|This article needs to be refined. I need to explain the inner tatwam of Tripursamharam in detail. Once I am done with writing that I would update this article. Till then readers may kindly consider this article as “In Progress”|
The below verses are from Valmiki Ramayana – Bala Kanda – Chapter 75. Here when Sri Rama breaks the bow of Shiva in Mithila city, sage Parashurama enters into the scene in fury, he carries a Vaishnava bow in his hand and challenges Sri-Rama to string it if he is capable. Before challenging Rama this Parashurama narrates the story of those two bows viz. Shiva’s bow (which Rama broke) and Vishnu’s bow which Parashurama carried in his hands. With this little introduction let’s proceed to read the verses directly as mentioned below:
ime dve dhanuSii shreSThe divye loka abhipuujite
dR^iDhe balavatii mukhye sukR^ite vishvakarmaNaa 1-75-11
“These are the two strong and sturdy unsurpassed longbows, well-designed by gods and well-crafted by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect, and these are very important among all bows and well-worshipped by all worlds… one broken in your, and the other in my hand…” [1-75-11]
N.B:- Please note this carefully. Ramayana says these bows were designed by Vishwakarma. This is an important point which I would later use in my analysis. Commit this point carefully to your memory!
anisR^iSTam suraiH ekam tryambakaaya yuyutsave
tripura ghnam narashreSTha bhagnam kaakutstha yat tvayaa 1-75-12
“Oh, best one among men, out of the two longbows gods gave one to restive Trymbaka, God Shiva for a combat with demon Tripura, and oh, Kakutstha, that bow alone is the annihilator of Tripura, the demon… and you have broken that alone…” [1-75-12]
N.B:- Note this point also carefully. it says Rama broke the same bow which Shiva used to annihilate Tripura (three cities). I’ll recall this point in my analysis later.
idam dvitiiyam durdharSam viSNor dattam surottamaiH
tat idam vaiSNavam raama dhanuH para puram jayam 1-75-13
samaana saaram kaakutstha raudreNa dhanuSaa tu idam
“This is the second one and the choicest gods gave this to Vishnu, thereby this is named after Him as ‘Vishnu’s bow…’ this is an indestructible and enemy-citadel conquering longbow… and this is identical in its efficacy with Rudra’s longbow…” [1-75-13, 14a]
tadaa tu devataaH sarvaaH pR^icChanti sma pitaamaham 1-75-14
shiti kaNThasya viSNoH ca bala abala niriikSayaa
abhipraayam tu vij~naaya devataanaam pitaamahaH 1-75-15
virodham janayaamaasa tayoH satyavataam varaH
“Once, all the gods were asking the Grandparent, Brahma, as to who is powerful and who is less powerful among the blue-throated Shiva and Vishnu… but the Grandparent Brahma on inferring the intent of gods started to create adversity among those two, Shiva and Vishnu, for the Grandparent is the best adherer of truthfulness, as truth cannot be demonstrated on hearsay evidence…” [1-75-14b, 15, 16a]
virodhe tu mahat yuddham abhavat roma harSaNam 1-75-16
shiti kaNThasya viSNoH ca paraspara jaya eSiNoH
“Owing to their animosity then occurred a fierce and hair-raising war among Shiva and Vishnu, as each aspired victory for himself…” [1-75-16b, 17a]
tadaa tu jR^imbhitam shaivam dhanuH bhiima paraakramam 1-75-17
hum kaareNa mahaadevaH stambhito atha trilocanaH
“By the ‘hum’ sound of Vishnu that ruinously overpowering longbow of Shiva is broken (unstrung), and the triple-eyed God, Mahadeva, is frozen…” [1-75-17b, 18a]
N.B:- This is the verse often quoted by ill-minded Vaishnavas to show superiority of Vishnu over Shiva.
devaiH tadaa samaagamya sa R^iSi sanghaiH sa caaraNaiH 1-75-18
yaacitau prashamam tatra jagmatuH tau sura uttamau
“Then gods along with the assemblages of sages and celestial carana-s have come together and appealed to those two for appeasement in the matter of wielding authority, and then those two superior gods, Shiva and Vishnu, went into a state of amity…” [1-75-18b, 19a]
jR^imbhitam tat dhanuH dR^iSTvaa shaivam viSNu paraakramaiH 1-75-19
adhikam menire viSNum devaaH sa R^iSi gaNaaH tadaa
“On seeing the bow of Shiva rendered inert by the mettlesomeness of Vishnu, from then on the gods along with the assemblages of sages deemed Vishnu to be the paramount(Supreme)…” [1-75-19b, 20a]
dhanuu rudraH tu sa.mkruddho videheSu mahaayashaaH 1-75-20
devaraatasya raaja R^iSeH dadau haste sa saayakam
20b-21a. samkruddhaH= with indignation; mahaayashaaH rudraH tu= celebrated, Rudra, on his part; videheSu= among Videha [kings]; sa saayakam dhanuu= with, arrow, longbow; raaja R^iSeH= to Kingly, sage; devaraatasya haste dadau= in Devaraata’s, hand, handed over.
“That celebrated Rudra on his part with indignation has handed over that longbow, which is already fitted with unloosened arrow, to the sagely king among Videha kings, namely Devaraata…” [1-75-20b, 21a]
N.B:- Here i purposely copied the word-to-word translation also. Note this verse carefully. It says, Shiva in fury of defeat gave that bow fitted with unloosened arrow to Devaraata. This is a clear cut contradiction to verse no. 1-75-17 above where it clearly says that the bow became unstrung (jR^imbhitam) by the ‘Hummm’ sound of Vishnu. It’s quite illogical that after defeat Shiva would have strung the bow again and placed an arrow on it. Fixing arrow on bowstring is done only when you want to shoot, and not otherwise. And if Shiva accepted his defeat and wanted to throw his bow away (give it away with fury), then there was no need to string the bow and fit an arrow!!
Let me first summarize the important points.
1. Vishwakarma designed two bows – Shiva’s bow and Vishnu’s bow and gifted them to Shiva and Vishnu respectively
2. Shiva used the same bow designed by Vishwakarma to destroy the three-cities (Tripura)
3. In Shiva-Vishnu duel, Vishnu’s ‘Humm’ sound makes Shiva’s bow unstrung and Shiva becomes frozen
4. Shiva in fury of defeat gives that bow which is fitted with ‘unloosened’ arrow to Devaraata
5. That bow remains in Mithila
6. Rama comes there and lifts it and breaks it in two pieces
Mahabharata has a detailed account of the story of Tripura Samhaara (Destruction of three cities) by lord Shiva. Vyasa himself narrates that story to Arjuna whose excerpt has been copied below. This excerpt has been taken from the Kisari Mohan Ganguli’s translation of the Vyasa Bharata.
Book-7: Drona Vadha Parva:SECTION CCII
“Mahadeva thus accepted their request, moved by the desire of benefiting them, and said, ‘I will overthrow these Asuras. And Hara made the two mountains, viz., Gandhamadana and Vindhya, the two poles of his car. And Sankara made the earth with her oceans and forests his battle car. And the three-eyed deity made that prince of snakes, viz., Sesha, the Aksha, of that car. And that God of gods, the wielder of Pinaka, made the moon and the sun the two wheels of that vehicle. And the triple-eyed Lord made Elapatra and Pushpadanta, the two pins of the yoke. And the valiant Mahadeva made the Malaya mountains the yoke, and the great Takshaka the string for tying the yoke to the poles, and the creatures about him the traces of the steed. And Maheswara made the four Vedas his four steeds. And that lord of the three worlds made the supplementary Vedas the bridle-bits. And Mahadeva made Gayatri and Savitri the reins, the syllable Om the whip, and Brahma the driver. And making the Mandara mountains the bow, Vasuki the bowstring, Vishnu his excellent shaft, Agni the arrow-head, and Vayu the two wings of that shafts, Yama the feathers in its tail, lightning the whetting stone, and Meru the standard, Siva, riding on that excellent car which was composed of all the celestial forces, proceeded for the destruction of the triple city”.
This story has been narrated by Veda Vyasa himself, and exists in Mahabharata which is an EPIC. Therefore we have two noteworthy plus-points to consider this story as authentic, one is Vyasa’s spoken words, and second is presence in Epic Mahabharata.
This story clearly contradicts the points no. 1 and 2 summarized above. Here we have clearly seen that there is no Viswakarma involved in creation of any bow. Mahadeva himself did his preparation. Note that Shiva made the mountain range of “Mandara” his divine bow to destroy the triple citadels.
N.B:- The first 2 points are proven false by Mahabharata. Therefore the verse 1-75-11 of Valmiki Ramayana posted in above section is UNTRUE.
Now let’s assume that the bow (made of mandara mountain) was the same which Shiva gave to Devaraata. Then the same bow happened to be kept in Mithila. Valmiki Ramayana mentions that some hundreds of soldiers used to move the bow, it was so heavy. But practically speaking, a bow which is mount Mandara can not be moved by any no. of human efforts. And except Lord Shiva none of the Kings can carry that bow then how did Devaraata carried it to Mithila? So, definitely the Shiva-bow which was present in Mithila was NOT the one which was used in tripura Samhaara (means it was not the Mandara Mountain bow). If it was really the Mandara Mountain bow then that means Sri Rama broke it into two pieces as per point no. 6 above, which implies, Mandara mountain doesn’t exist anymore. But Mahabharata gives a clear-cut and contradictory passage where Arjuna and Krishna travels to Kailash mountain passing through the Mandara mountain as follows:
Mahabharata Book 7 (Drona Parva): SECTION LXXX
“Arjuna saw himself journeying through the sky with Kesava. And Partha, possessed of the speed of the mind, seemed to reach, with Kesava, the sacred foot of Himavat and the Manimat mountain abounding in many brilliant gems and frequented by Siddhas and Charanas. And the lord Kesava seemed to have caught hold of his left arm. And he seemed to see many wonderful sights as he reached (those place). And Arjuna of righteous soul then seemed to arrive at the White mountain on the north. And then he beheld, in the pleasure-gardens of Kuvera the beautiful lake decked with lotuses. And he also saw that foremost of rivers, viz., the Ganga full of water. And then he arrived at the regions about the Mandara mountains“.
Conclusion no. 1: Therefore the bow which Rama broke is DEFINITELY not the one used by Shiva in Tripura Samhaara and Valmiki Ramayana verse 1-75-11 is NOT TRUE
Now let’s proceed and see some more contradictions in this fake story of Ramayana.
The story of bestowal of Shiva’s bow to the dynasty of Janaka is said variously at various places. This bow obtaining story is itself NOT consistent and totally absurd. We’ll analyze now.
# 1. In the hermitage of Vishvamitra it is said that the bow is given in Vedic-ritual
“taddhi puurvam narashreSTha dattam sadasi daivataiH 1-31-8”
# 2. In the chapter 75 of Bala Kanda as seen in above verses, it is said that the bow used in Tripura Samhaara was given in the hand of Devaraata
“devaraatasya raaja R^iSeH dadau haste sa saayakam 1-75-20”
# 3. And in chapter 66 of Bala Kanda it is said that the bow which Shiva used to destroy Daksha’s sacrifice, that was the same bow which was given in Dasksha’s ritual to Gods.
“dakSa yaj~na vadhe puurvam dhanuH aayamya viiryavaan 1-66-9”
# 4. Seetha says about this to ascetic Lady Anasuya that Rain-god gave this to Janaka’s dynasty
“mahaayaj~ne tadaa tasya varuNena mahaatmanaa dattam dhanur varam priityaa tuuNii ca akSayya saayakau Ayodhya II-118”
We can combine quotes no. # 3 & # 4 and frame a thought that the bow which was used by Shiva to destroy Daksha’s sacrifice was the same given to Rain god and Rain god Passed that on to may be Devaraata. Then these points # 3 & # 4. contradict point no. # 2.
Definitely Daksha Yajna bow is NOT SAME as Tripura Samhaara Bow since for the destruction of three cities the bow was specially made then and there and was NOT any bow used previously so far.
Conclusion no. 2: It becomes clear that the bow which Rama broke was NOT the bow used for Tripura Samhaara. Hence Valmiki Ramayana verse 1-75-12 is NOT TRUE. However, it can be assumed that it was the bow used by Shiva to destroy Daksha’s sacrifice, which sounds logically proper.
Now with the above consideration, it becomes clear that the verse 1-75-17 is totally UNTRUE which states that by the ‘Humm’ sound of Vishnu Shiva’s Tripura Samhaara bow became unstrung and he gave it to Devaraata.
Another CRITICAL point to be noted is, we also can NOT assume that after destroying Tripura Shiva kept that bow with himself and later in Daksha sacrificed used the same bow and may be sometime later fought with Vishnu and got defeated and gave away that bow to Devaraata through rain god. This is also NOT A VALID assumption because, Daksha Sacrifice happened when Shiva married Sati (Shiva’s first consort), and Shiva destroyed Tripura after the birth of Kartikeya who was born after Shiva married Parvati (second incarnation). Kartikeya slayed Tarakasura and the Tripura owners (demons) were the three sons of Tarakasura.
Therefore, the Daksha Sacrifice incident precedes to Tripura destruction incident in sequence of time. So, that means Shiva definitely used a different bow in Daksha sacrifice which he might have gifted to rain God and he inturn gave that to Devaraata. And later in Tripura Samhaara, Shiva created a new bow using mandara mountain. This implies that the battle between Shiva-Vishnu NEVER happened in Reality
Conclusion no. 3:- Shiva Vishnu battle did not happen in reality. Hence verses 1-75-14, 1-75-15, 1-75-16, 1-75-17, 1-75-18, 1-75-19, and 1-75-20 are all FALSE hearsay stories and NOT at all Real.
Let’s try to combine our scattered points and conclude.
1. Bow used in Tripura Samhaara was NOT the one used in Daksha’s Sacrifice incident
2. Logically we have seen that Tripura Samhaara bow was NOT the one which went to Mithila, and we assumed that logically it looks correct to assume that bow of Daksha’s sacrifice incident might have gone to Mithila
3. Shiva-Vishnu war is proven to be logically UNREAL and that could be just a hearsay story and no truth in that in reality
No doubt that Valmiki Ramayana is authentic scripture and has very less interpolations. But we need to understand it clearly that the EPIC portion is to be considered as Truth and authentic. This story of Shiva-Vishnu fight is PURANIC story and can NOT be called an EPIC. Ramayana can be called ‘Epic’ only when it is considered an a biography of Sri Rama’s life. And therefore all other miscellaneous PAURANIC stories are just “stories”, and are NOT authentic/True if they have contradictions.
And i STRONGLY disagree with these Ramayana verses because VEDAS, UPANISHADS and MAHABHARATA have always hailed lord Shiva as “unconquerable, unvanquished lord”. These authentic sacred books always emphasized on the point that Rudra can NOT be overcome/defeated by anyone. Here are below few references in support of Rudra’s strength. Here one may clearly note that Rudra is not only the strongest of the strong, but Rig Veda says that there doesn’t exist anyone who is mightier than Rudra.
“imā rudrāya sthiradhanvane ghiraḥ kṣipreṣave devāya svadhāvne |
aṣāḷhāya sahamānāya vedhase tighmāyudhāya bharatā śṛṇotu naḥ |” (Rig Veda 7:46:1)
“To Rudra bring these songs, whose bow is firm and strong, the self-dependent GOD with swiftly-flying shafts, The Wise, the Unconquered Conqueror whom none may overcome, armed with sharp-pointed weapons: may he hear our call. “
“śreṣṭho jātasya rudra śriyāsi tavastamastavasāṃ vajrabāho |
parṣi ṇaḥ pāramaṃhasaḥ svasti viśvā abhītī rapaso yuyodhi |” (Rig Veda 2.33.3)
“In beauty thou art the most beautiful of all that exists, O Rudra, the strongest of the strong, thou wielder of the thunderbolt! Carry us happily to the other shore of our anguish, and ward off all assaults of mischief”.
“arhan bibharṣi sāyakāni dhanvārhan niṣkaṃ yajataṃ viśvarūpam |
arhannidaṃ dayase viśvamabhvaṃ na vā ojīyo rudra tvadasti |” (Rig Veda 2:33:10)
“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ |
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ |” (Rig Veda IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”
The below verse also supports this above verse stating that Shiva manifested as Vishnu.
“sá yád dhruvā́ṃ díśam ánu vyácalad víṣṇur bhūtvā́nuvyàcalad virā́jam annādī́ṃ kr̥tvā́ |” (Atharva Veda 15:14:5)
“He (Vrata/Shiva), when he went away to the stedfast region, went away having become Vishnu“.
Also, as per Rig Veda Rudra is the “best” among all Gods as stated below.
“yaḥ śukra iva sūryo hiraṇyamiva rocate | śreṣṭho devānāṃ vasuḥ |” (Rig Veda 1:43:5)
“He shines in splendour like the Sun, refulgent as bright gold is he, The excellent, the best among the Gods”.
Thirdly, Puranic stories are NOT a yardstick to judge any god. Puranic stories have got contaminated with huge no. of interpolations. This story of Shiva-Vishnu fight given in Valmiki Ramayana has not been seen in any other Purana or even in Mahabharata (which contains lot many Puranic stories in an authentic tone). Then this story becomes highly doubtful. The charecters of Ramayana who narrated the sequences of stories related to Shiva’s bow, none of them were the actual witness of Shiva-Vishnu battle, and since this battle is not recorded in any Purana or even in Mahabharata it stands out as a FAKE story and could be just a hearsay one. However the bow which was there in Janaka’s palace was no doubt a bow of Shiva which Rama broke. That doesn’t make Shiva low in any sense, since it is ONLY lord Shiva who possess innumerable weapons and he only donates weapons to others whenever required. Even the famous bow named ‘Vijaya’ which Karna possessed was given by Lord Shiva to Parashurama hence it was also a Shiva’bow. So, breaking a bow or spreading false rumours around Shiva’s bow is not a big deal. Shiva’s original bow is Pinaka which he doesn’t donate to anyone. And except him no one can wield Pinaka! Shiva is the one who donated his battle axe to Bhargava Rama and after possessing that he became famous as Parashurama. Shiva is the one who gifted his own weapon called Sudarshana Chakra to Vishnu as a reward of his devotion, and thereafter that Sudarshana discus became a signature weapon of Narayana. Mahabharata clearly states this story of Sudarshana discus, and also states that when Shiva wanted to protect his devotee ‘Mandara’ (another son of Hiranyakashyap), thousands of Sudarshana discuses of Vishnu and thousands of thunderbolts of Indra could not even make a scratch on his body due to the protection of Mahadeva! How dare anyone even think of defeating Mahadeva’s devotee without his wish? When Vishnu couldn’t even scratch Mahadeva’s devotee, how can he be capable of rendering Mahadeva inert with his ‘Humm’ sound?
“With his self thus deluded by Maya or ignorance, it is he who identifies himself with the body and does all sorts of things. In the waking state it is he (the Jiva) who attains satisfaction through the varied objects of enjoyment, such as women, food, drink, etc”.
“In the dream-state that Jiva feels pleasure and pain in a sphere of existence created by his own Maya or ignorance. During the state of profound sleep, when everything is dissolved (into their causal state), he is overpowered by Tams or non-manifestation and comes to exist in his form of Bliss”.
“punashcha janmaantarakarmayogaatsa eva jiivaH svapiti prabuddhaH puratraye kriiDati yashcha |jiivastatastu jaataM sakalaM vichitram.h | aadhaaramaanandamakhaNDabodhaM yasmi.NllayaM yaati puratrayaM cha |” (Kaivalyopanishad 14)
“Again, through his connection with deeds done in previous births, that very Jiva returns to the dream-state, or the waking state. The being who sports in the three cities (viz., the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep) – from Him has sprung up all diversity. He is the substratum, the bliss, the indivisible Consciousness, in whom the three cities dissolve themselves”.
anyatraivāśvibhyām | (Shatapatha Brahmana 220.127.116.11)
teṣām kurukṣetram devayajanamāsa tasmādāhuḥ kurukṣetram devānāṃ
devayajanamiti tasmādyatra kva ca kurukṣetrasya nigacati tadeva manyata idam
devayajanamiti taddhi devānāṃ devayajanam | (Shatapatha Brahmana 18.104.22.168)
ta āsata śriyaṃ gacema yaśaḥ syāmānnādāḥ syāmeti tatho eveme sattramāsate śriyaṃ
gacema yaśaḥ syāmānnādāḥ syāmeti | (Shatapatha Brahmana 22.214.171.124)
te hocuḥ yo naḥ śrameṇa tapasā śraddhayā yaiñenāhutibhiryajñasyodṛcam
pūrvo’vagacātsa naḥ śreṣṭho’sattadu naḥ sarveṣāṃ saheti tatheti | (Shatapatha Brahmana 126.96.36.199)
tadviṣṇuḥ prathamaḥ prāpa sa devānāṃ śreṣṭho’bhavattasmādāhurviṣṇurdevānāṃ
śreṣṭha iti | (Shatapatha Brahmana 188.8.131.52)
sa yaḥ sa viṣṇuryajñaḥ sa sa yaḥ sa yajño’sau sa ādityastaddhedaṃ yaśo viṣnurna
śaśāka saṃyantu tadidamapyetarhi naiva sarva-iva yaśaḥ śaknoti saṃyantum | (Shatapatha Brahmana 184.108.40.206)
sa tisṛdhanvamādāyāpacakrāma sa dhanurārtnyā śira upastabhya tasthau tam devā
anabhidhṛṣṇuvantaḥ samantam pariṇyaviśanta | (Shatapatha Brahmana 220.127.116.11)
tā ha vamrya ūcuḥ imā vai vamryo yadupadīkā yo’sya jyāmapyadyātkimasmai
prayacetetyannādyamasmai prayacemāpi dhanvannapo’dhigacettathāsmai
sarvamannādyam prayacemeti tatheti | (Shatapatha Brahmana 18.104.22.168)
tasyopaparāsṛtya jyāmapijakṣustasyāṃ cinnāyāṃ dhanurārtnyau viṣphurantyau
viṣṇoḥ śiraḥ pracicidatuḥ | (Shatapatha Brahmana 22.214.171.124)
tadghṛṅṅiti papāta tatpatitvāsāvādityo’bhavadathetaraḥ prāṅeva prāvṛjyata
tadyadghṛṅṅityapatattasmādgharmo’tha yatprāvṛjyata tasmātpravargyaḥ | (Shatapatha Brahmana 126.96.36.199)
te devā abruvan mahānbata no vīro’dādīti tasmānmahāvīrastasya yo raso
vyakṣarattaṃ pāṇibhiḥ sammamṛjustasmātsammrāṭ | (Shatapatha Brahmana 188.8.131.52)
14:1:1:1. The gods Agni, Indra, Soma, Makha, Vishnu, and the Visve Devâh, except the two Asvins, performed a sacrificial session.
14:1:1:2. Their place of divine worship was Kurukshetra.. Therefore people say that Kurukshetra is the gods’ place of divine worship: hence wherever in Kurukshetra one settles there one thinks, ‘This is a place for divine worship;’ for it was the gods’ place of divine worship.
14:1:1:3. They entered upon the session thinking, ‘May we attain excellence! may we become glorious! may we become eaters of food!’ And in like manner do these (men) now enter upon the sacrificial session thinking, ‘May we attain excellence! may we become glorious! may we become eaters of food!’
14:1:1:4. They spake, ‘Whoever of us, through austerity, fervour, faith, sacrifice, and oblations, shall first compass the end of the sacrifice, he shall be the most excellent of us, and shall then be in common to us all.’ ‘So be it,’ they said.
14:1:1:5. Vishnu first attained it, and he became the most excellent of the gods; whence people say, ‘Vishnu is the most excellent of the gods.’
14:1:1:6. Now he who is this Vishnu is the sacrifice; and he who is this sacrifice is yonder Âditya (the sun). But, indeed, Vishnu was unable to control that (love of) glory of his; and so even now not every one can control that (love of) glory of his.
14:1:1:7. Taking his bow, together with three arrows, he stepped forth. He stood, resting his head on the end of the bow. Not daring to attack him, the gods sat themselves down all around him.
14:1:1:8. Then the ants said–these ants (vamrî), doubtless, were that (kind called) ‘upadîkâ ‘–‘What would ye give to him who should gnaw the bowstring?’–‘We would give him the (constant) enjoyment of food, and he would find water even in the desert: so we would give him every enjoyment of food.’–‘So be it,’ they said.
14:1:1:9. Having gone nigh unto him, they gnawed his bowstring. When it was cut, the ends of the bow, springing asunder, cut off Vishnu’s head.
14:1:1:100. It fell with (the sound) ‘ghriṅ’; and on falling it became yonder sun. And the rest (of the body) lay stretched out (with the top part) towards the east. And inasmuch as it fell with (the sound) ‘ghriṅ,’ therefrom the Gharma (was called); and inasmuch as he was stretched out (pra-vrig,), therefrom the Pravargya (took its name).
14:1:1:11. The gods spake, ‘Verily, our great hero (mahân virah) has fallen:’ therefrom the Mahâvîra pot (was named). And the vital sap which flowed from him they wiped up (sam-mrig) with their hands, whence the Samrâg.
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