acts unethical, or breaks the rules; has to undergo punishments from Rudra. There is no exception for anyone in the impartial nature of Rudra.

So, with the above detailed analysis it should be crystal clear by now that the one supreme force which governs all the cosmic functions, supervises and manages all the gods and created beings is only Bhagawan Rudra. Now, if Rudra becomes lenient, and doesn’t enforce his law and order through his terror, if Rudra doesn’t engage himself into action and remain as his true nature of Brahman the all witnesser; then there would be total chaos in the universe. Sun god might take leave, Indra might remain indulged in his own pleasurable activities forgetting the timely rains and governance, Brahma might take a break from the usual routine life, Vishnu might take a longer nap on his snake bed and fail to protect people in a timely manner.

Now we are left with analyzing the second part of the Gita verse which states that if the supreme lord doesn’t engage in action, there would be intermixture of castes. That’s also true. The most desirable pleasure for any being (ranging from creatures to gods) is the pleasures of flesh. The most frequently done crime is rape in all the countries. If people stay away from committing adultery, it’s all due to the fear of law, order and punishment. If suppose one fine day someone says there would be no law in the country, and everyone would be given freedom of their own mind; believe me, the only activity that people would indulge in is to satisfy their carnal desires. That way in absence of law and order, there would surely be intermizture of races. Who was born to whom, no body would no. So, here the Bhagwad Gita verse is very apt and logically correct statement.

Conclusion:- Therefore Bhagwad Gita verse BG. 3.22, BG. 3.23, BG. 3.24 which state that even though there is nothing to be attained for the lord, he still involves himself into action lest the universe should perish; is actually a statement about Lord Shiva. And since the BG verse says “I involve myself into action”, this proves that it was Lord Shiva who was speaking through Krishna. This is proved beyond doubt.

indriyani parany ahur indriyebhyah param manah
manasas tu para buddhir yo buddheh paratas tu sah | (BG. 3.42)
“It hath been said that the senses are superior (to the body which is inert). Superior to the senses is the mind. Superior to the mind is the intellect. But which is superior to intellect is He (The self)”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

It’s only lord Rudra who is beyond the gross bodies, subtle bodies, and causal bodies. He is the pure Brahman – The eternal consciousness called Purusha. Brahman (Purusha or Shiva) is beyond the three stages called Vishwa, Taijasa, and Prajna. It is only Lord Shiva who sports in those three cities inside the bodies as the in-dweller, and finally it is that same Lord Shiva who destroys the Tripura (three cities), and makes the Jiva attain Jiva-Brahma-Aikyam. Sum total of all gross bodies (Gross world) is Virat, sum total of all subtle bodies (Subtle world) is Hiranyagarbha. But lord Rudra is even beyond them. He is the Eshwara and also the Brahman.

“sa eva maayaaparimohitaatmaa shariiramaasthaaya karoti sarvam.h
stryannapaanaadivichitrabhogaiH sa eva jaagratparitR^iptimeti ” (Kaivalyopanishad 12)
“svapne sa jiivaH sukhaduHkhabhoktaa svamaayayaa kalpitajiivaloke
suShuptikaale sakale viliine tamo.abhibhuutaH sukharuupameti ” (Kaivalyopanishad 13)
“punashcha janmaantarakarmayogaatsa eva jiivaH svapiti prabuddhaH
puratraye kriiDati yashcha jiivastatastu jaataM sakalaM vichitram.h
aadhaaramaanandamakhaNDabodhaM yasmi.NllayaM yaati puratrayaM cha ” (Kaivalyopanishad 14)
“With his self thus deluded by Maya or ignorance, it is he who identifies himself with the body and does all sorts of things. In the waking state it is he (the Jiva) who attains satisfaction through the varied objects of enjoyment, such as women, food, drink, etc. In the dream-state that Jiva feels pleasure and pain in a sphere of existence created by his own Maya or ignorance. During the state of profound sleep, when everything is dissolved (into their causal state), he is overpowered by Tams or non-manifestation and comes to exist in his form of Bliss. Again, through his connection with deeds done in previous births, that very Jiva returns to the dream-state, or the waking state. The being who sports in the three cities (viz., the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep) – from Him has sprung up all diversity. He is the substratum, the bliss, the indivisible Consciousness, in whom the three cities dissolve themselves”.

So, as read from the above verses, when the three cities dissolve in Rudra (Brahman), then only a Jiva gets true salvation called Kaivalya. Therefore the self (Brahman) which pervades in all bodies but remains above the mind, body and intellect, is none other that Bhagawan Rudra. We have the following verse which also states the same.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h .
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.

Conclusion: – This verse Bhagwad Gita 3.42 speaks only about Lord Shiva.


BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.1), (BG. 4.2), and (BG. 4.3)

imam vivasvate yogam proktavan aham avyayam
vivasvan manave praha manur iksvakave ’bravit | (BG. 4:1)
evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh
sa kaleneha mahata yogo nastah parantapa | (BG. 4.2)
sa evayam maya te ’dya yogah proktah puratanah
bhakto ’si me sakha ceti rahasyam hy etad uttamam | (BG. 4.3)
“This imperishable (system of) devotion I declared to Vivaswat: Vivaswat declared it to Manu; and Manu communicated it to Ikshaku. Descending thus from generation, the Royal sages came to know it. But, O chastiser of foes, by (lapse of a) long time that devotion became lost to the world. Even the same (system of) devotion hath today been declared by me to thee, for thou art my devotee and friend, (and) this is a great mystery.”

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, there is no reference available in Shruti about such an incident where some god had preached Gita to Sun god – Vivaswan in earlier times. So, this verse can’t be traced back to Vedas or Upanishads. Also, there is no such story available in Mahabharata or Ramayana either! But interestingly, a similar claim is found to exist in a Purana. So, let me quote that source from Padma Purana where such a statement has been cited. Since there are no other references available, we need to consider the below reference as the authority, despite its existence being in Purana.

In Padma Purana Uttara Khanda there is a dialogue between Lord Shiva and Sri Rama, which has become famous as ‘Shiva Gita’. In that text, Lord Shiva preaches many divine secrets to Rama and Shiva Gita also has Vibhooti Yoga and Vishwaroopa Sandarshana Yoga; same as like as Bhagwad Gita.

In Chapter 06 (Vibhooti Yoga) of Shiva Gita lord Shiva states the following things to Rama.

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha ..
sAdhu pR^iShTaM mahAbhAga durj~neyamamarairapi.
tatpravakShyAmi te bhaktyA brahmacharyeNa suvrata [4]
pAraM yAsyasyanAyAsAdyena sa.nsAranIradheH .
dR^ishyante pa~nchabhUtAni ye cha lokAshchaturdasha [5]
samudrAH sarito devA rAkShasA R^iShayastathA .
dR^ishyante yAni chAnyAni sthAvarANi charANi cha [6]
gandharvAH pramathA nAgAH sarve te madvibhUtayaH .
purA brahmAdayo devA draShTukAmA mamAkR^itim [7]
ma.ndaraM prayayuH sarve mama priyataraM girim .
stutvA prA~njalayo devA mAM tadA purataH sthitAH [8]
tAndR^iShTvAtha mayA devAn lIlAkulitachetasaH .
teShAmapahR^itaM j~nAnaM brahmAdInAM divaukasAm [9]
atha te.apahR^itaj~nAnA mAmAhuH ko bhavAniti .
athAbruvamahaM devAnahameva purAtanaH [10]
“Sri Bhagavan said: O Rama! Very wisely, you have asked a very significant question indeed! The answer to this is not known to the very Gods. Therefore I would detail out to you that secret information, Listen carefully! All these visible five elements, fourteen worlds, seven oceans, seven mountains, all gods, demons, sages, entire mobile and immobile creation, gandhervas, Pramadhas, Nagas, everything has manifested from my portion only. In the ancient time, Brahma and other deities desired to know my true form, assembled near the Mandara Mountain which is my favorite mountain. After assembling there, they stood near the mount Mandara with folded hands and sang hymns in my praise. Knowing their desire, out of playful mood i had stolen away their knowledge. Then when I appeared, under the stupor of ignorance, they questioned me “Who are you?” In that context i addressed them and said: O gods! I’m the Adi-Anadi-Purusha (oldest primordial being)”.

And then Lord Shiva continues narrating his various forms (Vibhootis). So, here from the above verses of Shiva Gita we learnt that in ancient time (which signals the beginning of creation) Rudra discoursed a Gita about his true form to Brahma and other deities. Vivaswat is the sun god, who also sprang from Rudra at the beginning of creation itself (as given in Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17), along with all other gods. So, there are high chances for the Sun god also being one among the listeners of Gita from Lord Rudra’s mouth. And that way this sacred knowledge called Gita might have percolated down to Ishvaku dynasty since Sun-god was the progenitor of that dynasty.

Therefore, the aforementioned reference cannot be ruled out in the absence of reference in any other scripture. And also since the above reference looks logically similar to the Bhagwad Gita verses 4.1-4.3; we can accept this as a fact and set ourselves get going.

Conclusion: – In the absence of references of the story told in BG. 4.1 – BG. 4.3 in Vedas or Upanishads or Mahabharata or Ramayana; we need to consider the available reference from Padma Purana in Shiva Gita as the mapping here. So, this way also it proves that the speaker of Bhagwad Gita is actually Lord Shiva and only the body was of lord Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.4), (BG. 4.5)

arjuna uvaca
aparam bhavato janma param janma vivasvatah
katham etad vijaniyam tvam adau proktavan iti | (BG. 4.4)
sri-bhagavan uvaca
bahuni me vyatitani janmani tava carjuna
tany aham veda sarvani na tvam vettha parantapa | (BG. 4.5)
“Arjuna said: The sun-god Vivasvan is senior by birth to You. How am I to understand that in the beginning You instructed this science to him?
“Sri Bhagawan said: Many births of mine have passed away, O Arjuna, as also of thine. These all I know, but thou dost not, O chastiser of foes!”

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, this answer given to the question of Arjuna looks purely a tricky one. Arjuna & Krishna were Nara-Narayana. And as far as scriptures say, Nara, and Narayana were the incarnations of Lord Vishnu as the sons of king Dharma. They renounced their kingly life and adopted the life of being a sage. Both of them were staunch devotees of Bhagwan Rudra, in fact there is no other devotee of Shiva who is superior to Nara-Narayana. They were the sages instrumental in establishing the Kedarnath Jyotirlinga shrine of Lord Shiva. Scriptures only speak of Arjuna-Krishna as the next birth of Nara-Narayana. There is no evidence in any scripture where Nara-Narayana had taken any other form / incarnation / birth. So, this BG. 4.5 verse where it says many births of them have passed, it looks dubious.

Having said that; if we consider Vishnu’s all incarnations into that answer then definitely it makes sense. However, as discussed previously, in none of the Vaishnava incarnations we have any story which tells us that Vishnu / his incarnation had ever preached Gita to sun-God. And only one possibility what looks logically true was about Lord Shiva’s similar claim as discussed in section BG. 4.1-4.3.

I wouldn’t enforce my opinion on readers about this particular section at present. But after reading all the subsequent posts, one would easily understand that it was Lord Shiva who was speaking Gita through Krishna’s mouth. And after that it would become logical for the readers to come back to this current verse and believe that, it looks like this answer given to Arjuna’s question was only to trick Arjuna to prevent him from knowing the reality that it was not Krishna who was speaking Gita at that moment.

By the end of this analysis it would effortlessly be proved beyond doubt that Bhagwad Gita was Shiva’s words through Krishna. So, at present let me state that all the forms of any god, all mobile, immobile creation everything is Bhagwan Rudra’s forms only. So, while speaking Bhagwad Gita through Krishna’s mouth if Rudra says that there were many births of his happened in the past; it is not dubious since all forms are his own forms as the following verse from Shruti states!

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH” (Svetsvatara Upanishad. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

Conclusion: – Because of lack of any scriptural evidence to prove this BG verse in favour of Shiva or Krishna, none of us can explain with a strong evidence to support this verse 4.5 of Bhagwad Gita. Therefore request the readers to come back to this verse after reading subsequent verses and then it would make sense for them to believe what I have signaled. For me the reason is clear, others need to gain that discerning eye, which they would gain after completely reading subsequent analysis.


BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.6)

ajo ’pi sann avyayatma bhutanam isvaro ’pi san
prakritim svam adhisthaya sambhavamy atma-mayaya | (BG. 4.6)
“Though (I am) unborn and of essence that knoweth no deterioration, though (I am) the lord of all creatures, still, relying on my own (material) nature I take birth by my own (powers) of illusion”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This is a clear cut proof that it was Lord Shiva who was speaking Bhagwad Gita. Let’s analyze this verse now.

The points what we need to analyze here are:- We need to find out who is the “unborn” lord described in Shruti who is “imperishable”; next we need to identify who is the god described in shruti as being the “lord of all creatures”; and finally who is that god who manifests as the creation in diverse forms. Let’s see who fits perfectly in these definitions as per shruti.

Lord Rudra is the only unborn lord as described in Vedas and Upanishads. Let’s see some evidences in support of this point.

“tamid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamaghachanta viśve |
ajasya nābhāvadhyekamarpitaṃyasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni tasthuḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:82:6)
“The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn’s navel, that One wherein abide all things existing”.

This is from a hymn to Viswakarman. And it is to be noted that Vedas describe lord Rudra by various names due to fear of calling Rudra by his actual names; hence among them Viswakarman is one. In fact Rig Veda (10:81:3) clearly talks about Viswakarma (Rudra)’s attribute of having faces, eyes, everywhere. It is only Bhagawan Rudra who has faces in every direction viz. Sadyojata (west), Vamadeva (North), Aghora (South), Tatpurusha (East), Eeshana (Skywards). Also Tantra states that he also has one more face which remains hidden and facing downwards. Whatever it may be, there is only one God in our scriptures who has faces in all directions – Rudra! Let’s see another verse from Rig Veda as follows.

“viśvataścakṣuruta viśvatomukho viśvatobāhurutaviśvataspāt |
saṃ bāhubhyāṃ dhamati saṃ patatrairdyāvābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ |” (RV 10:81:3)
“He who hath eyes on all sides round about him, a mouth on all sides, arms and feet on all sides, He, the Sole God, producing earth and heaven, weldeth them, with his arms as wings, together”.

The above verse RV (10:81:3) is from hymn to Viswakarma again; but that is EXACTLY same as mentioned in Swetaswatara Upanishad (3:03) as mentioned below.

“vishvatashchaxuruta vishvatomukho vishvatobaahuruta vishvataspaat.h |
saM baahubhyaa.n dhamati saMpatatrairdyaavaabhuumii janayan.h deva ekaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3.03)
“That one god (Rudra), having his eyes, his face, his arms, and his feet in every place, when producing heaven and earth, forges them together with his arms and his wings”.

So, RV (10:82:6) beyond doubt, talks about Aja (Rudra) who is “unborn” and whose navel is the support of existence. Note that, by the word “navel” one should not start assuming things like Vishnu’s “nAbhi kamala” etc. Navel being support of universe is a way to say that he balances the universe by his support. Navel is symbolic to “center of gravity” of human body. In fact “Aja” means “Unborn” and this is a very common name applied on Lord Rudra in his 108 names as well as in his 1000 names. (This was just for additional information only).

Further let’s see some more verses supporting Lord Rudra’s unborn nature.

“hiraṇyagarbhám paramám anatyudyáṃ jánā viduḥ |
skambhás tád ágre prā́siñcad dhíraṇyaṃ loké antarā́|” (Atharva veda X:7:28)
“Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha(pillar/Jwala-linga) poured (i.e., gave birth) that Hiranyagarbha” .

So, Lord Shiva in his Jwala-Linga form existed even before Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha), and he gave birth to Prajapati.

“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire-Jataveda). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born (as Hiranyagarbha), the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”

Regading the undecaying nature of the supreme Lord, Shruti again supports only lord Rudra as follows:

“xaraM pradhaanamamR^itaaxara.n haraH xaraatmaanaaviishate deva ekaH |
tasyaabhidhyaanaadyojanaattattvabhaavaat.h bhuuyashchaante vishvamaayaanivR^ittiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:10)

“Pradhâna (lower order Prakriti) is perishable, Hara, the Lord is immortal and imperishable. The one god rules the perishable (the pradhâna) and the (living) self. From meditating on him, from joining him, from becoming one with him there is further cessation of all illusion in the end”.

“mahaan.h prabhurvai purushhaH satvasyaishha pravartakaH |
sunirmalaamimaaM praaptimiishaano jyotiravyayaH | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:12)
“That person (purusha) is the great lord (iishaana); he is the mover of existence, he possesses that purest power of reaching everything, he is light, he is undecaying”.

From above verses it is crystal clear that Bhagawan Rudra is imperishable (undecaying). Now, the next attribute that we have is to see who the lord of all created beings is. In this connection shruti recognizes only one God as Pashupati – Rudra:

Lord Rudra is himself the father of all creatures and in fact he only exists (manifests) as all creatures. So, he is all the creatures. He is alone the lord of all creatures as well. Let’s see the following verses.

“umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)
“Salutations to the overlord of all created beings and who is the lord of Uma”.

“paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye |” (Rig Veda 10.90.8)
“He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame”.

“Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |” (Yajurveda III-1-4 or Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
“What cattle the lord of cattle (pashupati) ruleth? He rules both the four-footed and the two-footed.”

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu |
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i Or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

Lord Rudra after giving birth to Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha), the same unborn Rudra manifested into various forms through Prajapati. The below verses of Atharva Veda clarifies this nicely.

“vrā́tya āsīd ī́yamāna evá sá prajā́patiṃ sám airayat || sá prajā́patiḥ suvárṇam ātmánn apaśyat tát prā́janayat || tád ékam abhavat tál lalā́mam abhavat tán mahád abhavat táj jyeṣṭhám abhavat tád bráhmābhavat tát tápo ‘bhavat tát satyám abhavat téna prā́jāyata ||” ( Atharva Veda 15:1:1-3)
“There was Vratya( Ascetic form of Lord shiva) . He roused Prajapati to action. Prajapati beheld gold in himself and engendered it. That became unique, that became distinguished, that became great, that became excellent, that became Brahman, that became Tapas, that became Truth: through that HE was born”.

So, this is how the unborn Lord Rudra appears (takes birth) within the universe through Prajapati. After taking birth (appearance) he manifests into various forms which is stated below. But there is no-duality there. It is lord Rudra only who exists, all others are his own forms. That’s why Svetaswatara Upansiahd says,

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA | (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is truly one. For the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

The same unborn Rudra manifests himself into various forms inside the visible universe (Hranyagarbha), by spreading into various forms across all the directions.

“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |”(Atharva veda X:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”

“tva.n strii pumaanasi tva.n kumaara uta vaa kumaarii |
tva.n jiirNo daNDena vaJNchasi tva.n jaato bhavasi vishvatomukhaH |” (Sve. Upa 4:03)
“Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youth and maiden too. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff; it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms”.

So, it is Lord Rudra who always assumes diverse forms (with the help of his Prakriti) inside the visible universe (Hiranyagarbha). These diverse forms include creatures, as well as Gods. Nothing or none is different from Lord Rudra. And the material universe is all formed out of Prakriti which is Maya, and the lord of Maya is Rudra who takes diverse forms through his Maya (Prakriti).

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h |” (Swetasvatara Upanishad 4:10)
“Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ (art), and the Maheshwara as the Mâyin (maker); the whole world is filled with what are his members (forms)”.

Rudra is the foundation of the universe along with the Pancha Bhutas, gods and creatures.

Atharva Veda – A Hymn to Vratya (Rudra) says:

” tásya vrā́tyasya |” (Atharva Veda 15:15:1)
” saptá prāṇā́ḥ saptā́pānā́ḥ saptá vyānā́ḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15:2)
“Of that Vrātya (Shiva). There are seven vital airs, seven downward breaths, seven diffused breaths”.

His seven Prana breaths are depicted as follows. Lord Rudra is the one who manifested as Agni, Sun and Moon, as per the following evidences from Atharva Veda where the following verses are for Vratya (Rudra).

“yò ‘sya prathamáḥ prāṇá ūrdhvó nā́māyáṃ só agníḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.3)
“His first vital breath, called Upward, is this Agni”.

“yò ‘sya dvitī́yaḥ prāṇáḥ práuḍho nā́māsáu sá ādityáḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.4)
“His second vital breath, called Mature, is that Āditya”.

“yò ‘sya tr̥tī́yaḥ prāṇò ‘bhyū̀ḍho nā́māsáu sá candrámāḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.5)
“His third vital breath, called Approached, is that Moon”.

“yò ‘sya caturtháḥ prāṇó vibhū́r nā́māyáṃ sá pávamānaḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.6)
“His fourth vital breath, called Pervading is this Pavamāna”.

“yò ‘sya pañcamáḥ prāṇó yónir nā́ma tā́ imā́ ā́paḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.7)
“His fifth vital breath, called Source, are these Waters”.

“yò ‘sya ṣaṣṭháḥ prāṇáḥ priyó nā́ma tá imé paśávaḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.8)
“His sixth vital breath, called Dear, are these domestic animals”.

“yò ‘sya saptamáḥ prāṇó ‘parimito nā́ma tā́ imā́ḥ prajā́ḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.9)
“His seventh vital breath, called Unlimited, are these creatures”.

His seven Apana breaths are depicted as follows:

“yò ‘sya prathamò ‘pānáḥ sā́ paurṇamāsī́|” (Atharva Veda 15:16.1)
“His first downward breath is the time of Full Moon”.

“yò ‘sya dvitī́yo ‘pānáḥ sā́ṣṭakā |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.2)
“His second downward breath is the eighth day after Full Moon”.

“yò ‘sya tr̥tī́yo ‘pānáḥ sā́māvāsyā̀|” (Atharva Veda 15:16.3)
“His third downward breath is the night of New Moon”.

“yò ‘sya caturthò ‘pānáḥ sā́ śraddhā́|” (Atharva Veda 15:16.4)
“His fourth downward breath is Faith”.

“yò ‘sya pañcamò ‘pānáḥ sā́ dīkṣā́|” (Atharva Veda 15:16.5)
“His fifth downward breath is Consecration”.

“yò ‘sya ṣaṣṭhò ‘pānáḥ sá yajñáḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.6)
“His sixth downward breath is Sacrifice”.

“yò ‘sya saptamò ‘pānás tā́ imā́ dákṣiṇāḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.7)
“His seventh downward breath are these sacrificial fees”.

His seven vyana breaths are depicted as follows:

“yò ‘sya prathamó vyānáḥ séyáṃ bhū́miḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.1)
“His first diffused breath is this Earth”.

“yò ‘sya dvitī́yo vyānás tád antárikṣam |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.2)
“His second diffused breath is that Firmament”.

“yò ‘sya tr̥tī́yo vyānáḥ sā́ dyáuḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.3)
“His third diffused breath is that Heaven”.

“yò ‘sya caturthó vyānás tā́ni nákṣatrāṇi |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.4)
“His fourth diffused breath are those Constellations”.

“yò ‘sya pañcamó vyānás tá r̥távaḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.5)
“His fifth diffused breath are the Seasons”.

“yò ‘sya ṣaṣṭhó vyānás tá ārtavā́ḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.6)
“His sixth diffused breath are the Season-groups”.

“yò ‘sya saptamó vyānáḥ sá saṃvatsaráḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.7)
“His seventh diffused breath is the year”.

Hence the three sets of seven breaths which emerged from Rudra (Vratya) became instrumental in formation of the universe.

Apart from being the macrocosmic elements, those life breaths of Rudra are also instrumental in supporting the microcosmic life forces of all creatures in the form of vital breaths. Pranas (Life forces) are known as Rudras (maruts). They are popularly called as “Sons of Rudra (as Rudra is Atman)”. Hence, Rudra (Atman) is called as ‘Prana’ of ‘pranas’ thereby meaning the ‘Atman’. In fact, there is only one ‘Prana (Atman)’ which seems to split up. It performs several functions. So, depending on functions they are classified in several ways. The pranas (maruts) are the sons of Atman (Rudra).

Well, in the Mundaka Upnaishad, the context of chapter II is a discussion on Purusha (Rudra) and it states the following thing about Purusha being the generator of all sevenfold Pranas and other frameworks. So, Rudra is the one who is the creator of microcosmic elements like Prana also.

“sapta prANAH prabhavanti tasmAt.h saptArchiShaH samidhaH sapta homAH |
sapta ime lokA yeShu charanti prANA guhAshayA nihitAH sapta sapta |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.1.2 & Mundaka Upanishad 2:1:8)
“From Him sprang the seven pranas, the seven flames, the seven kinds of fuel, the seven oblations, and these seven seats where move the sense-organs that sleep in the cavity, (and) have been deposited (by God) in groups of seven”.

Lord Rudra only is the indweller of all these beings (creatures as well as Gods) as supported by following verses.

“devana hridayebhyo namah” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9)
“Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller in the hearts of all Gods”

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |” (Sve Upa. 3:11)
“He dwells in the hearts of all beings”.

“Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah Ye chemarudra abhito” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka: 1)
“This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra”.

Likewise I can cite plenty of more verses from Vedas and Upanishads but hopefully these are enough to understand that as per Shruti only one God who is “unborn”, “undecaying”, who is “lord of all creatures” and who “has assumed all the forms and became entire creation, pervading everything”, is one and only Bhagawan Rudra, beyond doubt!

Conclusion: – By this analysis even an unintelligent person would understand that the speaker of Bhagwad Gita was Lord Rudra, and Krishna was just a means to deliver that lecture. BG. 4.6 is a perfect example which proves that Lord Shiva was speaking from the mouth of Krishna.


BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.7), (BG. 4.8)

yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata
abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srijamy aham | (BG. 4.7)
paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca dushkritam
dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge | (BG. 4.8)
“Whenever there is a decline of dharma (righteousness), O Bharata , and rise of adharma (unrighteousness), then I manifest myself.
For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked and for the establishment of righteousness, I am born in every age”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here the speaker of Gita says that whenever there is uplift in evil and downfall of good, he descends to earth, to protect the righteous people and to punish the sinners he manifests on this earth.

As per Vedas these are the quality of bhagawan Rudra only. Vedas and Upanishads recognize only one lord viz. Rudra who manifests himself into various forms. Whichever being takes birth that is nothing but Rudra’s form. It is Rudra who was there in the past, it is Rudra who is living as presently living beings, it is again Rudra who is in the womb of the future.

In fact all Gods including Vishnu are also manifestations of Rudra only.The below verse from the hymn to Vratya (Ascetic form of Shiva) which exists in Atharva Veda is an evidence that Shiva manifested hismelf as Vishnu.

“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad virā́jam annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:5)
“He (Vratya = Shiva), when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu and having made Virāj an eater of food”.

Yajur Veda also states that it is Shiva himself who exists in the form of Vishnu.

“namo girishaya cha shipivishhtaya cha |” (Yajurveda iv.5.5.f)
“Salutations to the Lord who dwells in mount Kailas and who assumes the form of Vishnu”.

Rig Veda also states the same that Soma (Sa + Uma = Lord with Uma = Shiva) beget Vishnu

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

And whosoever takes birth or manifests, all such forms are nothing but manifestations of Rudra only. There is nothing beyond Rudra, there is noone who is independent of Rudra.

The below verses from Vedas clearly prove that it is only Lord Rudra who manifests himself. It is he who was in past, it is he who is at present and it is he who would come in future.

Yajur Veda (Sri Rudram hymn) confirms this fact as follows.

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha | namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha | namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.

Atharve Veda (Hymn to Shiva’s Linga i.e., Skhambha) confirms the same fact as follows.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atharva Veda X:8:28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

Even the revered Sage Svetaswatara voices the same opinion as follows.

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

Even Atharvasiras Upanishad states the same as follows.

“eko ha devaH pradisho nu sarvAH pUrvo ha jAtaH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jAtaH janiShyamANaH pratya~NjanAstiShThati sarvatomukhaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:01)
“This god (Rudra) is the one who pervades in all directions. He is the one who came earlier than every thing. He is the one who is in the womb. He is the one who is in all the beings which have come out till now and all those who are going to be created in future. He is also the one who sees inside but the one who has a face which looks outside”.

From the above analysis, it is evident that it is only Bhagawan Rudra who manifests. So, all incarnations of Vishnu are in fact incarnations of Rudra only. The mode adopted to incarnate may be indirect, but even Vishnu himself is a form of Rudra only. So, all forms (incarnations) of Vishnu are also the forms of Rudra alone. In fact there is no duality. Eveything is Rudra alone. So, in reality there is no multiple modes of incarnation. Whatever manifests, is a manifestation of Rudra period!

So, even if Puranas state that the Dasavataras (10 incarnations) belong to Vishnu, that’s true only in a “Relative frame”. When you look at it from an “absolute” standpoint; all incarnations of Vishnu are infact incarnations of Rudra alone.

Nothing can exist without Rudra, all are dependent on him. All forms are Rudra’s forms only, which is clearly evident from the below verse.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svetaswatara. Upanishad. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is the omnipresent Lord Shiva”.

In fact, In Mahabharata Vyasa clearly expounds this truth. Vyasa says that Kesava (Krishna) sprang from Rudra himself.

“sa eṣa rudra bhaktaś ca keśavo rudra saṃbhavaḥ |” (Mbh 7:172:89)
“sarvabhūtabhavaṃ jñātvā liṅge ‘rcayati yaḥ prabhum | tasminn abhyadhikāṃ prītiṃ karoti vṛṣabhadhvajaḥ |” (Mbh 7:172:90)
“Kesava is that devoted worshipper of Rudra who has sprung from Rudra himself. The Lord Kesava always worshippeth Siva in the phallic emblem as the origin of all creatures. The God having the bull for his mark cherisheth greater regard for Kesava”.

So, it is evident that even though Krishna was Vishnu’s incarnation that is only in a relative frame of reference. In absolute plane Krishna is an incarnation of Rudra only. These dualities exist only till a spiritual aspirant lives in dual mindset. Once the light of wisdom shines in one’s heart, all forms of duality would cease to exist and there would be only one Lord Viz. Mahadeva who would be visible standing all alone, without any duality. That’s the reason “Lord Dattatreya” (an incarnation of Vishnu) in his ‘Avadhuta Gita’ mentions, “indrajAlamidaM sarvam yathA marumarEchikA akhanditaM anAkaraM vartatE kEvalah shivaH”, which means, “All this is verily illusion as like as the mirage of a desert; beyond all differentiation, beyond all forms truly there is lord Shiva alone!”

Therefore, whosoever worships other forms of Shiva including Vishnu (and his so called forms); they all worship Shiva only under ignorance.

Also, it is Bhagawan Rudra only who is the supreme protector of all the worlds. He protects the worlds directly as himself and also through his manifestation Vishnu whom he manifested for the task of protection. But ultimately it is lord Rudra only whom Vedas recognize as the supreme protector. let’s see the references now.

It is Rudra who takes the vow of protecting his devotees. He is the lord of all. That’s why he has no aversion to demons also. He loves Gods, Humans and Demons equally, and whosoever takes refuge in him, he protects him.

“yābhiṣuṃ giriśanta haste bibharṣy astave |
śivāṃ giritra tāṃ kuru mā hiṃsīḥ puruṣaṃ jagat |” (Yajur Veda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-1)

“My Lord who dwells on Mount Kailas and confers gladness to all! You, who fulfills your vow of protecting all who serve you and take refuge in you; that arrow of yours which you hold ready to let fly, withhold it and make it tranquil and auspicious”.


Rudra is the supreme protector of all the worlds as stated in below verses.

“eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“[O Shiva] you are the sole Protector of the world”.

He is the only god who creates and destroys singly. We have Brahma who creates, Vishnu who protects and Kalagni-Rudra (a manifestation of Bhagawan Rudra) who destroys; but these are only illusion, these are real only in frame of duality. Vedas recognize only Bhagawan Rudra as alone doing everything.

“atha kasmAduchyate ekaH yaH sarvAnprANAnsaMbhakShya |
saMbhakShaNenAjaH sa.nsR^ijati visR^ijati |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:15)
“He (Rudra) is called “Eka (single)” because he singly destroys everything and recreates everything”.

So, Bhagawan Rudra is the only god (Brahman) who appears as various forms viz. Brahma, Vishnu, Indra etc., but finally he is one and only one. He alone does everything – Srishti (creation), Sthiti (protection), Laya (destruction), Tirodhana (Veiling) and Anugraha (Gracing). But if we go even deeper, we would also know that it is he who does not do anything because creation is unreal and he is beyond all these – he is the Brahman who is just a plain witness.

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA | (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is truly one. For the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

With this analysis in place, let’s come back to the Bhagawad Gita context now, the speaker of Gita states that he descends and takes birth to protect people. And we have analyzed in the light of Vedas and Upanishads that the protector of everyone is Lord Shiva, the God who manifests in every form is again Lord Shiva only.

So, from this analysis it gets proved that the speaker of Bhagawad Gita is Bhagawan Shiva only and he only takes all the incarnations sometimes directly (as Bhairava, Nandi, Hanuman, Shankaracharya, Suka etc.) and sometimes he takes incarnations through his form Vishnu. But whether the mode adopted is direct or indirect; the fact remains as fact that all forms are the forms of Shiva only. No one is his originator, but everyone originates from Shiva only.

Conclusion: – These verses (BG. 4.7) and (BG. 4.8) when analyzed, it again proved that these verses sing the glory of one and only Lord Shiva. And it is again evident that the speaker of Gita was lord Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.10)

vita-raga-bhaya-krodha man-maya mam upasritah
bahavo jnana-tapasa puta mad-bhavam agatah | (BG. 4.10)
“Freed from attachment, fear and anger, absorbed in Me, taking refuge in Me, purified by the fire of knowledge, many have attained my being”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse of Gita states that few rare souls take refuge in the supreme god desiring salvation, and they attain salvation by taking his refuge.

This verse is a clear adaptation from Svetaswatara Upanishad which is as follows.

“ajaata ityeva.n kashchidbhiiruH prapadyate |
rudra yatte daxiNaM mukha.n tena maaM paahi nityam.h |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:21)
“It is because Thou, O Lord, art birthless, that some rare souls, frightened by birth and death, take refuge in Thee. O Rudra, may Thy benign face protect me for ever!”

Conclusion: – From the above analysis it is evident that the speaker of Gita was lord Shiva himself.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.13)

catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah
tasya kartaram api mam viddhy akartaram avyayam | (BG. 4.13)
“The quadruple division of Varnas was created by me according to the distinction of qualities and duties. Though I am the author thereof, (yet) know me to be not their author and undecaying”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

In this verse we need to find out who is the lord described in Vedas from whom emerged four Varnas viz. Bhrahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Shudra. Well, let me reveal in the beginning itself, that this verse is again a clear cut verse about Lord Rudra. So, it is definitely Bhagawan Rudra who was speaking Bhagwad Gita through Krishna’s mouth. Let’s analyze this verse now. In the beginning itself, let me declare that I’ll prove this point in FIVE different instances. Let’s proceed with the analysis now.

“vrā́tya āsīd ī́yamāna evá sá prajā́patiṃ sám airayat ||
sá prajā́patiḥ suvárṇam ātmánn apaśyat tát prā́janayat ||
tád ékam abhavat tál lalā́mam abhavat tán mahád abhavat táj jyeṣṭhám abhavat tád bráhmābhavat tát tápo ‘bhavat tát satyám abhavat téna prā́jāyata ||
sò ‘vardhata sá mahā́n abhavat sá mahādevò ‘bhavat ||
sá devā́nām īśā́ṃ páry ait sá ī́śāno ‘bhavat ||
sá ekavrātyò ‘bhavat sá dhánur ā́datta tád evéndradhanúḥ ||
nī́lam asyodáraṃ lóhitaṃ pr̥ṣṭhám ||
nī́lenaivā́priyaṃ bhrā́tr̥vyaṃ prórṇoti lóhitena dviṣántaṃ vidhyatī́ti brahmavādíno vadanti |” (Atharva Veda 15:1:1-8)
“There was a roaming Vrātya (Ascetic Shiva). He roused Prajāpati to action. Prajāpati beheld gold in himself and engendered it. That became unique, that became distinguished, that became great, that became excellent, that became Devotion, that became holy Fervour, that became Truth: through that he was born. He grew, he became great, he became Mahādeva. He gained the lordship of the Gods. He became Lord. He became Chief Vrātya. He held a bow, even that Bow of Indra. His belly is dark-blue, his back is red. With dark-blue he envelops a detested rival, with red he pierces the man who hates him: so the theologians say”.

The above verses state that Lord Shiva aroused Prajapati into action and engendered the universe. And again appeared inside that universe again as Shiva holding a bow. Prajapati is nothing but ‘Hiranyagarbha’ (the golden womb), which is the universe having space and time coordinates. Lord Shiva was there even before the universe as the ancient purusha, and then he only created Hiranyagarbha and then aroused him into action, subsequently; he penetrated into that universe (of time and space). So, Lord Shiva exists within the universe and also outside e is not limited by any coordinates, he is the infinite god whose ends nobody could locate. Svetaswatara Upanishad also confirms the aforementioned story about Shiva as follows.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu ||” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

The Vratya suktam further states that from Vratya (Shiva) only Brahmanas (Priesthood) and Kshatriyas (Royalty) emerged as follows.

“sò ‘rajyata táto rājanyò ‘jāyata |” (Atharva Veda 15:8:1)
“He was filled with passion: from him sprang the Rājanya”.

“áto vái bráhma ca kṣatráṃ cód atiṣṭhatāṃ |” (Atharva Veda 15:10:3)
“From him, verily, sprang Priesthood and Royalty”.

And Shatapatha Brahmana says, Agni is the priesthood and Indra is the Royalty. And then Shatapatha Brahmana and Kaushitaki Brahmana further give evidences that Indra and Agni were manifested from Shiva only as follows.

“brahma vā agniḥ kṣatramindraste |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:5:4:8)
“Agni is the priesthood, and Indra is the nobility”.

“tamabravīdrudro ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodagnistadrūpamabhavadagniva rudro yadarodīttasmādrudraḥ” ( Sathapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:10)

“’Thou art Rudra And because he gave him that name, Agni became such like (or, that form), for Rudra is Agni “.

“sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.aśanir.eva.iti yad.aśanir.indras.tena |” (Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:3:41)
“Prajapathi said to Rudra ‘Thou art Asani’ ; for Asani is Indra”.

In another context, Shatapatha Brahmana explains that the four Varnas are connected to four seasons and hence it ordains the rules to set up household fires in the respective seasons for the respective Varnas. Going by this esoteric connection also we would learn that Shruti states that Varnas emerged from Rudra only. Let’s see the following verses.

“brahmaiva vasantaḥ | kṣatraṃ grīṣmo viḍeva varṣāstasmādbrāhmaṇo vasanta
ādadhīta brahma hi vasantastasmātkṣatriyo grīṣma ādadhīta kṣatraṃ hi
grīṣmastasmādvaiśyo varṣāsvādadhīta viḍḍhi varṣāḥ |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 2:1:3:5)
“The spring is the priesthood, the summer the nobility, and the rainy season the common people (vis): a Brâhman therefore should set up his fires in spring, since the spring is the priesthood; and a Kshatriya should set them up in summer, since the summer is the nobility; and a Vaisya should set them up in the rainy season, since the rainy season is the common people”.

And the Hymn to Vratya states that four seasons, and year all were created by Vratya as follows.

“yò ‘sya pañcamó vyānás tá r̥távaḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.5)
“His fifth diffused breath are the Seasons”.

“yò ‘sya ṣaṣṭhó vyānás tá ārtavā́ḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.6)
“His sixth diffused breath are the Season-groups”.

“yò ‘sya saptamó vyānáḥ sá saṃvatsaráḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.7)
“His seventh diffused breath is the year”.

Therefore connecting Shatapatha Brahmana verse and Atharva Veda’s Vratya Suktam statement, we can understand that all the four seasons (summer, autumn, spring, winter), season groups (Varnas; which are collectively termed as groups), and year emerged from Vratya (Shiva) only.

Let’s see another way of analyzing this case. We know that Veda Purusha is Rudra (Shiva) only. The Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) of Yajur Veda says, “purusho vai rudrah”, which means, “Lord Rudra is the Veda Purusha”Kaushitaki Brahmana (6:1:13) of Rig Veda calls Lord Rudra as, “sahasrakha sahasrapat” ( tata.udatiṣṭhat.sahasra.akṣaḥ.sahasra.pāt), which means “Rudra has a thousand eyes and thousand feet”. The same thing is confirmed in Svetasvatara Upanishad.

“viśvataś cakṣur uta viśvato-mukho viśvato-bāhur uta viśvatas-pāt |
saṃ6 bāhubhyāṃ dhamati sampatatrair dyāv-ābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ |” ( Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:03)
“His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere, His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet. He it is who endows men with arms, birds with feet and wings and men likewise with feet. Having produced heaven and earth, this God (deva ekaḥ) remains as their non-dual manifester”.

With that it should be clear enough that ‘Purusha’ of Vedas is Bhagawan Rudra. And therefore, ‘Purusha Suktam’ of Rig Veda (10.90) is a hymn to Bhagawan Rudra who is the Veda Purusha.

Purusha Suktam also confirms that all the four Varnas have sprung from Lord Shiva as follows.

“brāhmaṇo.asya mukhamāsīd bāhū rājanyaḥ kṛtaḥ |
ūrūtadasya yad vaiśyaḥ padbhyāṃ śūdro ajāyata ||” (Rig Veda 10.90.12)
“The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made. His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced”.

In another context, we have the following correlation in Shatapatha Brahmana.

“’thajaḥ kṣatraṃ vā anvaśvo vaiśyaṃ ca śūdraṃ cānu rāsabho brāhmaṇamajaḥ |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:4:4:12)
“The horse corresponds to the Kshatra (nobility), the ass to the Vaisya and Sûdra, the bull to the Brâhmana”.

Lord Rudra is the creator of universe and is also the father of all creatures. He rules all the beings in bondage hence the beings are called ‘Pasu’ and Rudra is called ‘Pasupati’. Sri Rudram of Yajurveda (5.5.11.f) says- “Ye bhutanam adhipatayo”, which means, “Verily, Lord Rudra is the overlord of all beings”.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu |
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

From here we know that it is Lord Rudra who manifested as all beings (creatures). Further, the Rig Veda clarifies us on this point as follows.

“paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye |” (Rig Veda 10.90.8)
“He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame”.

“umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)
“Salutations to the overlord of all created beings and who is the lord of Uma”.

“Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |” (Yajurveda III-1-4 Or Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
“What cattle the lord of cattle (pashupati) ruleth?, He rules Both the four-footed and the two-footed.”

So Lord Rudra is the father of all creatures which include Horse, Bull, Sheep, He-Goat, Ass etc. Now comparing this with the Shatapatha Brahmana (6:4:4:12) it gives us the conclusion that – Lord Rudra created all the four Varnas viz. Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra.

Therefore we have successfully proved using evidences from Shruti that the Varnas emerged from Lord Shiva only. We have proved this using FIVE different approaches viz. “Emergence of Varnas as Seasons; Emergence of Varnas directly from Vratya; Agni-Indra as the representatives of the Varnas and manifestations of Agni and Indra from Rudra (thereby indicating emergence of Varnas); Emergence of Varnas from Purusha Suktam and finally animals who were created by Rudra representing Varnas implying Varnas creation by Rudra”.

The second part of the Gita verse where it says that, “tasya kartaram api mam viddhy akartaram avyayam” (Though I am the author thereof, (yet) know me to be not their author and undecaying), is also true. As per Vedas and Vedanta there is no creation is reality. Creation is unreal (mithya), and only Brahman is real (sat). All this worlds, all diverse forms etc., are all just a mental projection of the Eshwara and it’s synonymous to the dream. In our dream we only remain as the witnesser and simultaneously we see ourselves as the actor doing something. Are we two? No. The dreamer, as well as the image of the self in the dream, both are one and the same only. And as soon as we come out of our sleep, all the mental projections called dreams cease to exist, but we exist in real. This is the same phenomenon behind the creation of universe also. One single non-dual Brahman (Shiva) projects himself into diverse forms, plays many roles, and at the end of the drama, he withdraws everything back to the self.

So, it’s true that Rudra authored the four Varnas, but still he is not the author of anything since he is the actionless Parabrahman.

Conclusion: – So, this is proven beyond doubt that the Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 4.13) is a clear cut proof that Lord Shiva only was delivering the Gita lecture from the mouth of Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 4.24)

brahmarpanam brahma havir brahmagnau brahmana hutam
brahmaiva tena gantavyam brahma-karma-samadhina | (BG. 4.24)
“Brahman is the act of offering; Brahman is the constituent the offerings (ghee, food etc.); by Brahman (offerrer) it is offered into the fire (which is Brahman); Brahman is that which is to be reached by him who always sees Brahman in all his works”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Well, this verse is a gereric verse and in no where it has ever been used in superiority debates. But since I see Mahadeva as the indweller of this verse also, I wanted to include this in my commentary. This is a secondary reason, but the primary reason behind including this verse is to detail out the importance of this verse of Bhagawad Gita since it has a great Vedantic meaning and significance, therefore it’s a delight for me to elaborate on this.

For an enlightened yogi, duality ceases, he becomes freed from all matters of discrimination and he sees nothing but Brahman everywhere, in everything including himself. This Bhagwad Gita verse is a very famous verse since it is chanted by many Indians before eating food.

This Gita verse encloses a highly Vedantic meaning and when truly understood, it would cease all duality from the mind of the Sadhaka (practitioner). Here the sacrifice (Yajna) is not an externally organized sacrifice. This is a statement which actually teaches us to focus inwardly to realize the Brahman. Traditionally, our ancestors had made a practice of saying, “shivArpanamastu”, or “krishnArpanamastu” and eating the first morsel of food whenever they eat. Also, one who is initiated under ‘Upanayanam’ he has a certain procedure which is followed before taking food where he offers the first morsel of food to the ‘pancha pranas’ (five life forces) by saying, “prAnAya swAha …etc.”, since they are verily the Brahman and then says, ‘brahmane swAha’ offering explitly to Brahman. It’s pathetic to see that today this practice has been lost and only a small percent of people follow this way of offering food to the parameshwara who is the one who graces us with the ability to eat and gives us food. People have become thankless fellows due to modernization and the so called literacy where there is no education system which teaches the cultural values taught in our scriptures. Anyway, let me come back to the point here.

The very act of eating food is itself a Yajna (Sacrifice), the act of offering food to Brahman and not eating it ourselves, is sacrifice (Yajna), the sacrificial place is our own body which is the dwelling place of the Brahman. The act of putting food inside the mouth and passing it to stomach is the libation of this sacrifice (yajna). Food is the libation which is also Brahman. The celestial fire Vaiswanara-Agni which is present inside our body as the body heat is the fire of the sacrifice. That vaiswanara is himself the Purusha (Brahman). This whole process is Brahman, and one who realizes this in its true meaning, such a realized yogi himself is Brahman.

And the best part of this is, – The “food” (libation) which is Brahman, is nothing but Bhagawan Rudra. The “Agni (fire)” within the body, which is the consumer of the offering is also Brahman (Rudra), the act of consumption of food which is called “sacrifice (yajna)” is also Brahman (Rudra), the deity to whom food is offered is “Prana” which is the Brahman (and is the Rudra) and the “realized Yogi” is always the Brahman (Rudra). Let’s see how this happens.

Food as Brahman:

“para.n vaa etadaatmano ruupa.n yadannamannamayo hyayaM praaNo.atha na
yadyashnaatyamantaa.ashrotaa.aspraShTaa.adraShTaa.avaktaa.aghraataarasayitaa
bhavati praaNaa.nshchotsR^ijatiiti eva.n hyaahaatha yadi khalvashnaati
praaNasamR^iddho bhuutvaa mantaa bhavati shrotaa bhavati
spraShTaa bhavati vaktaa bhavati rasayitaa bhavati ghraataa bhavati draShTaa bhavatiiti eva.n hyaaha annaadvai prajaaH prajaayante yaaH kashchitpR^ithiviishR^itaaH |
ato.annenaiva jiivanti athaitadapi yanti antataH |” (Maithrayani Upanishad 6:11)
“This is the highest form of Self, viz. food, for this Prâna subsists on food. If it eats not, it cannot perceive, hear, touch, see, smell, taste, and it loses the vital airs. For thus it is said:
‘If it eats, then in full possession of the vital airs, it can perceive, hear, touch, speak, taste, smell, see.’ And thus it is said: ‘From food are born all creatures that live on earth; afterwards they live on food, and in the end (when they die) they return to it”.

Food has only two sources viz. vegetation (plants), and animals. From animals we can count only Milk and its transformed stuffs as food; meat is not a valid food item which can be offered to Gods. But even if we need to consider meat as food then also I’m fine with that for this analysis.

It is only Lord Rudra who exists as the entire creation (jagat). He himself manifested as plants, animals, gods etc. And as discussed just now, there is no food which is beyond plants or animals. And Lord Rudra alone remains as food (flora and fauna) as follows:

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat |
sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”. So, it proves that all animals are also the manifestation of Rudra alone.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-11 Or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“That Rudra who has even entered into and pervaded fire, the waters, vegetation, and all the worlds, let my salutations be to that Rudra”. So, it proves that Lord Rudra is present as all vegetation (herbs, shurbs, bushes, plants, trees) as well.

Not only that Shiva remains as food, but he is the giver of food also, hence Vedas proclaim him as the lord of food.

“annanam pataye namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to Rudra who is the lord of food”.

Receiver of Food (libation) is Brahman:

The food is offered to Pranas by chanting ‘prAnAya swAha | apAnAya swAha..etc.” since Prana is verily the Brahman. In this context shruit states the following.

“katama eko deva iti | prā́ṇa iti, sa brahma, tyad ity ā́cakṣate | (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III-9-9)
“‘Which is the one god ?’ ‘The Prana (ie. Atman) is the only God; it is Brahman, which is called Tat (that).’

It is only the Atman (Prana) which exists and there is no duality. All multiforms are its own projections. The same has been stated in the below verse.

“eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthur ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ |
pratyaṅ janāṃs tiṣṭhati sañcukocānta-kāle saṃsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ | (Svetasvatara Upanishad 3:2)
“Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.

So, from the above analysis it is crystal clear that the Pranas whom the food is offered is verily the lord Shiva. But the same Prana (Atman) who exists within us exists as the inner heat supporting our life. That same Atman (Prana) is the Purusha which is the inner self and is also called as Vaiswanara Agni. That same Prana (Agni) accepts the food consumed which is the libation and digests it.

The indwelling Purusha (Atman) which is the divine fire (vaiswanara) within our body is the one who is the receiver of this libation (food). That Atman is lord Rudra only as stated in Taittiriya Aranyaka (10.16.2) of Yajurveda:

“aatmaaya namaH |” (Salutations to Him, He who is the Spirit – Atman – dwelling in all creatures)
“aatmali~Ngaaya namaH |” (Salutations to Him, He who is concealed in the heart of all creatures being their inmost Self)

“athopaa.nshurantaryaamyamibhavatyantaryaamamupaa.nshumetayorantaraale
chaushhNyaM maasavadaushhNya.n sa purushho.atha yaH purushhaH
so.agnirvaishvaanaro.apyanyatraapyuktamayamagnirvaishvaanaro
yo.ayamanantaH purushho yenedamannaM pachyate |” (Maithrayani Upanishad 2:8)
“Now the Upâmsu-vessel (or prâna) depends on the Antaryâma-vessel (apâna) and the Antaryâma-vessel (apâna) on the Upâmsu-vessel (prâna), and between these two the self-resplendent (Self) produced heat. This heat is the purusha (person), and this purusha is Agni Vaisvânara. And thus it is said elsewhere: Agni Vaisvânara is the fire within man by which the food that is eaten is cooked, i.e. digested”.

The same Agni which is the innermost soul (Atman) is also the same which is the Bhokta (enjoyer) of the sacrifice which is offered as intake of food. But this Agni is verily Lord Shiva only who is praised by the name ‘Agni’ since Agni is the purifier hence most auspicious name it is. In this connection let’s see evidence from Shatapatha Brahmana to stay in sync with Shruti.

“tadvā agnaya iti kriyate | agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā
ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti
tānyasyāśāntānyevetarāṇi nāmānyagnirityeva śāntatamaṃ tasmādagnaya iti kriyate
sviṣṭakṛta iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8)
“That (offering) then is certainly made to ‘Agni,’ for, indeed, Agni is THAT god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni. The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious (sânta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ‘Agni,’ and to (him as) the Svishtakrit”.

So, from above verses from Vedas it is clear that the innermost self (Atman) which is called Agni and is the Purusha is verily the Lord Rudra only.

Act of offering is called Sacrifice (yajna) which is Brahman:

In this context RudraHridayopanishad (1:20) says, “rudro yaj~na umaa vedistasmai tasyai namo namaH |” which means, “Rudra is Yajna (Sacrifice) Uma is Vedi salutations to him and her”. This is true actually. Vedas have many verses calling Agni, Vishnu, Prajapati, Aditi, Cow, and Speech (vAk) as sacrifice, but a thorough analysis would boil down to the truth that originally Rudra is only the sacrifice. That thorough analysis is out of scope for this article, so not elaborating it here; but know it that the verse from Rudrahridayopanishad as mentioned above is the final essence of all the analysis on sacrifice. Therefore this Upanishad has verily spoken the final truth about sacrifice. If one really wants to to into more detailed analysis on how Rudra is the Yajna, one may refer to my article titled, “Rudra is the Sacrifice (yajnA), Uma is the Altar (vEdi) and they created this Universe” , .

The sacrificer (man) is Brahman:

A realized yogi who has attained the supreme wisdom is verily same as Brahman since he becomes Jeevanamukta in the very same life. The realization of the self culminates in nothing but the revealation of the truth – ‘aham brahmAsmi‘ , which means, – ‘I am the Brahman’. Brahman is none other than Rudra as we have seen evidences numerous times in previous sections. So, it boils down to the answer that the sacrificer (offerer of food) is Brahman (Shiva).

Conclusion: – So, from above analysis we have seen that the very good practice whish is prescribed in Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 4.24) stands out to be completely revolving around Lord Shiva. Food (oblation), giver of food, eater of food (sacrificer), food (sacrifice) whom it is offered to (prana), the receiver of sacrifice (Agni), and finally the person doing that sacrifice (man); all are Brahman which is Shiva. So, this verse also glorifies lord Shiva’s monopoly over the doer, act of doing and the target as being one with Shiva who is the Brahman.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 5.27), (BG. 5.28), (BG. 6.11 – 6.15)

sparshan kritva bahir bahyams caksus caivantare bhruvoh
pranapanau samau kritva nasabhyantara-carinau | (BG. 5.27)
yatendriya-mano-buddhir munir moksha-parayanah
vigateccha-bhaya-krodho yah sada mukta eva sah | (BG. 5.28)
“Excluding (from his mind) all external objects of sense, directing the visual glance between the brows, mingling (into one) the upward and the downward life-breaths and making them pass through the nostrils, the devotee, who has restrained the senses, the mind, and the understanding, being intent on emancipation, and who is freed from desire, fear, and wrath, is emancipated, indeed”

In next chapter there are few verses which are related to this above verse. So, I would like to combine them here to arrange the topic in a better way.

sucau dese pratishthapya sthiram asanam atmanah
naty-ucchritam nati-nicam cailajina-kusottaram | (BG. 6:11)
tatraikagram manah kritva yata-cittendriya-kriyah
upavisyasane yunjyad yogam atma-vishuddhaye | (BG. 6:12)
samam kaya-siro-grivam dharayann acalam sthirah
sampreksya nasikagram svam disas canavalokayan | (BG. 6:13)
prashantatma vigata-bhir brahmacari-vrate sthitah
manah samyamya mac-citto yukta asita mat-parah | (BG. 6:14)
yunjann evam sadatmanam yogi niyata-manasah
shantim nirvana-paramam mat-samstham adhigacchati | (BG. 6:15)
“Erecting his seat immovably on a clean spot, not too high nor too low, and spreading over it a piece of cloth, a deer-skin, or blades of Kusa grass, and there seated on that seat, with mind fixed on one object, and restraining the functions of the heart and the senses, one should practise contemplation for the purification of self. Holding body, head, and neck even, unmoved and steady, and casting his glance on the tip of his nose, and without looking about in any of the different directions, with mind in tranquillity, freed from fear, observant of the practices of Brahmacharins, restraining the mind, with heart fixed on me, the devotee should sit down, regarding me as the object of his attainment. Thus applying his soul constantly, the devotee whose heart is restrained, attains to that tranquillity which culminates in final absorption and assimilation with me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here in these verses of Bhagwad Gita, a yogic method of self-realization is mentioned. These Gita verses state about a great method of Yoga called ‘tAraka yogam’ also known as ‘tArakopadesam’ and the method of meditation mentioned is one of the ‘pancha mudrAs’.

‘tAraka yoga’ comprises of five ‘Mudras’ called ‘Khechari, Bhoochari, Madhyama, Shanmukha, and Sambhavi. While practicing them one would hear Dasavidha Nadam (Ten types of sounds) viz. ‘Chitti, Chini, Ghanta (Bell), Sankha (Conch), Taala (Cymbal), Venu (Flute), Bheri (Bugle), Mrudanga (Drum), Meghanada (thunder)’ kinds of sounds within himself. One who establishes himself in an undeterred way by winning over all the distractions using his knowledge; would realize the fact that he is none other than the supreme divine almighty himself. This is self realization which makes one disillusioned and makes clear the fact of ‘Advaita’ that there is no duality between soul and God. He himself is the supreme Lord and apart from him there exists nothing.

1. Khechari: – Khechari means focusing on the ‘Bhroomadhya’ (place in between the eyebrows) either by closing the eyes or keeping them open
2. Bhoochari: – Bhoochari means to focus the sight at the tip of the nose without shaking the eyes
3. Madhyama: – Madhyama lakshyam means to focus the sight in the middle of the nose portion and to concentrate inwards of one’s self
4. Shanmukha: – Shanmukha means to focus the sight at the Bhroomadhya after closing the two eyes, two ears and two nostrils (using fingers)
5. Sambhavi: – Sambhavi mudra means to fix the mind constant, removing all ‘Vikarams (distractions)’ by focusing inwards within oneself (Antarlakshyam)

There are three types of focusing methodologies viz. ‘bAhya lakshyam’, ‘madhya lakshyam’, and ‘antar lakshyam’. These three in combination in general are called as ‘Lakshya Triambakam’ in Yogic terminology.

Vedanta and Yoga both takes one towards realization. Vedanta gives us theoretical wisdom without which one can’t understand the nature of Brahman, and Yoga gives us practical lessons without which one can’t realize Brahman. Yoga and Vedanta go hand in hand and they can’t be studied separately. The same is stated by Lord Shiva in the following Upanishad verse as given below:

“j~naana.n kechidvadantyatra kevala.n tanna siddhaye |
yogahiina.n katha.n j~naanaM mokshada.n bhavatiiha bhoH | (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:12)
yogo.api j~naanahiinastu na kshamo mokshakarmaNi |
tasmaajj~naana.n cha yoga.n cha mumukshurdR^iDhamabhyaset.h |” (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:13)
“How can Jnana without Yoga lead to salvation? It is also true that Yoga alone without Jnana will not lead to salvation. So, the one who aims at salvation; should learn Jnana and Yoga together”.

Yoga is difficult but that is a practical way of realization of the supreme Brahman within oneself. Well, elaborate discussion on these topics stands out of scope of the current discussion. But in a nutshell I can confidently state that; Yoga, and Tantra are doubtlessly the playground of ONLY Shakti and Shiva. There is no doubt in that, and I can cite numerous references supporting that. When I say, numerous know it truly as numerous! Any Yoga related Upanishad, or any Tantra related scripture one is free to choose for analysis, doubtlessly she/he would find it to be only a playground of Shakti-Shiva. There is no higher truth beyond Shiva and Shakti. There is no realization of Brahman without the grace of Shiva. Especially in Yoga, there is no achievement without realization of Shiva. Shiva tatwam alone pervades in all our bodies from Mooladhara to Sahasrara. And the Shakti (Tripurasundari) which assumes the form of Kundalini, rises upwards to embrace her consort viz. Shiva. And they get merged together in their supreme seat called Sahasrara chakra present in the crown of our head. That same Shakti is called as ‘Narayana’ in Mahanarayanopanishat, but carefully if you study, it would become revealed that it is a female principle and Narayana is nothing but Shiva’s Shakti (Uma) in male form and Kundalini is totally a female principle, and is Shakti who merges and embraces her consort Shiva in the crown chakra (Shasrara) which is a lotus of 1000 petals. From mooladhara to Ajneya chakras the beeja mantras (seed letters) of each chakra when combined from bottom to top, it forms ‘Na-Ma-Shi-Va-Ya’; and the seed letter of Sahasrara is ‘Om’. So, our body is totally a temple of Shiva wherein Shiva himself resides as the Jiva as well as the Atman. Well, I can write pages and pages on this topic of Kundalini and Yoga but keeping the context in mind, would like to keep an endpoint here. This Bhagwad Gita verse and any other verse where Yoga is the subject in context, know that truly that is a glorification of Shiva-Shakti principle only. There is no room for any doubt in that; one can take this in written from me!

Yoga and Kudnalini concepts are an ocean and therefore I would like to cite only an iota of that ocean here as references. One may study the related scriptures in detail if one is interested to know more.

“deha.n shivaalayaM prokta.n siddhida.n sarvadehinaam.h |” (Yogashikha Upanishad 1:168)
“For all those who have a body, their body is the temple of Shiva. It gives them siddhi (fulfillment of yogic goal viz. salvation)”.

“mUlAdhArAdiShaTchakra.n shaktisthAnamudIritam.h |
kaNThAdupari mUrdhAnta.n shAMbhava.n sthAnamuchyate |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:53)
“The six Chakras beginning with Muladhara are said to be the seat of Sakti (Goddess). From the neck to the top of the head is said to be the seat of Sambhu (Shiva)”.

“nADInAmAshrayaH piNDo nADyaH prANasya chAshrayaH |
jIvasya nilayaH prANo jIvo ha.nsasya chAshrayaH |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:54)
“To the Nadis, the body is the support (or vehicle); to Prana, the Nadis are the support; to Jiva, Prana is the dwelling place; to Hamsa, Jiva is the support”.

“ha.nsaH shakteradhiShThAna.n charAcharamida.n jagat.h |
nirvikalpaH prasannAtmA prANAyA.n samabhyaset.h |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:55)
“To Sakti, Hamsa is the seat and the locomotive and fixed universe. Being without distraction and of a calm mind, one should practise Pranayama”.

“kumbhena kumbhayetkumbha.n tadantasthaH para.n shivam.h |
punarAsphAlayedadya susthira.n kaNThamudrayA |” (Varaha Upanishad 5:60)
“It is only through Kumbhaka that Kumbhaka should be firmly mastered. Within it is Parama-Shiva. That (Vayu) which is non-motionless should be shaken again through Kantha-Mudra (throat-posture)”.

“prakR^ityashhTakaruupa.n cha sthaana.n gachchhati kuNDalii |
kroDiikR^itya shiva.n yaati kroDiikR^itya viliiyate |” (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:74)
“Kundalini assumes the eight forms of Prakriti (matter) and attains Shiva by encircling him and dissolves itself in Shiva”.

“rudragranthi.n cha bhittvaiva kamalaani bhinatti shhaT.h |
sahasrakamale shaktiH shivena saha modate
saivaavasthaa paraa j~neyaa saiva nirvR^itikaariNii iti |” (YogaKundalini Upanishad 1:86)
“Then it pierces Rudragranthi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses). Then Sakti is happy with Shiva in Sahasrara Kamala (1000 lotuses seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest Avastha (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude (Kaivalya / Sayujya Moksham)”.

Well, the methodology mentioned in the aforementioned Bhagwad Gita verses is actually again something which talks only about Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva only is the redeemer there who acts like the boat sailing one through the samsaara to the shore of enlightenment. And again it is lord Shiva only who is the object of realization there. We have the same thing discussed in the following verses of Shruti.

“bR^ihaspatiruvaacha yaaj~navalkya.n yadanu kurukshetra.n
devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h |
avimukta.n vai kurukshetra.n devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM
bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h |
tasmaadyatra kvachana gachchhati tadeva manyeta tadavimuktameva |
ida.n vai kurukshetra.n devaanaa.n devayajana.n sarveshhaaM
bhuutaanaaM brahmasadanam.h |
atra hi jantoH praaNeshhuutkramamaaNeshhu rudrastaarakaM brahma
vyaachashhTe yenaasaavamR^itii bhuutvaa mokshii bhavati
tasmaadavimuktameva nishheveta avimukta.n na
vimu~nchedevamevaitadyaaj~navalkyaH |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:01)
““Brihaspati (the preceptor of the gods) asked (the sage) Yajnavalkya: (Which is) the Kurukshetra, (the famous holy place that destroys sins and protects the good, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings? (Yajnavalkya replied): Avimukta is the Kurukshetra, (the place) where the gods perform sacrifices to deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings (i.e. the middle of the eye-brows). Hence wherever one goes one shall think thus: This is the Kurukshetra, the place where the gods perform sacrifices to the deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings. This is the spot where, when the vital airs depart from the living person, Rudra imparts the mantra (Taraka Brahman viz. OM) to him by which, becoming immortal; he attains liberation (final beatitude). Hence one shall resort to the Avimukta; shall not desert the Avimukta. (Brihaspati approved of the statement saying): ‘So it is, Yajnavalkya’, verily it is so, O, revered one! ‘It is so Yajnavalkya’”.

atha hainamatriH paprachchha yaaj~navalkya.n ya eshho.ananto.avyakta
aatmaa ta.n kathamaha.n vijaaniiyaamiti |
sa hovaacha yaaj~navalkyaH so.avimukta upaasyo ya
eshho.ananto.avyakta aatmaa so.avimukte pratishhThita iti | (Jabala Upanishad 1:02)
““Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How am I to realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest ?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied: That Avimukta (Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite and unmanifest, is established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara, possessed of attributes)’”.

“so.avimuktaH kasminpratishhThita iti | varaNaayaa.n naashyaa.n cha madhye pratishhThita iti |
kaa vai varaNaa kaa cha naashiiti | sarvaanindriyakR^itaandoshhaanvaarayatiiti tena varaNaa bhavati |
sarvaanindriyakR^itaanpaapaannaashayatiiti tena naashii bhavatiiti | katama.n chaasya sthaanaM bhavatiiti . bhruvorghraaNasya cha yaH sandhiH sa eshha dyaurlokasya parasya cha sandhirbhavatiiti | etadvai sandhi.n sandhyaaM brahmavida upaasata iti | so.avimukta upaasya iti . so.avimukta.n j~naanamaachashhTe . yo vaitadeva.n vedeti |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:02)
“‘Which is that (place) where Avimukta is established ?’ ‘He is established in between varana and nasi’. ‘What is (meant by) varana and what (by) nasi ?’ ‘The varana is so called as it wards off all the faults committed by the (ten) organs (of perception and action). The nasi is so named as it destroys all sins committed by the (ten) organs. (The place between the varana and the nasi is the meeting place of the upper part of the nose and the centre of the eye brows). ‘Which is the seat of that (Avimukta)?’ ‘That, which is the (well known) juncture of the eye brows and the nose, is the juncture of heaven (in the form of the crown of the head -sahasrara) and this world (in the form at the end of the chin). The knowers of the Veda worship indeed this juncture (Samadhi) as Sandhya (in their daily worship). That Avimukta is to be worshipped. He who knows this thus (the true nature of the Avimukta), imparts the wisdom of the Avimukta (that the individual Self is no other than the attributeless Brahman, to his disciples)”.

Now since Yoga is a tough subjecta dn is not possible to attain by every common man, Lord Shiva the kindest parabrahman has made it much easiler to attain Kaivalya by giving a much easier way which is talked in the below verse.

“atha hainaM brahmachaariNa uuchuH ki.n japyenaamR^itatvaM bruuhiiti |
sa hovaacha yaaj~navalkyaH |
shatarudriyeNetyetaanyeva ha vaa amR^itasya naamaani |
etairha vaa amR^ito bhavatiiti evamevaitadyaaj~navalkyaH |” (Jabala Upanishad 1:03)
“Then the discipline students (Brahmacharins of Yajnavalkya) asked him: ‘Please, tell us, what is that mantra by reciting which one attains immortality?’ He replied: ‘By (reciting) Satarudriya’. These mantras are indeed the names of immortality (names of Rudra which give immortality). By (reciting) these (mantras) one becomes immortal”.

Through yoga one practically understands that the Brahman whom the Yogi wanted to know, is he himself and he understands that the Brahman is “Shiva” only. Through ‘Pranayama’ and ‘Kumbhaka’ kind of breath reversal exercises there are sounds produced at the mooladhara and ajneya viz. ‘ham’, and ‘sa’ (hamsa- swan). Through Yoga they when experienced in reverse it becomes ‘soham’ which means ‘sah-aham’ implying, “I am that”. Therefore the ultimnate realization of ‘Aham brahmasmi’ or ‘soham’ is nothing but the realization of ‘Shivoham’ (I am Shiva). This is the ultimate truth indeed!

That’s why we have yogis who say, “aham brahmAsmi”, and “shivOham”, but we do not have any yogi who says “vishnuOham”. No offense meant here, I understand the oneness of various vibhootis of Shiva; and Vishnu is one among the forms of Shiva. But my only point is to say that as per authentic scriptures Shiva always remains as the origin and there is no origin for Shiva. And Yoga is totally a playground of Shiva-Shakti, by experiencing which; practically a Jiva turns himself into Shiva who is the Brahman of Vedas, the ultimate reality, higher than the highest!

Conclusion: – BG. 5.27 BG. 5.28, BG. 6.11-6.15 talk about Taraka Yogam which is a yogic technique of realization of Brahman. This is a practical way to realize that Shiva is the Brahman who is not different from the self. This is the ultimate truth which unfortunately not majority of people understand! Well, in BG. 6:11-6:15 it states in direct speech as “Me” which is a clearcut evidence that Shiva was the one who was speaking through Sri krishna’s mouth. This is proved here also.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 5.29)

bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-maheshvaram
suhridam sarva-bhutanam jnatva mam shantim rcchati | (BG 5:29)
“Knowing me to be enjoyer of all sacrifices and ascetic austerities, the great Lord of all the worlds, and friend of all creatures, such a one obtaineth tranquillity.'”

Reasoning & Analysis:

We have to understand who is that lord described in the Vedas as the one who is – the lord of all sacrifices, lord of all worlds, and friend of all creatures. Let’s take these points one by one and analyze them.

We have a direct and to the point verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly describes that all these qualities described in this Bhagwad Gita verse as belonging to Lord Shiva.

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”.

The above evidence is enough to understand that all those qualities given in (BG. 5.29) belong to Bhagawan Rudra and therefore he was the speaker of Bhagwad Gita. But again since I have many other references which support this fact, I am desirous of sharing them. Therefore let me elaborate all these attributes in detail. Let’s see more evidences from Vedas and Upanishads.

Let’s first see who the lord of sacrifices is. It is the lord of sacrifice who becomes the enjoyer of sacrifice also since the sacrificial offering goes to the one who is the lord of sacrifice.

Agni encompasses the sacrifice fully and perfects (fulfils) it. That means, Agni is the lord who makes the sacrifice complete.

“aghne yaṃ yajñamadhvaraṃ viśvataḥ paribhūrasi sa iddeveṣu ghachati ” (RV 1.1.4)
“Agni, the perfect sacrifice which thou encompassest about Verily goeth to all the Gods”.

But it is Lord Rudra who has been called by the name of ‘Agni’ in the above verse. Here is the direct verse applied on Rudra by Vedas.

“tveṣaṃ vayaṃ rudraṃ yajñasādhaṃ vaṅkuṃ kavimavase nihvayāmahe ” (RV 1:114:4)
“Hither we call for aid the wise, the wanderer, impetuous Rudra, fulfiller of sacrifice”.

Agni is the priest of sacrifice also. But again this praise goes to lord Rudra only as shown below.

“tava praśāstraṃ tvamadhvarīyasi brahmā cāsi ghṛhapatiśca no dame ” (RV 2.1.2)
“[Agni] Thou art Director, thou the ministering Priest: thou art the Brahman, Lord and Master in our home”.

“ā vo rājānam adhvarasya rudraṃ hotāraṃ satyayajaṃ rodasyoḥ ” (RV 4:3:1 and Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita 1:3:14:2)

“Rudra, king (ruler) of the sacrifice, True offerer, priest of both the worlds!”.

Lord of sacrifice is again Agni (Rudra) as given in below Vedic verses.

“rājantamadhvarāṇāṃ ghopāṃ ṛtasya dīdivim vardhamānaṃsve dame ” (RV 1.1.8)
“[Agni] Ruler (lord) of sacrifices, guard of Law eternal, radiant One, Increasing in thine own abode”.

“ghāthapatiṃ medhapatiṃ rudraṃ jalāṣabheṣajam tacchaṃyoḥ sumnamīmahe ” (RV 1:43:5)
“To Rudra Lord of sacrifice, of hymns and balmy medicines, We pray for joy and health and strength”.

We have seen from the above verses that Vedas in some places call Agni as the lord of sacrifice and in other places addresses those praises directly to Rudra. But know that all these praises are exclusively for Lord Rudra only even if they are sung under the name of Agni. We have the following evidence which testifies the same.

“tadvā agnaya iti kriyate agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā
ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro ‘gniriti
tānyasyāśāntānyevetarāṇi nāmānyagnirityeva śāntatamaṃ tasmādagnaya iti kriyate
sviṣṭakṛta iti ” (Shatapatha Brahmana 1:7:3:8)
“That (offering) then is certainly made to ‘Agni,’ for, indeed, Agni is THAT god;–his are these names: Sarva, as the eastern people call him; Bhava, as the Bâhîkas (call him); Pasûnâm pati (‘lord of beasts,’ Pasupati), Rudra, Agni. The name Agni, doubtless, is the most auspicious (sânta), and the other names of his are inauspicious: hence it is offered to (him under the name of) ‘Agni,’ and to (him as) the Svishtakrit”.

So, it is Bhagawan Rudra who is the lord of all sacrifices. In fact entire sacrifice is itself Rudra. Rudrahridayopanishad (1:20) makes it clear saying, “rudro yaj~Na umaa vedistasmai tasyai namo namaH |”, which means, “rudrA is the yajnA, umA is the vEdi, prostrations to him and her”.

A very detailed article titled, “Rudra is the Sacrifice (yajnA), Uma is the Altar (vEdi) and they created this Universe” exclusively on ‘Sacrifice’ has been written by me. One can read that for an elaborate understanding. But in short, know that –– the sacrifice,
– the sacrificial altar,
– the priest of the sacrifice,
– the libations of the sacrifice,
– the residue of the sacrifice,
– the fruit of the sacrifice and finally
– the lord of the sacrifice who enjoys the sacrificial offering – all these doubtlessly are Bhagawan Rudra only.

Next attribute to discuss is to find out the God who is the lord of all worlds. It is again lord Rudra only as per the Vedas. Lord Rudra only is the source from all worlds got their birth and he is the one lord without a second and is the ruler of all the worlds. Here are the evidences.

“namo bhuvantaye varivaskritayaushhadhinam pataye namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to Him who has created the world and spread it broad, the creator of riches and lover of those who are devoted to Him; to the Lord of all vegetation, salutations”.

“jagatam pataye namo |” (Yaurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to [lord Rudra who is] the Lord of entire creation”.

“táva cátasraḥ pradíśas táva dyáus táva pr̥thivī́ távedám ugrorv àntárikṣam
távedáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇát pr̥thivī́m ánu ” (Atharva Veda 4:28:10)
“Thine, O strong god (ugra), are the four regions, thine the sky, thine the earth, and thine this broad atmosphere; thine is this all that has a spirit and has breath upon the earth”.

“bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣam |
tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ |” (Atharva Veda 4:28:27)
“Bhava rules the sky, Bhava rules the earth; Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

“sthirebhiraṅghaiḥ pururūpa ughro babhruḥ śukrebhiḥ pipiśehiraṇyaiḥ |
īśānādasya bhuvanasya bhūrerna vā u yoṣad rudrādasuryam |” (RV 2.33.9)
“He, the fierce god, with strong limbs, assuming many forms, the tawny Rudra, decked himself with brilliant golden ornaments. From Rudra, who is lord of this wide world (īśānādasya bhuvanasya), divine power will never depart”.

Rudra is the sovereign (Supreme Ruler) of both the celestial as well as earthly worlds.“sa hi kṣayeṇa kṣamyasya janmanaḥ sāmrājyena divyasya cetati |


avannavantīrupa no duraścarānamīvo rudra jāsu no bhava |” (RV 7:46:2)
“For, being the lord, he rules over or looks after what is born on earth; being the universal ruler, he rules or looks after what is born in heaven (through his high imperial sway). Come willingly to our doors that gladly welcome thee, and heal all sickness, Rudra., in our families”.

“tamiishvaraaNaaM paramaM maheshvara.n ta.n devataanaaM parama.n cha daivatam.h |
patiM patiinaaM paramaM parastaad.hvidaama devaM bhuvaneshamiiDyam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 5:07)
“Let us know that highest great lord of lords, the highest deity of deities, the master of masters, the highest above, as god, the lord of the world, the adorable”.

“Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha |
namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Him who is the source of all things (Bhava) and to Him who is the destroyer of all ills (Rudra). Salutations to the destroyer of everything (Sharva) and to the protector of all beings in bondage (Pashupati)”.

We may get a question whether lord Shiva has any lord or boss above him? Definitely this needs to be enquired. But Shruti states that there is no ruler or boss above Bhagawan Shiva. Here are the evidences.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
“There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord”.

Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) declares Rudra as the Purusha“purusho vai rudrah” and Svetaswatara Upanishad states the below fact about Veda Purusha Shiva.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Sve. Upa. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.

And finally we are left with analyzing the attribute which says the supreme lord is the friend of all creatures (suhridam sarva-bhutanam). In this context there is no other god better that Bhagawan Rudra as a best friend for any creature in fact.

For being the best friend the lord has to be approachable, the healer of all woes and diseases, the bounteous giver of everything that is sought or needed by the beings, should be the comforter, should be the greatest protector of all worlds and creatures, he should be able to ward of all sins, he should be the one lord who not only bestows happiness in this world but also grants the final beatitude (liberation). In all these qualities only Bhagawan Rudra fits in as per the Vedas.

“pashunam pataye namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of all creatures”.

Lord Rudra is called as ‘Pashupati” because he is the lord of all beings in bondage. The word “Pasu” means the one who is tied with the “pAsha” (noose). All the created beings and all the gods everyone is bound by the rope of Shiva-Maya. Only through the knowledge of Brahman (brahmajnanam) one can cut through that illusion of Shiva. And whosoever it may be – be it a God of heaven or be it an animal of earth or human; everyone is a Pasu till the time s/he has not realized the Brahman. Shiva is the lord of all such beings who are tied with the rope of ignorance (Avidya). He is their lord because he transports them from the ocean of samsaara (Avidya or ignorance) and gives them the supreme wisdom called Brahmajnanam and finally grants them the supreme state called ‘Kaivalyam’ (liberation) after which they do not come back to this world again. So, that’s why he is the ‘Pashupati” who rules over all beings (creatures and also the gods). So, this one example is itself enough to understand that there is no better friend that Rudra in this entire universe. But still we would continue our discussion and explore the other greatest aspects of our best friend Rudra.

“vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:02)
“Rudra is the protector of all the worlds”

It is Lord Rudra only who is hailed as the bounteous giver. He is the only lord who is capable of granting all boons including immortality also. The entire Chamakam portion of Sri Rudram hymn from Yajurveda is a testimony of what all things Rudra can grant. And the best desire is always the desire of liberation as the scriptures say. And it’s interesting to note that Vedas proclaim ONLY Bhagawan Rudra as the one who grants liberation. There is no other god whom Vedas have asked to liberate. Maha Mrityunjay Mantra is an example. About the attribute of boon giving I would quote only one verse from Rig Veda, since quoting entire chamakam is not feasible here.

“kumāraścit pitaraṃ vandamānaṃ prati nānāma rudropayantam |
bhūrerdātāraṃ satpatiṃ ghṛṇīṣe stutastvaṃ bheṣajā rāsyasme |” (RV 2:33:12)
“I bend to thee as thou approachest, Rudra, even as a boy before the sire who greets him. I praise thee Bounteous Giver, Lord of heroes: give medicines to us as thou art lauded”.

Rudra is the BEST of the physicians. Hence he removes all woes and diseases (even of gods). He gives comfort to all. He showers compassion.

“mā tvā rudra cukrudhāmā namobhirmā duṣṭutī vṛṣabha māsahūtī |
un no vīrānarpaya bheṣajebhirbhiṣaktamaṃ tvā bhiṣajāṃ śṛṇomi |” (RV 2:33:4)
“Let us not anger thee with worship, Rudra, ill praise, Strong God! or mingled invocation. Do thou with strengthening balms incite our heroes: I hear thee famed as BEST of all physicians”.

“kva sya te rudra mṛḷayākurhasto yo asti bheṣajo jalāṣaḥ |
apabhartā rapaso daivyasyābhī nu mā vṛṣabha cakṣamīthāḥ |” (RV 2:33:7)
“Where is that gracious hand of thine, O Rudra, the hand that giveth health and bringeth comfort, Remover of the woe that Gods have sent us? O Strong One, look thou on me with compassion”.

“namah paryaya chavaryaya cha |

namah prataAranaya chottaranaya cha “” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.

He ALONE (yes, you read it right – ‘he alone’) can grant us liberation; there is no other path to Moksham. Here is the evidence which talks the same about the Rudra who is the supreme Purusha.

“vedaahametaM purushhaM mahaantamaadityavarNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |
tameva viditvaatimR^ityumeti naanyaH panthaa vidyate.ayanaaya |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:08)
“I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike lustre beyond the darkness (tamas). A man who knows him truly, passes over death; there is no other path to liberation”.

Further Rig-Veda (7:59:12) states the famous Maha Mrityunjaya Mantram which occurs in Yajurveda-Sri Rudram as well. In this Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Vedas (Vedic seers) request Lord Shiva for liberation. It is an interesting fact to know that in all the four Vedas Vedic seers have prayed for Liberation only to Lord Shiva (Not even to lord Vishnu). So, it’s crystal clear that the Purushottama (Rudra) is the only Lord who can grant liberation.

So it is crystal clear now that there is no friend better that Rudra for all the creatures.

Conclusion: – With this detailed analysis we have seen that Lord of sacrifices, lord of all worlds, and friend of all creatures is Bhagawan Rudra as per Vedas. So, Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 5.29) totally glorifies Lord Rudra’s qualities and since that verse is in direct speech where the speaker states that “He” possesses all those qualities; it becomes doubtlessly clear that the speaker is Lor Shiva only. And Sri Krishna was just a mode or instrument of communication.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 6.30), (BG. 6.31)

yo mam pasyati sarvatra sarvam ca mayi pasyati
tasyaham na pranasyami sa ca me na pranasyati | (BG. 6.30)
sarva-bhuta-sthitam yo mam bhajaty ekatvam asthitah
sarvatha vartamano ’pi sa yogi mayi vartate | (BG. 6.31)
“Unto him who beholdeth me in everything and beholdeth everything in me. I am never lost and he also is never lost to me. He who worshippeth me as abiding in all creatures, holding yet that all is one, is a devotee, and whatever mode of life he may lead, he liveth in me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here we need to find out from Shruti about that Lord who exists in all mobile and immobile creation and in whom everything exists. As per Vedas and Upanishads it is again a quality of Bhagawan Rudra. Let’s see the evidences now.

We have a simple one liner statement readily available in Yajurveda Tattiriya Aranyaka as the direct evidence speaking in favor of Rudra as follows.

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutations.”

But we’ll not stop at this; we’ll see many more references now. Let’s proceed.

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha |
tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Yajur Veda 5:5:9:i or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“Bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣamtásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ” (Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
“Bhava rules the sky (àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth (pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

In Atharvaveda there is a hymn to lord Rudra’s Jwala-Linga form which is called Skhambha. It says,

“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam |
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa |” (Atharvaveda X:7.35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.

“skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ |
skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát |” (Atharvaveda X:8.2)
“Upheld by Skambha’s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye”.

“ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ” (Atharvaveda X:8.13)
“He with one half engendered all Creation (bhuvanam). What sign is there to tell us of the other?”

Earth (Bhuloka) and Heaven (Swargaloka) are one of the 14 Bhuvanam (abodes). Hence from above verse from Atharvaveda it is very clear that Lord Rudra from “HALF” of his Jwala-Linga form (Skhambha) generated all Jagats. Therefore Lord Rudra is infinite and in reality Lord Rudra is higher than the Heaven (Swarga). He alone supports Heaven, Earth, all abodes and created beings. Also, all 14 Bhuvanams are inside the Hiranyagarbha (shining visible universe) and as per the below quote it becomes clear that Lord Rudra is higher than Hiranyagarbha hence he is the limitless infinite Para-Brahman.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetasvathara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.

Lord Rudra is the superlative degree of all sorts of comparative terms. He is ‘greater than the Greatest’, he alone fills the entire universe and there is no place where he is absent:

“etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ” (Rig Veda 10:90)
“So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa”.

Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) declares Rudra as the Purusha“purusho vai rudrah” and correlating this with the above Rig Vedic verse we can infer that Veda Purusha Rudra is the highest. He stands alone, there is no one apart from Rudra who exists. Whatever exists, whatever existd once upon a time, and whatever will exist in future all is this Mahadeva only. This is also supported by the following verses.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Sve. Upa. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.

Yajurveda Sri Rudram (Anuvaka-4) states, “vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo”, which means, “Salutations to Lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam”. Again, Yajurveda Sri Rudram (Anuvaka-9) states, “devana hridayebhyo namah”, means, “Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller of the heart of all Gods”. Therefore Rudra exists as the Atman (Spirit) of even the celestial Gods also. So, all the Gods are Lord Rudra’s forms and not different from him.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Sve Upa. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

The below verse also confirms that everything that is there is Rudra only. All forms are Lord Rudra’s forms.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

From above verses we read that Rudra is, the indweller / present in the hearts of all Gods, and he is also the indweller of all beings. So, who is left without being a form of Shiva? This proves that Vedas recognize Lord Rudra as the one who entered all beings (including Gods). Rudra is the past, present and future too. He is the one who existed once upon a time, he is the one who exists now and he is the one who will manifest in future, this is supported in below verses.

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha | namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha | namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atharva Veda X-8-28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

These verses proves the fact that it’s only Lord Shiva who is the Poorvaja (Ancient), Jyeshtha (Eldest among the born i.e Hiranyagarbha), and Kanishtha (youngest one which includes every new foetus being born).

Till now we have seen generic description of Bhagawan Rudra calling him as ‘everything’. Let’s see some specific references of his forms now. After reading them it would be crystal clear for anyone to believe that there is nothing except Rudra in this world and beyond.

These descriptions are available in Sri Rudram of Yajurveda (IV:V)

Rudra is in the form of Sun:

“Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah |” (This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra) – (YajurVeda 4:5:1.7)

“Asau yoavasarpati nilagrivo vilohitah |” (The black-throated Rudra who has assumed the form of the sun that glows red when rising) – (YajurVeda 4:5:1.8)

Rudra is the three dawns (Trikala Sandhya):

“trikagni kalaya |” (God who is the Sandhya time when the three sacred fires are lit [Trikala Sandhya]) – (YajurVeda 4:5:2.0)

Rudra is in the form of all the kinds of thieves and Cheats:

“stenanam pataye namo |” (Salutations to Rudra who exists as the Leader of the thieves) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.2)

“thaskaraanam pathaye namo |” (Lord of those smugglers and dacoits who thieve openly, salutations) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.3)

“Vanchathe pari vanchathe sthayoonam pathaye namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who cheats, To him who is the greatest cheat, And to him who is leader of those who steal by cheating) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.1.4)

Rudra is in the form of all those who sit, sleep, lie down, who are awake, who stands, who runs:

“Aaseenebhya sayanebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who sits, And to him who lies down) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.5)

“Swapadbhyo jagardbhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who sleeps, And to him who is awake) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.6)

“Sthishtathbyo dhavadbyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who stands still, And to him who runs) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.7)

Rudra is the audience (sabha) as well as the speaker (sabhapati):

“Sababhya sabha pathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is one among the audience, And to him who presides over the audience.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.8)

Rudra is the horse as well as the rider also:

“Aswebhyo aswapathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the horse, And to him who is the rider of the horse.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:3.2.9)

Rudra is even present in the form of evil spirits:

“Nama avyadheeneebhyo vividhayantheebyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the evil spirits that surround and torment, And to him who is the evil spirits that attack and kill.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.1)

Rudra is in the form of all superior female goddesses and also fierce goddesses. (Means Rudra is Saraswati, Lakshmi, Parvati and he is only Kali, Bhairavi, Durga, Chamunda etc. also):

“Uganabhysthrum hathobyhascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations to you who are in the form of the superior female Gods and the fierce vengeful and powerful Goddesses.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.2)

Rudra is even in those forms who are attached and possessive:

“Gruthsebhyo gruthsa pathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is attached and greedy, And to him who is the chief of those who are attached.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.3)

Rudra is in the form of ascetics and their leader also:

“Vrathebhyo Vrathapathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the assembly of different types of ascetics and people, And to him who is the chief of such assemblies.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.4)

Rudra is the member of a clan and also its chief:

“Ganebhyo ganapathibyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the member of a clan, And to him who is the chief of a clan.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.5)

Rudra is in all the great men and also in the fallen souls:

“Mahadbhya kshullakebyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a great souls, And to him who is a small being.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.7)

All those who have vehicles, and those who do not have – Rudra exists in all of them equally:

“Radhibhyo aradhebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who rides a chariot, And to him who does not have a chariot.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.1.8)

Rudra himself is in the form of chariot (vehicles) and also in the form of the driver too:

“Radhebhya radha pathibhyscha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a chariot, And to him who is the leader of the chariot.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.1)

Rudra is in the form of a foot soldier as well as the commander or leader of the armies:

“Senabhya Senanibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the soldier, And to him who is the leader of the armies.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.2)

Rudra dwells is in the carpenters who do wood works:

“Sthakshabhyo rathakarebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a carpenter, And to him who makes chariots.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.4)

Rudra remains in the form of a potter and a blacksmit also:

“Kulalebhya kamaribhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the potter, And to him who is the black smith.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.5)

Rudra remains in the forms of a bird hunter as well as a fisherman:

“Punchishtebhyo nishadebhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is the hunter of birds who uses nets, And to him who is the fisherman.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.6)

Rudra remains in the form of animal hunter and also in the form of Chandala:

“Mrugayubhya swanibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who hunts animals, And to him who drags dogs using a rope.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.8)

Rudra is even in the form of dogs and the owner of the dogs:

“Swabhya swapathibhyascha vo namo nama |” (Salutations and salutations, To him who is a dog,
And to him who protects the dogs.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:4.2.9)

Rudra is in all the forms of water bodies:

“Nama seegriyaya cha seebhyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in fast streams and to him who is in great waters.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:5.2.3)

“Nama oormyaya cha aswanyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in fast tides and to him who is in still water.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:5.2.4)

“Nama stotrothasyaya cha dweepyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in rivulets and to him who is in islands.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:5.2.5)

Rudra is all those born on earth and all those born in other worlds (gods, sadhyas, pitris, demons etc. everything):

“Namo sobhyaya cha parthi saryaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is born in earth and to him who is born in other worlds.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.5)

Rudra is the Yama and Indra too:

“Namo yaamyaya cha kshemyaya cha |” (Salutations to him to him who punishes in hell and to him who grants favours in heaven.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.6)

Rudra is in the fields and in the gardens:

“Namo oorvarya cha khalyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the fields and who is in gardens.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.7)

Rudra is in the Vedas and in the Vedanta (Upanishads):

“Namo shlokyaa cha vasanyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is praised in the Vedas and to him who is praised at the end of Vedas.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.8)

Rudra is in forests, trees, and plants:

“Namo vanyaya cha kakshyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who exists as tree in forest and to him who exists as plants in bushes.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.9)

Rudra is the sound and Rudra is the Echo:

“Namo sravaya cha prathisravaaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is of the form of sound and to him who is in the form of echo.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.1.10)

Rudra is the cavalries and troops:

“Nama aasushenaaya cha asuradhaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is the fast moving troops and to him who is the fast moving cavalry.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.2.1)

Rudra is in the form of all heroes and knights:

“Nama sooraya cha avabindhathe cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of heroes and to him who is in the form of knights.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:6.2.2)

Rudra is the drum as well as the drumstick:

“Namo dunthubhyaya cha hananyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is kettle drum and to him who is the drumstick.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.1)

Rudra is the messenger as well as the servant too:

“Namo dhootaaya cha prahitaaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is the messenger and who is the servant.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.3)

Rudra is the footpaths and highways also:

“Nama shruthyaya cha pathyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in narrow footpaths and to him who is in wide highway-roads.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.1.7)

Rudra is in the clouds and lightenings also:

“Namo meghyaya cha vidhuyutyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the clouds and who is also in lightning.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.3)

Rudra is the autumn sky rain and sun:

“Namo idhreeyaya cha aathapthaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of clear sky of autumn and to him who is in the form of rain and sun.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.4)

Rudra is the wet storms and dry storms:

“Namo vaathyaya cha reshmiyaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in the form of rainy storm and to him who is in the form of dry hoarse wind.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.5)

Rudra is in the materials of the house and also the Vastu Devata:

“Namo vasthavyaya cha vaasthupaya cha |” (Salutations to him who is in materials of the house and to him who is the vaasthu purusha guarding the house.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:7.2.6)

Rudra is the source of pleasures and Salvation:

“Nama sambhave mayo bhave cha |” (Salutations to him who is the source of pleasures of this world and to him who is the source of salvation.) – (YajurVeda 4:5:8.1.9)

And many more…! Entire Rudram has such wonderful revalations about Mahadeva!

It is impossible even for the very Gods and greatest sages to describe about Lord Shiva totally. That’s the reason Veda-Vyasa himself mentioned the below note about Mahadeva to Arjuna in Mahabharata.

“īdṛśaḥ sa mahādevo bhūyaś ca bhagavān ajaḥ |
na hi sarve mayā śakyā vaktuṃ bhagavato guṇāḥ |” (Mahabharata 7:173:70)
“Whatever is highly mysterious in the several branches of the Vedas, in the Upanishads, in the Puranas, and in those sciences that deal with the soul, is that God, viz., Maheswara, Mahadeva is even such. That God is, again, without birth. All the attributes of that God are not capable of being enumerated by me even if, O son of Pandu, I were to recite them continually for a thousand years”.

When Vyasa himself expressed his inability to narrate the attributes of Maheshwara even if he were to recite for thousand years; then how can I be able to narrate Mahadeva’s qualities? Mahadeva is infinite, and only blessed and fortunate souls understand his supreme nature. Others who are deluded by Shiva’s Maya, such men of poor intellect call himas ‘Demi-God’.

Conclusion: – From the above analysis it should be clear even to a child that there is nothing except Lord Rudra. So, as per the Bhagwad Gita verses (BG. 6:30) and (BG. 6:31), the person who sees the presence of Rudra in everything and everything as a manifestation of Rudra, verily dwells in Rudra only and gets emancipated from the cycle of births and deaths. These Bhagwad Gita verses which are spoken in ‘direct speech’ are a strong proof to believe that these Bhagwad Gita verses are spoken by Lord Shiva through the mouth of Krishna. So, here again it is proved beyond doubt that Bhagwad Gita was spoken by Shiva and Krishna was just a messenger of Lord Mahadeva.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.4)

bhumir apo ’nalo vayuh kham mano buddhir eva ca
ahankara itiyam me bhinna prakritir astadha | (BG. 7.4)
“Earth, water, fire, air, ether, thought (Manas) and reason (Buddhi), egoism (Ahamkara),–thus hath my nature (Prakriti) been divided eight-fold”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse of Bhagwad Gita is again a direct hit at the bull’s eye. Yes, this is again a direct glorification of Lord Shiva’s qualities. The eightfold division of ‘His’ Prakriti is nothing but the ASHTA-MURTY form of Lord Shiva only. And again it becomes so clear to us that this verse is a proof that Lord Shiva was the speaker of Bhagwad Gita and Krishna was just an instrument or communicator only. How can I be so confident? Let me show the evidences from Vedas now.

As per Vedas, before creation, only Lord Shiva existed in his Jwala-Linga form which is the supreme consciousness viz. Brahman or Purusha (Atman). From that Atman (Agni-Linga form) seven sparks sprang forth (which are nothing but the Pranas and in normal terms we call it as the primal germ or seed). That seed (seven rays), united and became the golden-embryo called Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha) which is nothing but the visible shining universe consisting of space and time. After creating that universe (Hiranyagarbha) lord Shiva entered and appeared inside that Universe as a small infant (kumara). That means the Bhagwan Shiva who is transcends the coordinates of space and time, appeared inside the universe which consists of space-time coordinates. That small infant (Shiva), assumed eight names viz. Rudra, Sarva, Ugra, Bhava, Asani, Pasupati, Mahadeva, Isana and with each name he manifested one element of Prakriti viz. Agni (Fire), Water, Air, Sky (cloud), Indra (Ahamkara), Pasupati (Earth and vegetation), Mahadeva (Moon), and Isana (Sun).

These eight names and corresponding eight forms are called as ‘Ashtamurti‘forms of Lord Shiva. With these eightfold framework only this universe is sustained and becomes the blueprint for further creation. Every creature born within the universe comprises of Pancha-Bhutas (five elements), mind (moon), intellect (sun) and Ego (Indra). Without these eightfold elemental framework further creation could never happen. And the all auspicious and graceful Bhagawan Shiva manifested into these eight forms that we know today as deities and helped Brahma (Prajapati) in continuing his task of creation further.

With this introduction let’s proceed ahead and see the evidences from Vedas directly.

After Prajapati (the visible universe) was created, he had Ushas as his mistress and creatures were the seasons. Where Prajapati was the Year, creatures are seasons which mean gradual development cycle of creation with respect to yearly cycle time and Ushas was called as Dawn which is nothing but space. So, there Prajapati (Year) and Creatures (seasons) laid their seed into the womb of Ushas (Space). This is just symbolic or poetic narration but the actual menaing is to convey the message that in a year’s time gradually there happened development as like as seasons come and go on time and within the coordinates of space (Ushas), in a Year’s time (Prajapati) Lord Shiva appeared inside the universe (prajapati) as a newborn infant (kumara).

“tadyāni tāni bhūtāni | ṛtavaste ‘tha yaḥ sa bhūtānām patiḥ saṃvatsaraḥ so ‘tha yā soṣāḥ
patnyauṣasī sā tānīmāni bhūtāni ca bhūtānāṃ ca patiḥ saṃvatsara uṣasi reto ‘siñcantsa
saṃvatsare kumāro ‘jāyata |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:8)
“Now, those beings are the seasons; and that lord of beings (prajapati) is the year; and that Ushas, the mistress, is the Dawn. And these same creatures, as well as the lord of beings, the year, laid seed into Ushas. There a boy (kumâra) was born in a year.”

Then this newborn infant Shiva was given eight names and with every name he manifested a form from himself.

Agni became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīdrudro ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodagnistadrūpamabhavadagniva rudro
yadarodīttasmādrudraḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:10)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Rudra.’ And because he gave him that name, Agni became suchlike (or, that form), for Rudra is Agni: because he cried (rud) therefore he is Rudra. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Waters became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravītsarvo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodāpastadrūpamabhavannāpo vai sarvo
‘dbhyo hīdaṃ sarvaṃ jāyate so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:11)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Sarva.’ And because he gave him that name, the waters became suchlike, for Sarva is the waters, inasmuch as from the water everything (sarva) here is produced. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Vayu (Air) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīdugro ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodvāyustadrūpambhavadvāyurvā
ugrastasmādyadā balavadvāyugro vātotyāhuḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me
nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:13)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Ugra.’ And because he gave him that name, Vâyu (the wind) became suchlike, for Ugra is Vâyu: hence when it blows strongly, they say ‘Ugra is blowing.’ He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Parjanya (the cloud which represents Sky) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīdbhavo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarotparjanyastadrūpamabhavatparjanyo
vai bhavaḥ parjanyāddhīdaṃ sarvam bhavati so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me
nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:15)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Bhava.’ And because he gave him that name, ‘Parganya’ became suchlike; for Bhava is Parganya, since everything here comes (bhavati) from the cloud (read ‘Sky’). He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Asani (Lightening which represents Indra who represents Ego) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīdaśanirasīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodvidyuttadrūpamabhavadvidyudvā
aśanistasmādyaṃ vidyuddhantyaśanirabadhīdityāhuḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi
dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:14)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Asani.’ And because he gave him that name, the lightning became suchlike, for Asani is the lightning: hence they say of him whom the lightning strikes, ‘Asani has smitten him.’ He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Note that here Asani means ‘lightening’ but it actually means Indra. Here in Shatapatha Brahmana it is not eplicit but the inner meaning is the same. In kaushitaki Brahmana (6:3:41) it is clearly mentioned that Asani is Indra. Vedas are not as literal as they sound sometimes, and hence we need to understand the implied meaning in such circumstances.

Plants (represents Earth) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravītpaśupatirasīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodoṣadhayastadrūpamabhavannoṣadhayo vai paśupatistasmādyadā paśava oṣadhīrlabhante ‘tha patīyanti so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me
nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:12)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Pasupati.’ And because he gave him that name, the plants became suchlike, for Pasupati is the plants: hence when cattle (pasu) get plants, then they play the master (patîy). He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Moon (manas or Mind) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīnmahāndevo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākaroccandramāstadrūpamabhavatprajāpatirvai candramāḥ prajāpatirvai mahāndevaḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:16)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Mahân Devah (the Great God).’ And because he gave him that name, the moon became suchlike, for the moon is Pragâpati, and Pragâpati is the Great God. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

Sun (Intellect) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīdīśāno ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodādityastadrūpamabhavadādityo vā
īśāna ādityo hyasya sarvasyeṣṭe so ‘bravīdetāvānvā asmi mā metaḥ paro nāma dhā iti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Îsâna (the Ruler).’ And because he gave him that name, the Sun (Aditya) became suchlike, for Îsâna is the Sun, since the Sun rules over this All. He said, ‘So great indeed I am: give me no other name after that!’”

These are the eightfold form (Ashtamurty) of Lord Shiva who is the primordial Agni (Jwala-Linga called Skhambha). And the Kumara is Lord Shiva himself. After assuming these eight names, Shiva entered each form and then remained in his eight forms and the Kumara (infant) disappeared.

“tānyetānyaṣṭāvagnirūpāṇi | kumāro navamaḥ saivāgnistrivṛttā |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:18)
“These then are the eight forms of Agni. Kumâra (the boy) is the ninth: that is Agni’s threefold state”.

“’agniriti so ‘yaṃ kumāro rūpāṇyanuprāviśanna vā agniṃ kumāramiva paśyantyetānyevāsya rūpāṇi
paśyantyetāni hi rūpāṇyanuprāviśat |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:19)
“That boy entered into the forms one after another; for one never sees him as a mere boy (kumâra), but one sees those forms of his, for he assumed those forms one after another”.

Later, Prajapati desired to see Agni (Shiva) again as narrated in Shatapatha Brahmana (6:2:1) and one day when all other Gods left prajapati making him alone, only Manyu (Anger) didn’t leave him (implies Prajapati became angry) and from that anger Rudra appears in front of Prajapati in a terrible form having thousand heads, thousand eyes, holding a firm bow, and blazing with anger demanding food. Seeing his terrible form all the other gods tremble with fear and with the suggestion of Prajapati they collect and being food for Rudra which is nothing but the ‘Satarudriya hymn (Namakam Chamakam)’. And all the gods including Prajapati sing that hymn which appeased Rudra and made him calm. This is narrated in Shatapatha Brahmana (9:1:1:6 – 9:1:1:7).

Therefore Lord Shiva’s form is not transient. He is outside the universe also and he is inside the universe also. When he wanted he appeared inside the universe as an infant and manifested other deities (ashtamurty) from him and vanished, and once again advented on his own will in front of Prajapati. Lord Shiva is eternal god who creates other gods and withdraws them to himself at the end of their time.

Let us see some contextual verses from Upanishads also now.

“tadevaagnistadaaditya stadvaayustadu chandramaaH |
tadeva shukra.n tad.h brahma tadaapastat.h prajaapatiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:02)
“That Supreme Self is Agni (Fire); It is Aditya (Sun); It is Vayu (Wind); It is Chandrama (Moon). That Self is the luminous stars; it is Hiranyagarbha; it is water; it is Virat”.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!“

But one thing we should understand is Purusha lays his seed into Prakriti and she creates the universe of gross form. Purusha makes the gross forms alive by entering as the indwelling Atman. So, here even though Shiva manifested as Asthamurty forms all those forms are made up of ‘Pradhana’ which is a lower form of Mula-Prakriti. And Purusha (Shiva) gave them life by entering into them.
This Soma (Sa+Uma=Shiva) lays his germ (seed) upon his consort Aditi (Uma the Mula-Prakriti) and she produces this world. Means she brings the existence into picture. Therefore she is the mother of universe.

“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe ” (RV 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the lap (womb) of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.

And then inside that golden womb (Hiranyagarbha) which is the visible universe, Rudra manifests himself as all the creatures and Gods with the help of his Prakriti.

“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |” (Atharva veda 10:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”

Mother of the creation is Aditi (Gauri), and Shiva is the indwelling Atman which makes the creation alive. Vedas say that Gauri (Uma) has become all this creation.

“gaurīrmimāya salilāni takṣatyekapadī dvipadī sā catuṣpadī
aṣṭāpadī navapadī babhūvuṣī sahasrākṣarā parame vyoman ” (RV 1.164.41)
“Forming the water-floods, the buffalo (cow) hath lowed, one-footed or two-footed or four-footed, she, Gauri, Who hath become eight-footed or hath got nine feet, the thousand-syllabled in the sublimest heaven.

“tasyāḥ samudrā adhi vi kṣaranti tena jīvanti pradiśaścatasraḥ
tataḥ kṣaratyakṣaraṃ tad viśvamupa jīvati ” (RV 1.164.42)
“From her (Gauri) descend in streams the seas of water; thereby the world’s four regions have their being, Thence flows the imperishable flood and thence the universe hath life”.

And Vedas call Shiva as the father of the entire creation.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

And Shiva & Uma are one and the same being Ardhanareeshwara. That is the reason why Vedas also do not see any difference between the couple. Hence we have the following verse also which states that Aditi (Uma) is all this creation as a father and as a mother too.

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ
viśve devā aditiḥ pañca janā aditirjātamaditirjanitvam ” (RV 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born”

Therefore from the above narration from Vedas it is crystal clear that it is lord Shiva only who divides his Prakriti into eight fold forms and enters into them as the inwelling Atman making them functional (alive).

Conclusion: – With respect to the above analysis and evidences from Vedas it should be clear by now that the Bhagawad Gita verse (BG. 7.4) talks about Lord Shiva’s ashtamurty forms only and the speaker is none other than Lord Shiva who was delivering his lecture through the messenger called Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.5), (BG. 7.6)

apareyam itas tv anyam prakritim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho yayedam dharyate jagat | (BG. 7.5)
“This is a lower (form of my) nature. Different from this, know there is a higher (form of my) nature which is animate, O thou of mighty arms, and by which this universe is held”.
etad-yonini bhutani sarvanity upadharaya
aham krtsnasya jagatah prabhavah pralayas tatha | (BG. 7.6)
“Know that all creatures have these for their source. I am the source of evolution and also of the dissolution of the entire universe”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Pre-requisite of this analysis is the analysis of Bhagwad Gita Verse (7.4). These BG verses are continuation of the previous one (BG. 7.4) hence one needs to read the previous analysis and then proceed with this sction. Assuming that the reader would have gone through the previous section, let me proceed with the current section.

In the Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.5) two types of Prakriti are being discussed. This again is an evidence that this verse talks about Lord Shiva only and the speaker is also lord Shiva. Let’s analyze now.

Prakriti is of two types, one lower order prakriti called ‘pradhana’ which becomes the material world and hence is not eternal, and there is another Prakriti the highest one, which is supreme potency of Maheshwara and is one with him.

Regarding the lower form of Shiva’s prakriti Svetaswatara Upanishad clearly states the following fact.

“xaraM pradhaanamamR^itaaxara.n haraH xaraatmaanaaviishate deva ekaH |
tasyaabhidhyaanaadyojanaattattva bhaavaat.h bhuuyashchaante vishvamaayaanivR^ittiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:10)
“Pradhana (lower order Prakriti) is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable. The non-dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti (pradhana) and the individual soul. Through constant meditation on Him, by union with Him, by the knowledge of identity with Him, one attains, in the end, cessation of the illusion of phenomena”.

The supreme and indestructible Prakriti of Lord Shiva is Goddess “Maha Tripura Sundari”. She is one but she is also threefold as Red (Rajasic), White (Satwik) and Black (Tamasic) where Red is Mahalakshmi, White is Mahasaraswati and Black is Mahakali. There three are the aspects (Qualities) of Maha Tripurasundari, but indeed she is one. The one non-dual Prakriti is also called goddess Lalita and the same Tripurasundari has a form which has four hands holding flower-arrows, sugarcane bow, nosse and goad. She the Tripurasudnari Devi (Lalita) in order to kill demon Mahishasura assumed the form of eighteen hands – Ashtadasa Bhuja MahaLakshmi (the red goddess) and killed him. She in order to kill Shumbha and Nishumbha assumed the form of eighteen hands – Ashtadasa Bhuja MahaSaraswati (the white goddess) and killed them. Again she only helped lord Vishnu by assuming a form of eighteen hands – Ashtadasa Bhuja MahaKali (the black goddess) and helped Vishnu in killing the demons Madhu and Kaithabha. But in fact these three forms have no difference and they are collectively called as DURGA in all Hinduism texts. Only Devi-Bhagawatam and Devi Saptashati texts narrate the story of Durga in three separate forms of Red, White and Black goddesses. But that is just to praise Tripurasundari Devi (Durga) in her three attributes of Satwa, Rajas and Tamas which she used to kill the correspondingly matching demoniac forces. Therefore Durga is one and only one. She is called tripurasundari in her soft natured form where she appears with four hands and she becomes Durga with eighteen hands in her fearsome form, but essentially there is zero difference in any of the forms of goddess Uma who is the Tripura Sundari Lalita Devi. She is one and she is diverse, she is Matrikas, Maha Vidyas and many many more.

It is to be noted here that due to insufficient knowledge on scriptures few people have started considering that Red goddess Mahalakshmi as goddess Lakshmi (the wife of Vishnu) and I have even seen them spreading lies saying Mahishasura was killed by Vishnu’s wife Lakshmi whom they called as Durga. But that’s totally a reflection of their poor understanding of scriptures. Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Mahalakshmi are totally two different goddesses where Lakshmi is Vishnu’s consort and Mahalakshmi is Lord Shiva’s consort Tripurasundari. They look similar only in names but Mahalakshmi has three eyes, wears a crescent moon on her matted locks, and holds diverse weapons of war in her eighteen hands and rides on a Lion; whereas Lakshmi is lotus seated has four hands, looks soft and pleasant natured, has two eyes, and is associated with the softer aspects of divinity. Lakshmi is a manifestation of the supreme Tripurasundari Devi only but she can’t be equaled with her super senior viz. Mahalakshmi (Tripurasundari). Also, another confusing term I would like to clarify here to the readers. The goddess Lakshmi is called as “Sri”. But Actual “Sri” is Goddess Tripurasundari Devi (Lalita), as is evident from (Bahvricha Upanishad 8) which we’ll see below. Hence in the Sri-Vidya tradition the names “Shodasi”, “Sri Mata” and “Sri Devi” refer to Lalita Tripurasundari Devi and not to Lakshmi Devi. But since Lakshmi is a manifestation of Tripurasundari only from her potency of “Sriyam (prosperity)” she inherited the name as “Sri”.

We’ll see evidences of this supreme Prakriti of Lord Shiva now. Regarding the Supreme and indestructible Prakriti Svetaswatara Upanishad states the following fact.

“ajaamekaa.n lohitashuklakR^ishhNaaM bahviiH prajaaH sR^ijamaanaa.n saruupaaH |
ajo hyeko jushhamaaNo.anushete jahaatyenaa.n bhuktabhogaamajo.anyaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:05)
“There is one unborn being (female), red, white, and black, uniform, but producing manifold offspring. There is one unborn being (male) who loves her and lies by her (Jiva); there is another (Eswara) who leaves her, while she is eating what has to be eaten”.

“athaasya yaa sahajaastyavidyaa muulaprakR^itirmaayaa lohitashuklakR^ishhNaa |
tayaa sahaayavaan devaH kR^ishhNapi~Ngalo mameshvara iishhTe |” (Shandilya Upanishad 3:01)
“Maheshvara (the great Lord) who is black and yellow rules with Avidya, Mula-Prakriti or Maya that is red, white and black and that is co-existent with him”.

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:10)
“Know, then, that prakriti is maya and that Maheshwara is the Lord of maya. The whole universe is filled with objects which are parts of His being”.

“GYaaGYau dvaavajaaviishaniishaavajaa hyekaa bhoktR^ibhogyaarthayuktaa |
anantashchaatmaa vishvaruupo hyakartaa traya.n yadaa vindate brahmametat.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:09)
“The Supreme Lord appears as Isvara, omniscient and omnipotent; and as the jiva, of limited knowledge and power; both unborn. But this does not deny the phenomenal universe; for there exists further the unborn prakriti, which creates the ideas of the enjoyer, enjoyment and the object. Atman is infinite and all—pervading and therefore devoid of agency. When the seeker knows all these three to be Brahman, he is freed from his fetters”.

Let’s study further from other Upanishads about this Supreme Prakriti who is Red, White and Black but is still only one and is the power of Lord Shiva. There is no difference between Tripurasudnari and Shiva since they are one being Ardhanareeshwara. So, that’s why the following verses from Bahvricha Upanishad of Rig Veda we can see the same supreme nature of Prakriti (Uma) as we know of Lord Shiva.

“devI hyekAgra evAsIt.h | saiva jagadaNDamasR^ijat.h |
kAmakaleti vij~nAyate | shrR^i.ngArakaleti vij~nAyate |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 1)
“The Goddess was indeed one in the beginning. Alone she emitted the world-egg. (She) is known as Love’s Part (IM). (She) is known as the half-syllabic instant after OM”.

“tasyA eva brahmA ajIjanat.h | viShNurajIjanat.h |
rudro.ajIjanat.h | sarve marud.hgaNA ajIjanat.h |
gandharvApsarasaH kinnarA vAditravAdinaH samantAdajIjanat.h |
bhogyamajIjanat.h| sarvamajIjanat.h | sarvaM shAktamajIjanat.h |
aNDajaM svedajamudbhijjaM jarAyujam.h yatkiMchaitat.h prANi
sthAvaraja.ngamaM manuShyamajIjanat.h |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 2)
“Of Her was Brahma born; was Vishnu born; was Rudra (the destroyer deity) born. All wind-gods were born, celestial minstrels, nymphs, semi-human beings playing on instruments, were born (of Her), all around. What is enjoyed was born; everything was born (of Her). Everything of Power was born (of Her). The egg-born, the sweat-born, the seed-born, the womb-born, whatever breathes here, the stationary as well as the moving, and man were born (of Her).

“saiShA parA shaktiH | saiShA shAMbhavIvidyA
kAdividyeti vA hAdividyeti vA sAdividyeti vA |
rahasyamomoM vAchi pratiShThA |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 3)
“She, here, is the Power supreme. She, here, is the science of Sambhu, either as the science beginning with ka, or as the science beginning with ha, or as the science beginning with sa. This is the secret Om grounded in the word Om”.

“saiva puratrayaM sharIratrayaM vyApya bahirantaravabhAsayantI
deshakAlavastvantarasa.ngAnmahAtripurasundarI vai pratyak.hchitiH |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 4)
“Pervading the three cities, the three bodies, illuminating within and without, She, the Consciousness within, becomes the Maha-Tripura-Sundari, being associated with space, time and objects”.

“saivAtmA tato.anyamasatyamanAtmA | ata eShA
brahmAsaMvittirbhAvabhAvakalAvinirmuktA
chidvidyA.advitIyabrahmasaMvittiH sacchidAnandalaharI
mahAtripurasundarI bahirantaranupravishya svayamekaiva vibhAti |
yadasti sanmAtram.h | yadvibhAti chinmAtram.h |
yatpriyamAnandaM tadetat.h pUrvAkArA mahAtripurasundarI |
tvaM chAhaM cha sarvaM vishvaM sarvadevatA itarat.h
sarvaM mahAtripurasundarI | satyamekaM lalitAkhyaM vastu
tadadvitIyamakhaNDArthaM paraM brahma |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 5)
“She alone is Atman. Other than Her is untruth, non-self. Hence is She Brahman-Consciousness, free from (even) a tinge of being and non-being. She is the Science of Consciousness, non-dual Brahman Consciousness, a wave of Being-Consciousness-Bliss. The Beauty of the three-great-cities, penetrating without and within, is resplendent, non-dual, self-subsisting. What is, is pure Being; what shines is pure Consciousness; what is dear is Bliss. So here is the Maha-Tripura-Sundari who assumes all forms. You and I and the entire world and all divinities and all besides are the Maha-Tripura-Sundari. The sole Truth is the thing named ‘the Beautiful’. It is the non-dual, integral, supreme Brahman”.

“yo.ahamasmIti vA sohamasmIti vA yo.asau so.ahamasmIti vA
yA bhAvyate saiShA ShoDashI shrIvidyA pa~nchadashAkSharI
shrImahAtripurasundarI bAlAMbiketi bagaleti vA mAta.ngIti
svayaMvarakalyANIti bhuvaneshvarIti chAmuNDeti chaNDeti
vArAhIti tiraskariNIti rAjamAta.ngIti vA shukashyAmaleti vA
laghushyAmaleti vA ashvArUDheti vA pratya.ngirA dhUmAvatI
sAvitrI gAyatrI sarasvatI brahmAnandakaleti |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 8)
“She who is contemplated as ‘That which I am’ or ‘I am He’ or ‘What He is that I am’, is the Sodasi, the Science of Sri, the fifteen-syllabled (science), the sacred Maha-Tripura-Sundari, the Virgin, the Mother, Bagala, the Matangi, the auspicious one who chooses her own Partner, the Mistress of the world, Chamunda, Chanda, the Power of the Boar, She who veils, the royal Matangi, dark like a parrot, light dark, mounted on a horse; opposed to Angiras; smoke-bannered; Power of Savitur, Sarasvati, Gayatri, part of Brahmic bliss”.

We have seen enough verses describing the Unborn and Indestructible Prakriti of Lord Shiva. Now the next task is to analyze Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.6) where we need to find out who is the one God as per Shruti who is the one source of evolution and dissolution of the universe.

Here also Shruti recognizes only lord Shiva as the one non-dual origin and end of all the creation.

“eko hi rudro na dvitiiyaaya tasthurya imaa.nllokaaniishata iishaniibhiH |
pratyaN^ janaastishhThati saJNchukochaantakaale sa.nsR^ijya vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:02)
“Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.

“Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha|” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-5)
“Salutations to Him who is the source of all things (Bhava) and to Him who is the destroyer of all ills (Rudra). Salutations to the destroyer of everything at the end of the time (Sharva) and to the protector of all beings in bondage (pasupati)”.

Conclusion: – From the above analysis it should be clear by now that lord Shiva’s Prakriti is of two types viz. lower (pradhana) which is destructible and higher (Tripurasundari) who is indestructible supreme female being. And it is lord Shiva only who is recognized by Vedas as the source of origin of all and dissolution of everything. Therefore Bhagwad Gita verses (BG. 7.5), and (BG. 7.6) are the glories of Bhagwan Shiva and her Prakriti (Uma) only. And hence it becomes clear that these Bhagwad Gita verses are spoken by Lord Shiva himself through the mouth of Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.7)

mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya
mayi sarvam idam protam sutre mani-gana iva | (BG. 7.7)
“There is nothing else, O Dhananjaya, that is higher than myself. Upon me is all this like a row of pearls on a string”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

The words “Myself”, “Self”, “Me” etc. actually denote the ‘self’ (Atman), and as per Vedaanta the self (Atman) is always the supreme. Atman itself is the highest, it is the Brahman, and it is the Purusha. And in the very initial section of this article while analyzing verses BG. 2.16, BG. 2.17, and BG.2.18, we have clearly seen that the self (Atman) which is the supreme Brahman is none other than Lord Shiva. We have already analyzed this with respect to Atman (self) in sections BG.2.16-1.18. So, by that analysis if we go, then already it has been proved that the self (Atman) which is Brahman is nothing but Shiva only.

But let’s here analyze this current verse in a different way. Let’s see what Vedas and Upanishads have to say about this claim of superiority.

Rudra is the highest Brahman of Vedas beyond whom nothing exists.

“yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
“He who is Rudra, he alone is Bhagawan. He is the Supreme Light and we salute him again and again”.

“yasminnida.n sarvamotaprota.n tasmAdanyanna para.n ki~nchanAsti |
na tasmAtpUrva.n na para.n tadasti na bhUta.n nota bhavya.n yadAsIt.h |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 5:05)
“There is none greater than him (Rudra), on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. Over ages, nothing so far in the past was ever greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him in future”.

The above verses are sufficiently straight forward to explain that Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.7) is spoken by Lord Shiva only and it’s a glorification of his own attributes. But in order to make this fact established firmly in our minds, let’s study some more evidences from Shriuti.

It is only Lord Shiva who transcends everything and is the highest Brahman. There is nothing superior to Shiva. We have the following verse from Yajurveda which also testifies this.

“yo vedaadau svaraH prokto vedaante cha pratishhThitaH
tasya prakR^itiliinasya yaH paraH sa maheshvaraH ” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.12.3.17)
“It is Lord Maheshwara who transcends the syllable Om which is uttered at the commencement of the recital of the Vedas, which is well established in the Upanishads and which is dissolved in the primal cause during contemplation”.

The above verse states that Lord Shiva is beyond the Omkara that is recited before studying Vedas and also is beyond the knowledge of Upanishads. This itsel;f is enough to understand that there is nothing beyond lord Shiva.

But the above verse from Yajurveda is not as easy in meaning as it looks like, so I would like to elaborate its real meaning here. Yajurveda in the Sri Rudram (Anuvaka 8) portion states about Lord Shiva as, “namastaraya cha”, which means, Salutations to Lord Rudra who is the Pranava Mantra – OM. And same Yajurveda’s Taittiriya Aranyaka quoted above states that Maheshwara transcends Omkara. Do these two verses contradict? Definitely not! Omkara has two aspects, it is ‘nAda-brahma’ when it is seen in its ‘Ahata’ aspect; and when it is realized in its ‘anAhata’ aspect it is one with the Brahman. Sound has two forms, ‘Ahata (which is audible)’ and ‘anAhata (which transcends the attribute of sound)’. Omkara in Ahata form when culminates in silence it becomes Omkara in Anahata. Silence is Brahman. Chanting (Japa) in silence mode (Anahata) is termed, “Ajapa”. This concept of Ajapa and Anahata is explained in Yoga Chudamani Upanishad also. When Rudra imparts the Taraka Mantram (OM) in the ears of dying people in Varanasi, he spells the Ahata-Omkara in the ears of the people, and merges them within himself (which is Moksham). This means, the Ahata-nAdam of Omkara takes one towards the anAhata-nAdam which is Omkara in silence which is identical to Brahman and has nothing superior than that stage. Even the great sages began their spiritual life by chanting omkara with sound, and studied scriptures and Vedas, and at a later stage of higher spiritual enlightenment they remained silent and used to chant Omkara within their mind, that chanting doesn’t emit any sound since that is Omkara in silence (anAhata). And that way only one goes close towards Brahman-realization. So, there is no contradiction in the two verses of Yajurveda. Lord Rudra is the highest Brahman as the anAhata-Omkara (Omkara in silence) and from him only the shabda-brahman (Ahata Omkara) was produced which he imparts to the dying men in Kashi and takes them within himself. So, Lord Shiva is the Omkara (as the Shabda-Brahman) but again he transcends Omkara (as the Shuddha-Brahman). He is the one without a second.

This concept of omkara in silence being Brahman has been explaind in the below verse in simple words.

“kaa.nsyaghaNTaaninaadastu yathaa liiyati shaantaye |
o~Nkaarastu tathaa yojyaH shaantaye sarvamichchhataa | (Brahmavidya Upanishad 12)
yasminviliiyate shabdastatparaM brahma giiyate |
dhiya.n hi liiyate brahma so.amR^itatvaaya kalpate |” (Brahmavidya Upanishad 13)
“And just as the sound of a metal utensil – or of a gong dies in silence – so he, who seeks the All lets the OM sound fade away in silence. For that wherein the sound fades away is the Brahman, the higher. Yea, the whole sound is Brahman and conduces to immortality”.


Let’s see few more proofs of Lord Shiva’s supremacy from Vedas.

Tattiriya Aranyaka states clearly that Lord Shiva (Ardhanareeshwara) is the param-brahman, purusha, truth, and righteousness.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness (rita) and Truth (satyam), is the androgynous purusha the Umamaheshvara (or Ardhanareeshwara), dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste (having semen rised up) and possessing uneven eyes (three eyed) . Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe, or whose form is the universe”.

Lord Shiva is the supreme Purusha stated in Vedas. There is nothing beyond Purusha since Purusha (Rudra) is the Para-Brahman.

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“praaNaH prasuutirbhuvanasya yonirvyaapta.n tvayaa ekapadena vishvam.h |
tva.n vishvabhuuryonipaaraH svagarbhe kumaara eko vishikhaH sudhanvaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3)
Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art the Principle of life; Thou the manifestation (the manifested world); Thou the source of the world; by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world. Thou art the world’s birth, the cause, the life supreme, and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow”.

Note the above verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly states that from Lord Rudra’s one quarter only this entire creation emerged. This is the same thing stated in Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda about Bhagwan Rudra as follows.

“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ | tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi |” (Rig Veda 10:90:4)
“Three quarters of his are beyond all this; all of this creation is but from one quarter of him. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not appeared from this one quarter of His.”

Same has been stated about Bhagawan Rudra’s infinite Agni-Linga as follows.

“yátra skambháḥ prajanáyan purāṇáṃ vyávartayat | ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásya purāṇám anusáṃviduḥ |” (Atharva Veda 10:7:26)
“Where Skambha (Agni-Linga) generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha (Linga) as the Ancient World.”

From above verses it should be clear by now that Purusha of Vedas is Rudra, hence Rudra is the Brahman above whom there is nothing superior. Let’s now see some verses supporting Rudra’s supremacy in direct words.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidyasmaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyekastenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:09)
“The whole universe is filled by the Purusha (Rudra), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing either smaller or greater; who stands alone, motionless as a tree, established in His own glory”.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH | sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is the omnipresent lord Shiva”.

“mahaan.h prabhurvai purushhaH satvasyaishha pravartakaH |
sunirmalaamimaaM praaptimiishaano jyotiravyayaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:12)
“He, indeed, is the great Purusha, the Lord of creation, preservation and destruction, who inspires the mind to attain the state of stainlessness. He is the Ruler and the Light that is imperishable”.

Lord Rudra has no boss above him. He is the only boss of entire creation including all gods and creatures. Other Gods are incapable of ruling over everything with perfection. It’s only Lord Rudra who is capable since he is the highest God and hence he continues to be the ruler forever.

“ya iishe.asya jagato nityameva naanyo heturvidyata iishanaaya |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad. 6:17)
“He rules this world for ever, for no one else is able to rule it”.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH (Svetaswatara. Upanishad. 6:09)
“No one in the world is His master; there is no ruler who has control over him, not even a sign of him exists who rules him. He is the cause of all, and the ruler of individual souls. He has no parent, nor is there any one who is His lord”.

Rudra is the only one god who exists; there is none who is his match. All gods, creatures and entire creation is his own reflection.

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA |” (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

“tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava (primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also the Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things”.

Conclusion: – It is truly clear that Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.7) is spoken by Lord Shiva only through the mouth of Krishna and this is a glorification of Lord Shiva’s attribute of supremacy only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.8)

raso ’ham apsu kaunteya prabhasmi sasi-suryayoh
pranavah sarva-vedesu shabdah khe paurusam nrsu | (BG. 7.8)
“Taste I am in the waters, O son of Kunti, (and) I am the splendour of both the moon and the sun, I am the Om in all the Vedas, the sound in space, and the manliness in men”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Here we need to identify who is the Lord as per Vedas who is present as the essence in waters, as the lustre in sun and moon, and as the OM in Vedas, the sound in space (thunder) and manliness in men. Let’s see the evidences from Vedas.

Vedas recognize only Lord Rudra as anything and everything. From atoms to galaxies, it is only Lord Rudra who exists and pervades. Rudra is indeed everything, and the Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.8) is only a very small subset of Rudra’s infinite properties. Let’s see few verses now.

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations.”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Because Rudra is infinite and his qualities are also infinite, so the above verses describe Rudra’s infinite properties in a generic sense. But in particular also we have certain evidences from Vedas as follows.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

Rudra is the one who created Chandrama (moon) and also he is the one whose lustre shines the moon in waxing and waning fashion. Rudra’s lustre shines the moon with full splendor on the full moon day and he takes away his lustre from the moon on the new moon day and in between these two extremities the splendor of moon keeps waxing and waning. But all these phenomena related to the splendor of moon, the new moon and full moon nights, and the moon itself are Rudra only. Nothing is different from Rudra. This concept has been expressed in symbolic words in Atharva Veda as follows

” tásya vrā́tyasya |” (Atharva Veda 15:15:1)
” saptá prāṇā́ḥ saptā́pānā́ḥ saptá vyānā́ḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15:2)
“Of that Vrātya (Shiva). There are seven vital airs, seven downward breaths, seven diffused breaths”.

“yò ‘sya tr̥tī́yaḥ prāṇò ‘bhyū̀ḍho nā́māsáu sá candrámāḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.5)
“His third vital breath, called Approached, is that Moon (Chandrama)”.

“yò ‘sya prathamò ‘pānáḥ sā́ paurṇamāsī́|” (Atharva Veda 15:16.1)
“His first downward breath is the time of Full Moon”.

“yò ‘sya dvitī́yo ‘pānáḥ sā́ṣṭakā |” (Atharva Veda 15:16.2)
“His second downward breath is the eighth day after Full Moon”.

“yò ‘sya tr̥tī́yo ‘pānáḥ sā́māvāsyā̀|” (Atharva Veda 15:16.3)
“His third downward breath is the night of New Moon”.

Similarly there is another story in Yajurveda where it has been clearly stated that it’s by the grace of Lord Rudra that Sun (Aditya) gained his splendor, the same is depicted below. Soma is the healing aspect of Rudra and Rudra only is the highest physician as per Rig Veda (2:33:4), and Rig Veda (2:33:7).

“asav adityo na vy arocata tasmai devah prayascittim aichan tasma etam
somaraudram carum nir avapan tenaivasmin rucam adadhus |” (Yajurveda 2:2:10)
“Yonder sun did not shine, the gods sought an atonement for him, for him they offered this oblation to Soma and Rudra: verily thereby they bestowed brightness upon him. If he desires to become resplendent, he should offer for him this oblation to Soma and Rudra; verily he has recourse to Soma and Rudra with their own portion; verily they bestow upon him splendour; he becomes resplendent”.

And again, we shouldn’t see any duality between Rudra and Sun also. Nothing is different from Rudra. Even the Sun is a manifestation of Rudra only as shown below.

“yò ‘sya dvitī́yaḥ prāṇáḥ práuḍho nā́māsáu sá ādityáḥ |” (Atharva Veda 15:15.4)
“His (Rudra’s) second vital breath, called Mature, is that Āditya”.

Rudra is the supreme light and he is the only Bhagawan whose splenour illuminates all illuminaries.

“yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
“He who is Rudra, he alone is Bhagawan. He is the Supreme Light and we salute him again and again”.

In any system, be it the cosmos or just a country or any organization; law and order are the most significant things which are indispensable. Where there is no law and order, there one can expect only total chaos. Any organization which functions well, its success is only based on the discipline, law, and order. Same rule holds true for cosmos and gods also. We have seen above how the Sun god stopped shining once and Rudra imparted him luster again. Think what would happen if there is no strictness imposed on these Gods and they take a day-off or go for a big vacation? Surely there will be disturbance in universal functions. So, again it is lord Rudra who remains strict and by his fear makes these gods shiver under his bossism. That’s the reason because of the fear of Bhagwan Rudra everyone in the cosmos functions with discipline. Even Sun shines because of fear of Rudra. Sri Rudram of Yajurveda begins its praise to Rudra by offering salutations to Rudra’s anger.

“yadida.n ki.n cha jagat.h sarvaM praaNa ejati niHsR^itam.h |
mahad.hbhayaM vajramudyataM ya etadviduramR^itaaste bhavanti |” (Katha Upanishad II.3.2)
“All this universe, evolved (from Prana), moves in prana (Rudra); the most frightful like an uplifted thunderbolt. Those who know this become immortal”.

“bhayaadasyaagnistapati bhayaattapati suuryaH |
bhayaadindrashcha vaayushcha mR^ityurdhaavati paJNchamaH |” (Katha Upanishad II.3.3)
“For fear of Him, fire burns; For fear of Him, shines the sun; For fear of Him, Indra and Vayu function; For fear of Him, death, the fifth, stalks on the earth”.

“so.aha.n sarvAkAraH . yato vA imAni bhUtAni jAyante |
yena jAtAni jIvanti . yatprayantyabhisa.nvishanti . taM mAmeva
viditvopAsIta . bhUtebhirdevebhirabhiShTuto.ahameva . bhIShAsmAdvAtaH
pavate . bhIShodeti sUryaH . bhIShAsmAdagnishchendrashcha . somo.ata
eva yo.aha.n sarveShAmadhiShThAtA sarveShA.n cha bhUtAnAM
pAlakaH . so.ahaM pR^ithivI . so.ahamApaH . so.aha.n tejaH . so.aha.n vAyuH |
so.aha.n kAlaH . so.aha.n dishaH . so.ahamAtmA . mayi sarvaM pratiShThitam.h |
brahmavidApnoti param.h . brahmA shivo me astu sadAshivom.h |” (Bhasma Jabala Upanishad)
“I myself am that Great Lord Siva, God of all gods, and the Supreme Controller of all the universes. I am that Brahman, I am Omkara; I am the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of all. Through My terror only, vayu blows, through my terror only Surya shines, through my terror only fire burns, Indra et al also function properly through my terror. I am this world and the five elements. I am the Highest Truth that exists, the Brahman of the Upanishads”.

Further Svetaswatara Upanishad clearly states about Lord Rudra stating that with his splendor only all illuminaries shine as follows.

“na tatra suuryo bhaati na chandrataaraka.n nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kuto.ayamagniH |
tameva bhaantamanubhaati sarva.n tasya bhaasaa sarvamida.n vibhaati | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:14)
“The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less this fire. When he shines, everything shines after him; by his light all this is illuminated”.

It is Bhagawan Rudra who is the Omkara as per Vedas. Yajurveda in the Sri Rudram (Anuvaka 8) portion states about Lord Shiva as, “namastaraya cha”, which means, “Salutations to Lord Rudra who is the Pranava Mantra – OM”.

Rudra is the firmament, lightening strikes (Thunders), earth heaven and everything. The below verses from Vedas confirm the same.

“yò ‘sya dvitī́yo vyānás tád antárikṣam |” (Atharva Veda 15:17.2)
“His second diffused breath is that Firmament”.

Asani (Thunderbold / Lightening in the sky) became such like because of Lord Rudra:

“tamabravīdaśanirasīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodvidyuttadrūpamabhavadvidyudvā
aśanistasmādyaṃ vidyuddhantyaśanirabadhīdityāhuḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi
dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:14)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Asani.’ And because he gave him that name, the lightning became suchlike, for Asani is the lightning: hence they say of him whom the lightning strikes, ‘Asani has smitten him.’ He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’”

And when Rudra himself dwells within all the creatures, and he himself is all the creatures also; there is no question of some other third party becoming the manliness of men. The bodies are inert without Purusha. It is the indwelling Purusha only who illuminates the bodies with consciousness, and hence whatever qualities exists viz. qualities of perception or qualities of mind, or qualities of personality, or physical qualities, genotypic or phenotypic attributes, everything functions because of the indwelling Atman (Purusha). Pourusham (manliness) is one among those many qualities which become alive because of the presence of Purusha. And Purusha who is the Atman is none other than Bhagawan Rudra only.

“eko devaH sarvabhuuteshhu guuDhaH sarvavyaapii sarvabhuutaantaraatmaa |
karmaadhyaxaH sarvabhuutaadhivaasaH saaxii chetaa kevalo nirguNashcha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:11)
“He is the one God, hidden in all beings, all-pervading, the self within all beings, watching over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the perceiver , the only one, free from qualities”.

Conclusion: – So, all the attributes described in Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.8) are the attributes of Lord Shiva only and he was the speaker of this Bhagwad Gita from the mouth of Lord Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.9)

punyo gandhah prithivyam ca tejas casmi vibhavasau
jivanam sarva-bhutesu tapas casmi tapasvisu | (BG. 7.9)
“I am the fragrant odour in earth, the splendour in fire, the life in all (living) creatures, and penance in ascetics”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This Bhagwad Gita verse is a direct adaptation and modification of the following verse of Yajurveda.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i or Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

Penance (Tapas) is a kind of Vidya (knowledge) which comprises of mastery over the ‘Pancha Mudras’ (Five postures of meditation) viz. Khechari, Bhoochari, Madhyama, Shanmukha, Shambhavi; penance comprises of the knowledge of Tarakayogam, Sankhyayogam, Amanashkhayogam; Penance also comprises of Lakshyayraiambakam (Bahya lakshyam, Madhya lakshyam, and Antar lakshyam). So, penance or any Yogic austerity as a matter of fact is not something one can achieve simply by sitting and chanting the name of the God. The only difference between Yoga and Tapasya is that tapasya is done with a desire of some fruit but Yoga is done with the dsire of realization, but both requires same knowledge of yogic techniques, and without the basic knowledge of Yoga one can’t perform Tapasya.

And the knowledge required to perform Yoga or Tapasya is again gifted by Lord Shiva only. In fact all kinds of Vidya (knowledge) are ruled by Lord Shiva only as supported by below verse.

“iishaanaH sarvavidyaanaamiishvaraH sarvabhuutaanaaM |
brahmaadhipatirbrahmaNo.adhipatirbrahmaa shivo me astu sadaashivom.h |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.21.1)
“May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge, controller of all created beings, the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha, be benign to me. I am the Sadasiva described thus and denoted by Pranava”.

Conclusion: – This Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.9) is again a direct evidence that the speaker of Bhagwad Gita is Lord Shiva only.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.10)

bijam mam sarva-bhutanam viddhi partha sanatanam
buddhir buddhimatam asmi tejas tejasvinam aham | (BG. 7.10)
“Know me, O son of Pritha, to be the eternal seed of all beings. I am the intelligence of all creatures endued with intelligence, the glory of all glorious objects”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

Eternal seed of all beings means the continuity aspect of life. It’s from the supreme lord that the creatures keep taking birth. All the creatures who lived in the past, who are living at present and who would take birth in future all come from the supreme being only. And Vedas recognize only Lord Rudra as the eternal seed of all beings. We have the following evidences in support of this claim.

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha |
namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha |
namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.

Same fact is revealed by Skhambha suktam for lord Shiva as follows.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atarva Veda X-8-28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

And even Upanishad confirms the same.

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Svetaswatara. Upanishad 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

Now let’s touch the second aspect of BG. 7.10 which is “intelligence of all creatures endued with intelligence”. Intelligence (Buddhi) is something which shines because of the presence of Atman in the living being. Intelligence, consciousness, reasoning etc. are the splendors gifted by Atman. And all bodies get illuminated with intelligence due to Lord Rudra only. The below verse has two types of interpretations, at superficial level it means that all the luminaries are illuminated by Rudra; and at the philosophical (Tatwam) level, it has much more broader meaning. At the Tatwam level it not only means to convey that all shining bodies reflect Rudra’s brilliance but also the consciousness, chit, intellect which illuminate bodies are the reflections of Rudra (Atman)’s splendor (intelligence) only.

“na tatra suuryo bhaati na chandrataaraka.n nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kuto.ayamagniH |
tameva bhaantamanubhaati sarva.n tasya bhaasaa sarvamida.n vibhaati |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:14)
“The sun (implies intellect) does not shine there, nor the moon (implies manas-mind) and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less this fire. When he shines, everything shines after him; by his light all this is lightened”.

And it is again Bhagawan Rudra who is the most glorious of all the glorious ones as stated in below verse.

“śreṣṭho jātasya rudra śriyāsi tavastamastavasāṃ vajrabāho |
parṣi ṇaḥ pāramaṃhasaḥ svasti viśvā abhītī rapaso yuyodhi |” (Rig Veda 2.33.3)
“In glory thou art the most glorious of all that exists, O Rudra, the strongest of the strong, thou wielder of the thunderbolt! Carry us happily to the other shore of our anguish, and ward off all assaults of mischief”.

Conclusion: – With the above analysis it is again clear to us that the person speaking Gita verse (BG. 7.10) is Bhagawan Rudra, the verses are Rudra’s glories and the mediator is Sri Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.11)

balam balavatam caham kama-raga-vivarjitam
dharmaviruddho bhutesu kamo ’smi bharatarsabha | (BG. 7.11)
“I am also the strength of all that are endued with strength, (myself) freed from desire and attachment, and, O bull of Bharata’s race, am the desire (Kama), consistent with duty, in all creatures”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

As per shruti, it is again Lord Rudra who bestows strength and power to everyone including Gods also. It is Lord Rudra’s strength which gets reflected in all the entities possessed of strength.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Sve Upa. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

Lord Shiva is the para-Brahman who is beyond all the qualities of samsaara and he is not bondaged into the cage of worldly qualities. He is above everything. He is beyond the qualities of desire, attachment, anger etc. but he is infact beyond all the six sheaths (koshas), six vikaras and likewise. Here is what lord Shiva himself spoke about himself in the following Upanishad:

“shhaDvikaaravihiino.asmi shhaTkoshharahito.asmyaham.h |
arishhaDvargamukto.asmi antaraadantaro.asmyaham.h |” (Maitreya Upanishad 3:18)
“I am devoid of the six changes (of birth, death, ageing etc.,), I am without the six sheaths (the gross material body, etc.,); I am free from the group of six (internal) enemies (passions, anger, greed etc.,) and I am the witness, being the supreme God”.

Since Lord Shiva is the Brahman he is beyond the attributes of desire etc., but he himself is the primordial Kama (desire) also, that’s why from his Kama only this universe was generated. He when remains inactive is Brahman the witness, and when he becomes active he is the Eshwara the cause of all causes. As saint Appar says, Shiva when remains in his Nirguna form, he and his Shakti (Tripurasundari) doesn’t remain different, they become totally inseparable. And one can say in that state Shiva alone exists. He is called Brahman by Vedanta followers. In the very beginning, there was only this ParaShiva alone, motionless, changeless, SatChidAnanda Parabrahman. There was no duality. He alone existed. There arose a “desire” in him to become many. That first and foremost desire is called as the “Primordial Desire”. Shiva remains always as a changeless Brahman. Any kind of motion within him is caused by his Shakti, she is called as KameshwariLalita TripurasundariAdi Shakti, Bhavani etc. So, when this desire to become many arisen in his soul, his Energy came into her existence and then their first primordial desire gave rise to the universe, Gods goddesses, pancha bhuta, etc.

“kaamas tad agre sam avartataadhi manaso retah prathamam yad aasit |” (Rig Veda 10:129:4)
“Kama rose in the beginning, Kama, the primal seed and germ of Spirit”.

Not only this much, it is again Lord Shiva who continues the life in these worlds by remaining there as the Kama. Lord Shiva is the Kameshwara and his consort Tripurasundari is called as Kameshwari and whatever life propages, it’s all because Shiva acts as the agency called ‘Kama (Desire)’ for propagation or procreation of life. Also, he himself procreates himself, means whatever life forms exists (be it celestial gods or earthly creatures), all are procreated by him and at the same time all are he himself.

Atharve Veda has a detailed hymn totally edicated to Kameshwara (Shiva) praising his desire aspect asking him for protection etc. Here is one verse for reference from that great hymn.

“duṣvápnyaṃ kāma duritáṃ ca kamāprajástām asvagátām ávartim |
ugrá ī́śānaḥ práti muñca tásmin yó asmábhyam aṃhūraṇā́ cíkitsāt |” (Atharva Veda 9:2:3)
“Evil dreams, O Kâma, and misfortune, O Kâma, childlessness, ill-health, and trouble, do thou O ugrá O ī́śānaḥ , let loose upon him that designs evil against us!”

In the above verse Kama is refered to as ‘Ugra’ and ‘Ishana’ since Kama is none other than Shiva. And as explained above, it’s again Lord Shiva whose forms are all the creatures born in past, present and to be born in future.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atharva Veda X-8-28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

Conclusion: – From the above analysis it is evident that Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.11) is totally a glorification of Lord Shiva’s qualities and the speaker is Lord Shiva himself who is preaching about his own nature to Arjuna through the mouth of the messenger called Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.12)

ye caiva sattvika bhava rajasas tamasas ca ye
matta eveti tan viddhi na tv aham tesu te mayi | (BG. 7.12)
“And all existences which are of the quality of goodness, and which are of the quality of passion and quality of darkness, know that they are, indeed, from me. I am, however, not in them, but they are in me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

In order to understand this current section more clearly I would recommend the readers to go through the analysis done on Bhagwad Gita verses (BG. 7.5) and (BG. 7.6). And then continue with this current section.

Well, this current verse is again a tale of Lord Shiva only. All the living beings are composed of three qualities viz. Satwa, Rajas and Tamas. Whichever quality remains predominant in a person, that person exhibits the attributes of that quality itself. But all the creatures do contain those three qualities in some proportion. We have numerous times seen in previous sections that all the creatures and entire creation manifests from Lord Shiva only. Lord Shiva with the help of his Prakriti (Uma or Aditi) creates the universe and all beings, and then he entires into them to make them alive. That’s why Shiva is the father of all and Uma (Aditi) is the mother of all. Shiva is not only the sire of all creatures, but he is the sire of celestial gods also. Let’s first re-visit these verses below and then proceed with the analysis further.

“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |” (Atharva veda 10:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

Shiva and Uma are not different. They are two aspects of their own self. All the Gods and creatures are from Aditi (Uma).

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ
viśve devā aditiḥ pañca janā aditirjātamaditirjanitvam ” (RV 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born”

It is understood by us that all creatures are actually composed of three qualities and all of them take birth from Shiva only. But in fact even the Trinity Gods viz. Brahma (Creator), Vishnu (Preserver) and Rudra (Destroyer deity) are Lord Shiva’s manifestations only. Lord Shiva manifests himself as three, to support the administration of the universe. From Lord Shiva’s Satva element Vishnu appears, from Lord Shiva’s Rajas element Brahma appears and from Lord Shiva’s Tamas element Rudra (the destroyer) appears. But still this is only a projection, and there is no duality, it is lord Shiva himself who remains in those three forms also. Not only this, Lord Shiva takes eightfold forms as Vasus, elevenfold forms as Maruts (Rudras), and twelvefold forms as Adityas. But essentially all are Shiva only.

This is evident in the below verse from Maitrayani Brahmana Upanishad.

“tamo vaa idamekamaasa tatpashchaatpareNerita.n vishhayatvaM |
prayaatyetadvai rajaso ruupa.n tadrajaH khalviirita.n vishhamatvaM |
prayaatyetadvai tamaso ruupa.n tattamaH khalviirita.n tamasaH |
sampraasravatyetadvai sattvasya ruupa.n tatsattvameverita.n |
tatsattvaatsaMpraasravatso.n.asho.aya.n yashchetanamaatraH |
pratipurushha.n kShetraj~naH saN^kalpaadhyavasaayaabhimaanaliN^gaH |
prajaapatistasya proktaa agryaastanavo brahmaa rudro vishhNurityatha |
yo ha khalu vaavaasya raajaso.n.asho.asau sa yo.ayaM brahmaatha yo ha |
khalu vaavaasya taamaso.n.asho.asau sa yo.aya.n rudro.atha yo ha |
khalu vaavaasya saatviko.n.asho.asau sa eva.n vishhNuH sa vaa eshha |
ekastridhaabhuuto.ashhTadhaikaadashadhaa dvaadashadhaaparimitadhaa |
chodbhuuta udbhuutatvaadbhuuteshhu charati pratishhThaa |
sarvabhuutaanaamadhipatirbabhuuvetyasaavaatmaantarbahishchaantarbahis hcha |” (Maitrayani Upanishad 5:2)
“’In the beginning darkness (tamas) alone was this. It was in the Highest, and, moved by the Highest, it becomes uneven. Thus it becomes obscurity (ragas). Then this obscurity, being moved, becomes uneven. Thus it becomes goodness (sattva). Then this goodness, being moved, the essence flowed forth. This is that part (or state of Self) which is entirely intelligent, reflected in man (as the sun is in different vessels of water) knowing the body (kshetragña), attested by his conceiving, willing, and believing, it is Pragâpati, called Visva. His manifestations have been declared before. Now that part of him which belongs to darkness, that, O students, is he who is called Rudra (the destroyer deity, not to be confused with Shiva). That part of him which belongs to obscurity, that, O students, is he who is called Brahmâ. That part of him which belongs to goodness, that, O students, is he who is called Vishnu. He being one, becomes three (Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra), becomes eight (Vasus), becomes eleven (Rudras or maruts), becomes twelve (Adityas), becomes infinite. Because he thus came to be, he is the Being (Purusha), he moves about, having entered all beings, he has become the Lord of all beings. He is the Self within and without, yes, within and without”.

“kaarya.n vishhNuH kriyaa brahmaa kaaraNa.n tu maheshvaraH |
prayojanaartha.n rudreNa muurtirekaa tridhaa kR^itaa |” (Rudrahridayopanishad 15)
“The effect is Vishnu. The action is Brahma. The cause is Maheshwara. For the benefit of the worlds. Rudra (Shiva) has taken these three forms.”

So, it is evident that from Lord Shiva only all the creatures possessing the three qualities emerge and even the three deities (possessing the three qualities separately) manifested from Bhagawan Rudra (Shiva) only.

The indestructible being Shiva dwells inside the universe in every atom as the indweller but he is not totally confined within any entity. In fact Lord Shiva is infinite and universe is just one quarter part of his infinite existence. So, even though Shiva pervades inside the universe, he is not contained totally in it. He is within as well as out. But entire universe is contained within Shiva. That’s what the latter part fo Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.12) conveys. Same is conveyed by lord Shiva in the following verse of Upanishad.

“na jagatsarvadrashhTaasmi netraadirahitosmyaham.h |
pravR^iddho.asmi prabuddho.asmi prasanno.asmi paro.asmyaham.h |” (Maitreya Upanishad 3:14)
“I am not the world, I witness all and I am devoid of eyes, etc., I am immense, I am awake, I am serene and I am the highest – beyond everything”.

Conclusion: – It is evident from the above discussion that all the creation comprising of the three qualities takes its birth from Bhagawan Shiva and even though Shiva pervades entire universe and in all beings, he is not confined within the world, he is beyond, but the entire world is contained within Shiva. With this analysis we have again proved that Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.12) is a tale of Lord Shiva and the speaker is Lord Shiva himself.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.13), (BG. 7.14)

tribhir guna-mayair bhavair ebhih sarvam idam jagat
mohitam nabhijanati mam ebhyah param avyayam | (BG. 7.13)
daivi hy esa guna-mayi mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante mayam etam taranti te | (BG 7.14)
“This entire universe, deluded by these three entities consisting of (these) three qualities knoweth not me that am beyond them and undecaying; since this illusion of mine, depending on the (three) qualities, is exceedingly marvellous and highly difficult of being transcended. They that resort to me alone cross this illusion”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

The entire universe comprises of three gunas (Qualities) and it is Lord Shiva’s prakriti (Tripura Sudnari) who is the supreme Maya (Illusion), although she is one, but appears as threefold viz. Red (Rajas – Mahalakshmi)White (Satva – Mahasaraswati), and Black (Tamas – Mahakali), and rules over the three Gunas and entire universe. She is the one under whose trance entire universe gets deluded and she triumphs by beguiling the entire creation under her illusion. She being the science (potency) of Shambhu, only that illustrious deity Bhava can uncover the blanket of his maya from the eyes of the devotee. Without Mahadeva’s grace his Maya cannot be transcended. In Puranas we keep hearing the buzz word “Vishnu maya”, but that Maya is the consort of Shiva and only under his will it functions. She ONLY helps Vishnu in his tasks of protection whenever and wherever needed. She is not under his control, she is beyond even Vishnu and she is the potency of supreme Brahman (Shiva).

Therefore all those FAKE books like “Brahma Samhita” etc. which call Durga (Tripurasundari) as Krishna’s ‘maid servant’, are totally BOGUS and have no supporting evidence from Vedas or Upanishads. I would DISCOURAGE people from reading such fake texts and I would never recommend people to follow such demented philosophies where the Supreme Lord Shiva becomes a demi-god and servant and the supreme un-sailable Shakti becomes a maid servant.

Anyway, coming back to the context, here are few verses which describe the supreme Prakriti as the potency of Shiva.

“ajaamekaa.n lohitashuklakR^ishhNaaM bahviiH prajaaH sR^ijamaanaa.n saruupaaH |
ajo hyeko jushhamaaNo.anushete jahaatyenaa.n bhuktabhogaamajo.anyaH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:05)
“There is one unborn being (female), red, white, and black, uniform, but producing manifold offspring. There is one unborn being (male) who loves her and lies by her (Jiva); there is another (Eswara) who leaves her, while she is eating what has to be eaten”.

“athaasya yaa sahajaastyavidyaa muulaprakR^itirmaayaa lohitashuklakR^ishhNaa |
tayaa sahaayavaan devaH kR^ishhNapi~Ngalo mameshvara iishhTe |” (Shandilya Upanishad 3:01)
“Maheshvara (the great Lord) who is black and yellow rules with Avidya, Mula-Prakriti or Maya that is red, white and black and that is co-existent with him”.

Lord Shiva is the lord of the supreme Maya which deludes the entire jagat.

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:10)
“Know, then, that prakriti is maya and that Maheshwara is the Lord of maya. The whole universe is filled with objects which are parts of His being”.

She is the supreme power (parA shakti), not some ordinary power.

“saiShA parA shaktiH | saiShA shAMbhavIvidyA
kAdividyeti vA hAdividyeti vA sAdividyeti vA |
rahasyamomoM vAchi pratiShThA |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 3)
“She, here, is the Power supreme. She, here, is the science of Sambhu, either as the science beginning with ka, or as the science beginning with ha, or as the science beginning with sa. This is the secret Om grounded in the word Om”.

And my knowing Rudra or by surrendering to him or by obtaining his grace ONLY one can sail through his supreme Maya which is unsailable otherwise.

“tasyaabhidhyaanaadyojanaattattva bhaavaat.h bhuuyashchaante vishvamaayaanivR^ittiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:10)
“From meditating on him (Rudra), from the knowledge of identity with him, from becoming one with him there is further cessation of all illusion (Supreme Maya) in the end”.

So, it shows that by resorting to Mahadeva’s lotus feet only one gets ferried from all illusions created by his own supreme potency and gains true realization.

Conclusion: – Bhagwad Gita (BG. 7.13) and (BG. 7.14) are the glories of Lord Shiva’s supreme potency (Tripurasundari) and the speaker is definitely Lord Shiva and the mediator is Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.15)

na mam duskritino mudhah prapadyante naradhamah
mayayapahrta-jnana asuram bhavam asritah | (BG. 7.15)
“Doers of evil, ignorant men, the worst of their species, robbed of their knowledge by (my) illusion and wedded to the state of demons, do not resort to me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse looks very simple but it needs a lot of indepth understanding. This seemingly simple verse includes answers to many questions like, ‘why should one resort to the supreme god’, ‘what is the goal of life’, ‘why doesn’t a wicked man gain the realization of this supreme god?’, ‘How does one get uncurtained from the veil of Maya?’ etc.

Let’s first understand the goal of life and then we’ll see why some people gain the lord’s realization and why some evil minded people remain deluded by Lord’s maya.

The highest goal of human life is Moksha (liberation). For the same only one needs to resort to the supreme lord through devotion or realize oneness with the supreme lord through knowledge. But only few are able to traverse on this right path because they are the righteous and sinless souls. The wicked ones do not resort to the supreme lord because they fail to see through the Maya of the supreme lord. One becomes able to tear the blanket of Maya only when the lord of Maya becomes pleased on that being. And the lord of Maya gets pleased when this being resorts to him through devotion or through knowledge.

For the Self-realized yogis who are Jeevana Mukta these are the charecteristics.

“ha.nsaachaaraH .sarvabhuutaantarvartii ha.nsa iti pratipaadanam.h |” (Nirvana Upanishad 23-24)
“Their conduct is in consonance with the realization of the oneness of the Self and Brahman (Hamsa). They demonstrate to disciples (by their conduct) that Brahman (Hamsa) is present in all beings”.

Brahman is also called as Hamsa. Hamsa is nothing but ‘Soham’ in reverse order. Till the time the devotee is in illusion, he seeks ‘hamsa’. When he gets realized, he realizes ‘ Soham (sa + aham = I am he)’. And this ‘soham’ is again another way of stating ‘shivoham’. That is to state that ‘hamsa’, ‘soham’, ‘brahman’ all are nothing but the terms used to describe oneness with ‘Shiva’ because Shiva is the Brahman of Vedas.

This is the reason why Nirvana Upanishad further states the same fact as follows. It states that for the realized Yogi oneness with Brahman (Siva) is their sleep, where sleep means cessation of their cycle of births and deaths (implies Liberation).

“shivayoganidraa cha |” (Nirvana Upanishad 25)
“The oneness with Siva is their sleep”.

And there are numerous paths which take one towards Shiva (Brahman). The same is stated as follows.

“vishhNuvidhyaadishataabhidhaanalakshyam.h |” (Nirvana Upanishad 29)
“The (worship of) gods named Vishnu, Brahma and a hundred others culminates (in Brahman)”. Which imples – culminates in Shiva as per verse 25 seen above.

But this realization is made available only when the Maya of Shiva gets removed. Maya is removed when the knowledge of Brahman (Shiva) shines in one’s self. And the knowledge of Brahman (Shiva) shines only when Maya is removed. And Maya gets removed only by the grace of Mahadeva.

“svaprakaashabrahmatattve shivashaktisampuTita prapaJNchachchhedanam.h |
tathaa patraakshaakshikamaNDaluH |” (Nirvana Upanishad 53-54)
“When the reality of Brahman (Shiva) shines in the self there is the annihilation of the phenomenal world which is enveloped by the power (Maya) of Shiva; similarly it burns the existence or non-existence of the aggregate of the causal, subtle and gross bodies. He realizes Brahman (shiva) as the prop of the ether”.

We have seen in previous section (and before as well) that the Supreme Maya is the potency of Lord Shiva and functions under his will. Let’s re-read the same here.

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h |” (Swetasvatara Upanishad 4:10)
“Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ, and the Maheshwara is the lord of Maya (the Mâyin); and the whole world is filled with what are his members (forms)”.

So, here this Bhagwad Gita verse also is a narration about Lord Shiva only. Now, let’s see how self-proclaimed devotees who are evil minded, who abuse Shiva fail to sail through Shiva-Maya and fail to resort to the supreme lord Shiva.

Svetaswatara Upanishad instructs everyone in the the world saying that without the knowledge of Bhagawan Shiva there is no use of being scholar in scriptures.

“R^icho axare parame vyoman.h yasmindevaa adhi vishve nishheduH |
yasta.n na veda kimR^ichaa karishhyati ya ittadvidusta ime samaasate |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:08)
“He who does not know that indestructible being of the Rig-Veda, that highest ether-like (Self) wherein all the gods reside, of what use is the Rig-Veda to him? Those only who know it, rest contented”.

And Atharva Veda clearly instructs all the people to worship Lord Rudra FOUR times a day everyday (which means round the clock worship, which again means one should never forget Shiva at any instant of time; as simple as that!). It also instructs people not to abuse Lord Rudra with words (tongue).

“námaḥ sāyáṃ námaḥ prātár námo rā́tryā námo dívā |
bhavā́ya ca śarvā́ya cobhā́bhyām akaraṃ námaḥ |” (Atharva Veda XI:2:16)
“Let us pay our homage in the morning, during the day, in the evening, and at night – to the Lord who grants us life (Bhava) and who takes it away (Sarva)”.

“sahasrākṣám atipaśyáṃ purástād rudrám ásyantaṃ bahudhā́ vipaścítam |
mópārāma jihváyéyamānam |” (Atharva Veda XI:2:17)
“Let us not with our tongue offend Rudra, who rushes on, thousand-eyed, overseeing all, who hurls (his shafts) forward, who is manifoldly wise!”

We have evidences in Mahabharata and Ramayana that people of olden times used to worship Lord Shiva a lot but that devotion towards Shiva is scarce today. On the contrary we have innumerable Vaishnava devotes out there around the globe. So, this Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.15) is a great futuristic statement prophecized seeing the future of the humanity.

Despite having the Upanishads and Vedas instructed people not to abuse Shiva and not to stop worshiping him, it is clearly visible nowadays that Shiva-Bhakti is diminished and people are resorting to all other Gods except Shiva. Even there are bogus organizations which propagate Lord Shiva’s status as “Demi-God”, and they call him a servant of Krishna / Vishnu / Rama. Also, there are sects which openly abuse lord Shiva and instruct the masses not to worship him. This itself proves that the Bhagwad Gita prophecy (BG. 7.15) has come true in this Kali Yuga. Here in this Bhagwad Gita verse we again learn that the speaker is lord Shiva and he is talking about his Maya and prophecizing about the mankind who wouldn’t take his refuge and get deluded by his Maya.

This Bhagwad Gita verse is a true statement which has been stated EXACTLY in similar words in Mahabharata which I would like to produce here. Note that the below words have been narrated by Lord Krishna himself recollecting the words of Upamanyu. The following text is the translation of “Kisari Mohan Ganguly”, a renouned Sanskrit scholar who lived in 18th century and translated the entire Vyasa Mahabharata from Sanskrit to English. This section is taken from “Mahabharata Book 10, Section XVIII”.

“Vasudeva said, ‘Upamanyu, who seemed to blaze with effulgence like the Sun, said unto me,–Those sinful men that are stained with unrighteous deeds, do not succeed in attaining to Isana. Their dispositions being stained by the attributes of Rajas and Tamas, they can never approach the Supreme Deity. It is only those regenerate persons who are of cleansed souls that succeed in attaining to the Supreme Deity. Even if a person lives in the enjoyment of every pleasure and luxury, yet if he be devoted to the Supreme Deity, he comes to be regarded as the equal of forest recluses of cleansed souls. If Rudra be gratified with a person, he can confer upon him the states of ether Brahma or of Kesava or of Sakra with all the deities under him, or the sovereignty of the three worlds. Those men, O sire, who worship Bhava even mentally, succeed in freeing themselves from all sins and attain to a residence in heaven with all the gods. A person who raises houses to the ground and destroys tanks and lakes indeed, who devastates the whole universe, does not become stained with sin, if he adores and worships the illustrious Deity of three eyes. A person that is destitute of every auspicious indication and that is stained by every sin, has all his sins destroyed by meditating upon Siva. Even worm and insects and birds, O Kesava, that devote themselves to Mahadeva, are enabled to rove in perfect fearlessness. Even this is my settled conviction that those men who devote themselves to Mahadeva become certainly emancipated from rebirth”.

The following extract has been again taken from Mahabharata which also confirms this fact. This belongs to “Mahabharata Book 10, Section XIV”.

“When the unrighteous or sinful Kali Yuga comes, one should never pass a moment without devoting his heart upon Mahadeva. One that has drunk the Amrita constituted by the devotion to Hara, one becomes freed from the fear of the world. One that has not obtained the grace of Mahadeva can never succeed to devote oneself to Mahadeva for a single day or for half a day or for a Muhurta or for a Kshana or for a Lava (very small unit of time)”.

But tell me how many of the Hindus nowadays are devoted to the Supreme Being – Mahadeva? I have seen hundreds of Shiva-abusers but I haven’t seen more than a handful (whom I can count on fingers even when asked by waking me up from my deepest sleep) of true lovers of Shiva.

Conclusion: – The Bhagawad Gita verse (7.15) talks about Lord Shiva only and it is Lord Shiva who was speaking that verse prophecizing about the sinful men who do not take Shiva’s refuge and get bewildered by his Maya.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.19)

bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate
vasudeva sarvam iti sa mahatma su-durlabhah | (BG. 7.19)
“At the end of many births, the man possessed of knowledge attaineth to me, (thinking) that Vasudeva is all this. Such a high-souled person, however, is exceedingly rare”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse is very significant one and an extension of the previous verse. So, I would recommend the readers to visit the immediately previous section and read the corresponding analysis before starting with this section.

Well, this Bhagwad Gita verse creates a huge misconception because of the word “vAsudEva”. We need to understand that Bhagwad Gita is an essence of all Upanishads, and Upanishads are the essence of Vedas. So, Bhagwad Gita is again an essence of all Vedas. And as per Vedas lord Shiva is everything, and Krishna was not a Vedic god (of course Vishnu was). Krishna (the son of vasudeva) was an incarnation in Dwapara Yuga.

The name “vAsudEva” is a misinterpretation in this current age by all scholars. It doesn’t apply on Krishna in Bhagawad Gita.

In Sanskrit grammar, VAsudEva is NOT “VasudEva Sutam iti VAsudEva”.

‘VAsu’ comes from the root ‘Vas’, which means “to reside and envelop completely”‘dEva’ comes from the root ‘div’, which means, “to shine”.

So, that one God who resides everywhere and envelopes completely and shines everywhere is “vAsudEva”.

Let’s see as per Vedas and Upanishads who is the God who pervades everything and who shines everywhere.

Lord Shiva is the supreme Purusha stated in Vedas. There is nothing beyond Purusha since Purusha (Rudra) is the Para-Brahman.

Lord Rudra is the one true God who pervades fully within the universe and he is alone one such god who pervades outside of the universe also. It’s only a quarter portion of the infinite Rudra that has manifested as the universe. So, even though we have other gods like Vishnu, Vayu, Sky (Dayus) who pervade fully within the universe, they do not extend beyond the universe. Only Bhagwan Rudra is inside and outside of the universe. Rudra is limitless, he is infinite. There is none who is superior to Rudra in being all-pervasive.

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |
tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)
“praaNaH prasuutirbhuvanasya yonirvyaapta.n tvayaa ekapadena vishvam.h |
tva.n vishvabhuuryonipaaraH svagarbhe kumaara eko vishikhaH sudhanvaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3)
Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art the Principle of life; Thou the manifestation (the manifested world); Thou the source of the world; by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world. Thou art the world’s birth, the cause, the life supreme, and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow”.

Note the above verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly states that from Lord Rudra’s one quarter only this entire creation emerged. This is the same thing stated in Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda about Bhagwan Rudra as follows.

“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ | tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi |” (Rig Veda 10:90:4)
“Three quarters of his are beyond all this; all of this creation is but from one quarter of him. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not appeared from this one quarter of His.”

“yátra skambháḥ prajanáyan purāṇáṃ vyávartayat | ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásya purāṇám anusáṃviduḥ |” (Atharva Veda 10:7:26)
“Where Skambha (Agni-Linga) generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha (Linga) as the Ancient World.”

Let’s see few more verses which praise Rudra’s omnipresent nature.

“vishve nimagnapadaviiH kaviinaaM tva.n jaatavedo bhuvanasya naathaH |
ajaatamagre sa hiraNyaretaa yaj~naistvamevaikavibhuH puraaNaH |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 2)
“Thou art immanent in all; from (the view-point) of the wise, Thou, the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire-Jataveda). In the beginning Thou art unborn, the first born, the sacrifice, too, art Thou. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient”

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH” (Svetaswatara Upanishad. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

“hR^itpuNDariikaM virajaM vishuddhaM vichintya madhye vishadaM vishokam.h |
achintyamavyaktamanantaruupaM shivaM prashaantamamR^itaM brahmayonim.h | (Kaivalya Upanishad 6)
“(That Who is) unthinkable, unmanifest, of endless forms, the good, the peaceful, Immortal, the origin of the worlds, without beginning, middle, and end, the only one, all-pervading, Consciousness, and Bliss, the formless and the wonderful”.

“R^icho yajuu.nshi prasavanti vaktraatsaamaani samraaDvasuvantariksham.h |
tva.n yaj~nanetaa hutabhugvibhushcha rudraastatha daityagaNaa vasushcha |” (Ekakshara Upanishat 7)
“The Vedic verses, prose formulas and songs proceed from Thy mouth. Thou shinest best (as) the Vasus and the sky. Thou art the leader of the sacrifice; thou art the all-pervading fire and the Rudras. So also (art Thou) the hosts of demons and Vasus”.

“eko devaH sarvabhuuteshhu guuDhaH sarvavyaapii sarvabhuutaantaraatmaa |
karmaadhyaxaH sarvabhuutaadhivaasaH saaxii chetaa kevalo nirguNashcha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:11)
“He is the one God, hidden in all beings, all-pervading, the self within all beings, watching over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the perceiver , the only one, free from qualities”.

Rudra envelops everything in the universe. He is everything. Every mobile and immobile creation is his form and he entered into everything.

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations.”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Now let’s see some verses about the supreme lord Rudra as the supreme light which shines everything else. These verses also speak about rudra’s supremacy and proves Rudra as Parabrahman.

“mahaan.h prabhurvai purushhaH satvasyaishha pravartakaH |
sunirmalaamimaaM praaptimiishaano jyotiravyayaH | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:12)
“That person (purusha) is the great lord (iishaana); he is the mover of existence, he possesses that purest power of reaching everything, he is light, he is undecaying”.

“tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava (primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also the Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God (Bhagavan) and it is also the lord of all things“.

“na tatra suuryo bhaati na chandrataaraka.n nemaa vidyuto bhaanti kuto.ayamagniH |
tameva bhaantamanubhaati sarva.n tasya bhaasaa sarvamida.n vibhaati | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:14)
“The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less this fire. When he shines, everything shines after him; by his light all this is illuminated”.

So, it is lord Rudra who is the all-pervading Bhagawan, who envelops everything and who is the supreme light which illuminates all other luminaries. So, the name vAsudEva as per Sanskrit grammar is the name of Lord Shiva because he is the one God who resides everywhere and envelopes completely and shines everywhere.

Conclusion: – This Bhagwad Gita verse (BG. 7.19) is a glorification of Lord Shiva and spoken by Lord Shiva himself through the mouth of Krishna who was the mediator.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.21), (BG. 7.22)

yo yo yam yam tanum bhaktah shraddhayarcitum icchati
tasya tasyacalam shraddham tam eva vidadhamy aham | (BG. 7.21)
sa taya shraddhaya yuktas tasyaradhanam ihate
labhate ca tatah kaman mayaiva vihitan hi tan | (BG. 7.22)
“Whatever form, (of gods or myself) any worshipper desireth to worship with faith, that faith of his unto that (form) I render steady. Endued with that faith, he payeth his adorations to that (form), and obtaineth from that all his desire, since all those are ordained by me”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This Bhagwad Gita verse can be spoken only by that God who is above all the gods since a lower God cannot ordain the worship of superior gods, and cannot bestow the boons or fulfill the desires in the form of other gods. It is only true when the supreme God who has all other gods as his own manifestations speaks such. And thus this is a verse spoken by Bhagawan Shiva only. Let’s see some evidences from Vedas and Upanishads to understand this fact.

Well, for those readers who have been reading this entire analysis from beginning, for them some of the verses cited below might seem repetition, but keeping in mind about those readers who would randomly gaze through the article and land up here, I must detail out things here. Therefore repetitions are inevitable here. But in this section I would cite certain different Vedic verses which describe every God’s manifestation in detail. Keep reading!

This entire universe first manifested from Lord Shiva’s Jwala-Linga and after that Lord Shiva entered into that universe with the aid of his own Maya and created all the gods and creatures. So, all the gods are manifestations of Shiva only.

At first Shiva laid his germ in the womb of Aditi (Uma who is the prakriti), she produced the Hiranyagarbha (Universe), and then they together (Prakriti and Purusha) manifested all the gods and creatures. They being Ardhanareshwara they are one.

SOMA (=SA + Uma) means the lord who is with Uma, which is Shiva.

“arāvīdaṃśuḥ sacamāna ūrmiṇā devāvyaṃ manuṣe pinvatitvacam
dadhāti gharbhamaditerupastha ā yena tokaṃ ca tanayaṃ ca dhāmahe ” (RV 9:74:5)
“The Soma-stalk hath roared, following with the wave: he swells with sap for man the skin which Gods enjoy. Upon the lap (womb) of Aditi he lays the germ, by means whereof we gain children and progeny”.

“aditirdyauraditirantarikṣamaditirmātā sa pitā sa putraḥ
viśve devā aditiḥ pañca janā aditirjātamaditirjanitvam ” (RV 1:89:10)
“Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born”

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ ” (Rig Veda.IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma (Shiva with Uma) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”.

The same has been stated in the following verse from Upanishad saying that it is Rudra who created all Gods.“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |


hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu ||” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

After creating the Universe (Hiranyagarbha) Shiva projects all the gods and creatures in various directions inside the universe. That is to say that he manifests into various forms of gods and creatures projecting them in all the directions.

“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā |
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |” (Atharva veda 10:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied. With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”

“tadevaagnistadaaditya stadvaayustadu chandramaaH |
tadeva shukra.n tad.h brahma tadaapastat.h prajaapatiH |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:02)
“That Supreme Self is Agni (Fire); it is Aditya (Sun); it is Vayu (Wind); it is Chandrama (Moon). That Self is the luminous stars; it is Hiranyagarbha; it is water; it is Virat”.

All the gods are contained inside lord Shiva only.

“yásya tráyastriṃśad devā́ áṅge sárve samā́hitāḥ |
skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:13)
“Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha He in whose body are contained all three-and-thirty Deities?”

In fact there is none who exists other than Shiva. It is due to low intelligence that people discriminate between Gods, but all forms are the forms of Mahadeva only. Let’s us now see some more interesting evidences from Vedas on how Lord Shiva manifested himself as which god in which direction inside the Hiranyagarbha.

There is a hymn on Vratya (Ascetic Shiva) in Atharva Veda which details out how Vratya (Shiva) transformed himselfinto various gods and manifested them from his form. Let’s see the verses now.

Shiva became the Marut host:

“sá yát prā́cīṃ díśam ánu vyácalan mā́rutaṃ śárdho bhūtvā́nuvyàcalan máno ‘nnādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:1)
“He when he went away to the eastern region, went away having become the Marut host, and having made Mind an eater of food”.

Shiva became Indra:

“sá yád dákṣiṇāṃ díśam ánu vyácalad índro bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad bálam annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:2)
“He, when he went away to the southern region, went away having become Indra, and having made Strength an eater of food”.

Shiva became Varuna:

“sá yát pratī́cīṃ díśam ánu vyácalad váruṇo rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad apò ‘nnādī́ḥ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:3)
“He, when he went away to the western region, went away having become King Varuna, and having made the Waters eaters of food”.

Shiva became King Soma:

“sá yád údīcīṃ díśam ánu vyácalat sómo rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat saptarṣíbhir hutá ā́hutim annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:4)
“He, when he went away to the northern region, went away having become King Soma and having made the Seven Rishis’ oblation an eater of food”.

Shiva became VISHNU:

“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad virā́jam annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:5)
“He, when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu and having made Virāj an eater of food”.

Shiva became Rudra (the deity responsible for destruction – kAlAgni rudrA):

“sá yát paśū́n ánu vyácalad rudró bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad óṣadhīr annādī́ḥ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:6)
“He, when he went away to animals, went away having become Rudra and having made herbs eaters of food”.

Shiva becameYama:

“sá yát pitr̥̄́n ánu vyácalad yamó rā́jā bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat svadhākārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:7)
“He, when he went away to the Fathers, went away having become King Yama and having made the exclamation Svadhā an eater of food”.

Shiva became Agni:

“sá yán manuṣyā̀n ánu vyácalad agnír bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat svāhākārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:8)
“He, when he went away to men, went away having become Agni and having made the exclamation Svāhā an eater of food”.

Shiva became Brihaspati:

“sá yád ūrdhvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad bŕ̥haspátir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad vaṣaṭkārám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:9)
“He, when he went away to the upper region, went away having become Brihaspati and having made the exclamation Vashat an eater of food”.

Shiva became Sun god (Aditya) [From the name Isana shiva manifested himself as Sun as per Shatapatah Brahmana 6:1:3:17, so although Ishana is Shiva’s name, the below verse means Sun]:

“sá yád devā́n ánu vyácalad ī́śāno bhūtvā́nuvyàcalan manyúm annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:10)
“He, when he went away to the Gods, went away having become Isana and having made Passion an eater of food”.

Shiva became Prajapati:

“sá yát prajā́ ánu vyácalat prajā́patir bhūtvā́nuvyàcalat prāṇám annādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:11)
“He, when he went away to creatures, went away having become Prajāpati and having made vital breath an eater of food”.

Shiva became Parameshthin:

“sá yát sárvān antardeśā́n ánu vyácalat parameṣṭhī́ bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad bráhmānnādáṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda XV:14:12)
“He, when he went away to all the intermediate spaces, went away having become Parameshthin and having made Devotion an eater of food”.

Likewise Shiva created Earth, firmament (Sky), heaven, cosntellations, seasons, season-groups, year, etc.

So, all the Gods including Vishnu are manifestations of Mahadeva alone. Hence whatever form one prays to, actually all prayers go to Lord Shiva and again that same Lord Shiva accepts the prayers of devotees through his forms and fulfils their wishes through those forms. But only few remain directly devoted to Mahadeva, and Shiva-Bhakti comes after accumulating virtues over past crores of births. Hinduism gives enough freedom of choise of our personal favorite God and Adi Shankara also suggested “Shanmata (Six sects)”, to realize the Brahman viz. Shaivam (worship of Shiva), Vaishnavam (Worship of Vishnu), Shakta (Worship of Shakti the mother goddess), Ganapatyam (Worship of Ganesha), Koumaram (Worship of Subrahmanya), and Souram (Worship of Sun). One is free to follow any of these sects since paths are many but destination is one which is Shiva only. However, unfortunately we see frequent abuses of Lord Shiva the supreme god, the final destination of all sects. How can one attain to salvation without the grace of Mahadeva is the question I leave upto the audience to ponder upon!

Conclusion: – Bhagwad Gita verses (BG. 7.21) and (BG. 7.22) are the attributes and glories of Bhagawan Mahadeva alone. And hence it is clear beyond any doubt that it was Lord Shiva who spoke Bhagawad Gita from the mouth of Krishna.

BHAGAVAD GITA Verse(s) (BG. 7.24), (BG. 7.25)

avyaktam vyaktim apannam manyante mam abuddhayah
param bhavam ajananto mamavyayam anuttamam | (BG. 7.24)
naham prakasah sarvasya yoga-maya-samavrtah
mudho ’yam nabhijanati loko mam ajam avyayam | (BG. 7.25)
“They that have no discernment, regard me who am (really) unmanifest to have become manifest, because they do not know the transcendent and undecaying state of mine than which there is nothing higher. Shrouded by the illusion of my inconceivable power, I am not manifest to all. This deluded world knoweth not me that I am unborn and undecaying”.

Reasoning & Analysis:

This verse is often incorrectly translated by Vaishnava websites the other way round. Here the actual meaning is to convey that the Supreme Being is ‘Nirguna Brahman’ (Unmanifest), but the Vaishnava websites which translate Gita translate it in the way that conveys the meaning that Supreme Being has a body and is not Nirguna (Unmanifest), and that’s how so many bogus scriptures and stories have come into picture which narrate the existence of a divine Krishna is Goloka where Krishna’s body is transcendental and the goal of humans is to serve Krishna after Moksha which is a stupid self-cooked panchama –purushartha. As per authentic books, there are only four Purusharthas viz. Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moskha. Beyond Moksha there is nothing, hence all these concepts of service to Krishna in Goloka after Moksha are bogus.

The highest reality as per Shruti is “Brahman”. I would like to make another point clear here before proceeding with the discussion. Some Vaishnava friends have even believed that “Brahman” is the state which realized men achive (Aham Brahmasmi – I am Brahman) and they even went further to believe that Brahman is lower entity and their Krishna is “Para Brahman” the higher entity. The biggest comical statement I read by few Vaishnava friends during my debates with them is “Brahman is an amsham (portion) of parabrahman”. I do not know where from such un-vedic concepts have crept into our Hinduism. Well, let me come back to the topic now.

The highest reality as per Vedas and Vedanta is “Brahman”. The same is termed as “parabrahman”, “Purusha”, “Atman”, “Shiva”, “Prana” etc. Brahman is Nirguna (formless). By the word formless what it means is, Brahman is undefinable, he is Avyakta (not descernable), and it means all forms are his forms. He has no eyes but still he can see. He is genderless – Brahman is neither man, nor woman, nor neuter. Brahman is undefinable, hence the concept of “neti neti” (not this not that) has come into picture. Brahman is the highest state of consciousness, the supreme light (brahma jyoti), the one where all speech, thoughts cease to exist.

When that unmanifest (Nirguna) Brahman becomes active he is called Eshwara (The cause of all causes). From him the Hiranyagarbha gets projected forth. Hiranyagarbha is also unmanifest in nature since it is the sum total of all subtle bodies (minds), but Hiranyagarbha is not eternal, it is perishable entity. Even the Virat (sum total of all gross bodies) is a form of Brahman only. And there is no higher entity above Brahman as per Vedas, Upanishads and Authentic scriptures. I don’t care what other bogus scriptures speak!

Shruti speaks only about Lord Shiva as the highest reality – the Brahman. It is also called as Purusha and Atman (self), and all these terms refer to the unmanifest (Nirguna) Brahman whos again Shiva. Here are the evidences which prove that Lord Shiva is the unmanifest Brahman, the Purusha, and the Atman.

The Brahman of Vedas is Shiva. The word “Brahman” is derived from the root “brihat” which means massive, vast, and infinite. Lord Shiva is praised in Yajurveda with this root word because Shiva is the Brahman. Yajurveda (iv.5.5.i) says “namo brihate cha”, which means, “Salutations to Lord Rudra who is ‘Brihat’ – that is, Brahman”.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaara miisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast (brihat=Brahman) and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal.

Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1) declares Rudra as the Purusha, “purusho vai rudrah” and Svetaswatara Upanishad states the below fact about Veda Purusha Shiva.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Svetawatara Upanishad. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.

“vedaahametaM purushhaM mahaantamaadityavarNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |
tameva viditvaatimR^ityumeti naanyaH panthaa vidyate.ayanaaya |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:08)
“I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike lustre beyond the darkness (tamas). A man who knows him truly, passes over death; there is no other path to liberation”.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
“There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord”.

Vedas proclaim that the Brahman (also called Purusha) is himself the Atman (Self or soul) of all and Shiva is the Brahman of Vedas. And he is the Atman (Self) of all. Let’s see few references in support of this.

“kasmAduchyate paraM brahma yasmAtparamaparaM parAyaNa.n cha |
bR^ihadbR^ihatyA bR^i.nhayati tasmAduchyate paraM brahma |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad)
“He (Rudra) is called Para Brahmam (Supreme Brahman – the ultimate reality), because he is the highest and excellent of all, though he is inside every thing, he is in and out of everything, he is the refuge of every thing and bigger than the biggest. That’s why he is called Parambrahma”.

Taittiriya Aranyaka (10.16.2) of Yajurveda calls lord Shiva as:

“aatmaaya namaH |” (Salutations to Him, He who is the Spirit – Atman – dwelling in all creatures)
“aatmali~Ngaaya namaH |” (Salutations to Him, He who is concealed in the heart of all creatures being their inmost Self)

So, it is Lord Rudra who is the Atman of all and hence the Brahman of the Vedas. Further the following references also support this truth.

“yatparaM brahma sarvaatmaa vishvasyaayatanaM mahat.h |
suukShmaatsuukshmataraM nityaM tattvameva tvameva tat.h |” (Kaivalya Upanishad 16)
“That which is the Supreme Brahman, the soul of all, the great support of the universe, subtler than the subtle, and eternal – that is thyself, and thou art That”.

Now, the below verse describes the properties or qualities of the Atman (Brahman) in detail. Atman (Brahman) is unmanifest (Nirguna).

“hR^itpuNDariikaM virajaM vishuddhaM vichintya madhye vishadaM vishokam.h |
achintyamavyaktamanantaruupaM shivaM prashaantamamR^itaM brahmayonim.h |” (Kaivalya Upanishad 6)
“(That Who is) unthinkable, unmanifest, of endless forms, the good, the peaceful, Immortal, the origin of the worlds, without beginning, middle, and end, the only one, all-pervading, Consciousness, and Bliss, the formless and the wonderful”.

The same Upanishad further clarifies that the same Soul which is the Brahman is none other than Bhagwan Shiva as follows.

“umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h | (Kaivalya Upanishad 7)
sa eva sarvaM yadbhuutaM yachcha bhavyaM sanaatanam.h |
j~naatvaa taM mR^ityumatyeti naanyaH panthaa vimuktaye |” (Kaivalya Upanishad 9)
“Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him (Shiva) who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya). He alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him, one transcends death; there is no other way to freedom”.

“aya.n hR^idi sthitaH saakshii sarveshhaamavisheshhataH |
tenaaya.n hR^idayaM proktaH shivaH sa.nsaaramochakaH |” (Panchabrahmopanishat 36)
“Lord Shiva, who grants salvation to one, from this day- to-day life of the world, exists as witness without differentiation in the heart of all beings and is called Hrudayam (That which exists within)”.

“yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate (param) Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also called Eeshana, it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things”.

“etajGYeya.n nityamevaatmasa.nstha.n naataH para.n veditavya.n hi kiJNchit.h |
bhoktaa bhogyaM preritaara.n cha matvaa sarvaM prokta.n trividhaM brahmametat.h | (Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:12)
“The enjoyer (jiva), the objects of enjoyment and the Ruler (Isvara)—the triad described by the knowers of Brahman—all this is nothing but Brahman (Rudra). This Brahman (Rudra) alone, which abides eternally within the self, should be known. Beyond it, truly, there is nothing else to be known”.

“ya eva.n nitya.n vedayate guhaashayaM prabhuM puraaNa.n sarvabhuuta.n hiraNmayam.h |