Maha-Narayanopanishad – A Scripture Which Glorifies Lord Shiva – PART I


FOREWORD:

It has been observed on internet forums/sites that many people have a misconception on MahaNarayanopanishad. Many people have an opinion that Maha-Narayanopanishad is a Vaishnava Upanishad which glorifies Lord Narayana (Vishnu). Their opinion is most probably based on the word “Narayana” in the title of this Upanishad. However the fact is, the names like “Maha-Narayana”, “Adi-Narayana”, “Maha-Vishnu” all these are actually the epithets / names of lord Shiva.

Sammohana Tantra (Ch. VIII) says, “Without Prakriti the Samsara (World) cannot be. Without Purusha true knowledge cannot be attained. Therefore should both be worshipped; with Mahakali, Mahakala.” Some, it says, speak of Shiva, some of Shakti, some of Narayana (Vishnu). But the supreme Narayana (Adinarayana) is supreme Shiva (Parashambhu), the Nirguna Brahman, pure as crystal“.

In Vedas there is no god by name ‘Mahavishnu’. Puranaic texts apply that name on Vishnu considering Purusha as Vishnu. But a careful study of Vedas reveals that Veda Purusha is only Shiva hence that name Mahavishnu also actually is the name of Shiva. Similarly Mahalakshmi is not goddess Lakshmi (consort of Vishnu). Mahalakshmi is the goddess who has Astadashabhuja (18 hands), and thrinetra(three eyes) and who killed Mahishasura as per Devi Bhagawatam and Durga Saptashati kind of Shakta texts. Mahalakshmi is the name of goddess Durga the consort of Shiva. I would take it as a separate topic sometime since it’s huge and is out of scope of discussion here.

This Maha-Narayanopanishad in reality is an Upanishad of Lord Shiva. It glorifies Lord Shiva alone. I’ve followed an analytical approach to explain each verse and with each verse one would understand it as actually talking about Lord Shiva alone.

Readers may kindly note that the name “Rudra” is confusing when you read Vedas and Puranas. In Vedas Rudra word is used for lord Shiva (the supreme) and simultaneously in Upanishads sometimes it is used to call the destroyer deity-Rudra who is a manifestation of Lord Shiva who comes at the time of dissolution. Puranas separate out words Rudra and Shiva and distinctively call Shiva as the originator of Rudra(the destroyer deity). In this Upanishad since it is based on Vedas, I have used word “Rudra” only to refer to lord Shiva. Wherever explicit mention of destroyer deity comes I have mentioned him as ‘Deity of destruction’ within braces. Hope this convention makes everything clear.

Happy reading!

||Om Namah Shivaya||

Maha Narayanopanishad Part – I

Maha Narayanopanishad I-1:

aMbhasyapaare bhuvanasya madhye naakasya pR^ishhThe mahato mahiiyaan.h |
shukreNa jyotiirshhi samanupravishhTaH prajaapatishcharati garbhe antaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.1.1)

MEANING:

The Lord of creation, who is present in the shoreless waters, on the earth and above the heaven and who is greater than the great, having entered the shining intelligences of creatures in seed form, acts in the foetus (which grows into the living being that is born).

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

From the above verse we read that the Lord of creation has the following attributes. He,

– Is the Lord of creation,
– Present in waters, earth and above the heaven,
– Is greater than the great,
– Has entered into all creatures,
– Is also present in the womb as feotus.

Now let’s see who is that lord whom Vedas described by the above attributes.

Let’s see which God is called as lord of Creation:

“sarvo vai rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“All this is verily Rudra. To Rudra we offer our salutations”

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Rig Veda 6:49:10 calls Lord Rudra as “bhuvanasya pitaram” means, “The Father of whole universe”. Rig Veda 2:33:9 clearly calls Rudra as “īśānādasya bhuvanasya“, which means “Ishana – the Lord of all worlds”

“jagatam pataye namo” which means, salutations to Rudra who is Lord of entire creation(jagat) – (Sri Rudram of Yaurveda – 2nd Anuvaka)

We have seen whom Vedas describe as Lord of Creation and Universe. The one lord – Rudra!

Now let’s analyze which lord is called by Vedas as being present in waters, earth and above the heaven:

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
Which means: “The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“Bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣamtásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ” (Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
“Bhava rules the sky(àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth(pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

In Atharvaveda there is a hymn to lord Rudra’s Jwala-Linga form which is called Skhambha. It says,

“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa” (Atharvaveda X:7.35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.

skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ
skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát (Atharvaveda X:8.2)
“Upheld by Skambha’s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye”.

“ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ” (Atharvaveda X:8.13)
“He with one half engendered all Creation (bhuvanam). What sign is there to tell us of the other?”

Earth (Bhuloka) and Heaven (Swargaloka) are one of the 14 Bhuvanam (abodes). Hence from above verse from Atharvaveda it is very clear that Lord Rudra from “HALF” of his Jwala-Linga form (Skhambha) generated all Jagats. Therefore Lord Rudra is infinite and in reality Lord Rudra is higher than the Heaven (Swarga). He alone supports Heaven, Earth, all abodes and created beings. Also, all 14 Bhuvanams are inside the Hiranyagarbha (shining visible universe) and as per the below quote it becomes clear that Lord Rudra is higher than Hiranyagarbha hence he is limitless.

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaaramiisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti |” (Svetasvathara Upanishad 3:07)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”.

Now let’s proceed with the next parameter for analysis which is ‘being greater than the Great’:

“etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ” (Rig Veda 10:90)
“So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa”.

Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka (10:24:1)declares Rudra as the Purusha, “purusho vai rudrah” and correlating this with the above Rig Vedic verse we can infer that Veda Purusha Rudra is the highest. This is also supported by the following verses.

“na tasya kaarya.n karaNa.n cha vidyate na tatsamashchaabhyadhikashcha dR^ishyate |
paraasya shaktirvividhaiva shruuyate svaabhaavikii GYaanabalakriyaa cha |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:08)
“There is no effect and no cause known of him, no one is seen like unto him or better; his high power is revealed as manifold, as inherent, acting as force and knowledge”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH |”(Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:09)
“There is no master of his in the world, no ruler of his, not even a sign of him. He is the cause, the lord of the lords of the organs, and there is of him neither parent nor lord”.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidya smaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyeka stenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h |” (Sve. Upa. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky”.

From the above verses it is crystal clear that Lord Rudra is higher than the highest.

Now the next parameter is “has entered into all creatures”. Let’s see whom the Vedas call as the in-dweller of all:

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo” means, “Salutations to Lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam” – Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-4
“devana hridayebhyo namah” means, “Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller / sparkling heart of all Gods” – Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Sve Upa. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaara miisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti” (Sve Upa. 3:7)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH” (Sve Upa. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

From above verses we read that Rudra is, the indweller / present in the hearts of all Gods, and he is also the indweller of all beings. So, who is left without being a form of Rudra (Shiva)? This proves that Vedas recognize Lord Rudra as the one who entered all beings (including Gods).

We’re left with one last parameter which says that the Supreme Lord, is also present in the womb as foetus:

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha
namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha
namo madhyamaya chapagalbhaya cha” – (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all. Salutations to Him who appears in the middle, and who appears undeveloped (Foetus)”.

“utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ” (Atarva Veda X-8-28)
“Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child. As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb.”

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Sve. Upa 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

These verses proves the fact that it’s only Lord Shiva who is the Poorvaja (Ancient), Jyeshtha (Eldest among the born i.e Hiranyagarbha), and Kanishtha (youngest one which includes every new foetus being born).

Now let’s move ahead with the next verse of Maha Narayanopanishad

Maha Narayanopanishad I-2:

yasminnidam sam cha vi chaiti sarvan yasmin.h devaa adhi vishve nishheduH |
tadeva bhuuta.n tadu bhavyamaa ida.n tadakshare parame vyomanh | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.1.2)

MEANING:

That in which all this universe exists together and into which it dissolves. That in which all the gods remain enjoying their respective powers – That certainly is whatever that has been in the past and whatever indeed is to come in the future. This cause of the universe, Prajapati, is supported by His own imperishable nature described as absolute ether.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here the above verse talks about the following attributes of the Supreme Lord:
– That in which all this universe exists and into which it dissolves
– That in which all the gods remain enjoying their respective powers
– That certainly is whatever that has been in the past and whatever indeed is to come in the future
– This cause of the universe, is imperishable described as absolute ether

Now let’s see which God is praised in Shruti as having the above attributes.

The first parameter is to know in which lord all this universe exists and who takes them back during dissolution:

“pratyaN^janaastishhThati saJNchukochaantakaale |
sa.nsR^ijya vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Sve. Upa 3.02)
“He (Rudra) dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.

eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA | (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

“hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n” (Svet. Upa 3:04)
“he who formerly gave birth to Hiranyagarbha (Shining visible universe)”. Means Rudra created the universe.

atha kasmAduchyate.ananto yasmAduchchAryamANa eva
tiryagUrdhvamadhastAchchAsyAnto nopalabhyate tasmAduchyate.anantaH | (Atharvasiras Upanishad)
“He is called “all pervading “ because like oil in gingili (Til), he peacefully pervades all over the world and its beings, from top to bottom and from right to left. He is called “Anantha (endless)”, because his end is neither at the top nor bottom, nor right nor left”. So it proves that Lord Rudra is infinite (and same is described as Skhambha the Jwala-Linga form of him in Skhambha SUktam). Hence he is wider that the universe which in other words means the universe with its limited shape exists within Rudra.

“yasmaat.h para.n naaparamasti ki.nchidyasmaannaNiiyo na jyaayo.asti kashchit.h |
vR^ixa iva stabdho divi tishhThatyekastenedaM puurNaM purushheNa sarvam.h” (Svet. Upa. 3:09)
“This whole universe is filled by this person (purusha), to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger, who stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky.”

Therefore from the above verses it is crystal clear that it is Lord Rudra who created universe and pervades entire universe (means entire universe exists in him) and he is the one who takes everything back into himself at the time of deluge.

Now let’s study the next attribute which says, “That in which all the gods remain enjoying their respective powers”. Let’s see who is that God who satisfies this condition.

“vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-4)
“Salutations to Lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam”.

“devana hridayebhyo namah” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9)
“Salutations to Rudra who is the indweller / sparkling heart of all Gods”.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |” (Svet. Upa. 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe”.

The above verses proved clearly that it is the Lord Rudra who has Vishwaroopam (means all Gods & creation reside within him). And Rudra is the creator (sire) of all gods and bestowed them their respective powers/potency.

Now the subsequent attribute which we need to analyze is, “That certainly is whatever that has been in the past and whatever indeed is to come in the future”. Let’s analyze this.

Atharvaveda has a hymn to Prana (Rudra) which says,

“antár gárbhaś carati devátāsv ā́bhūto bhūtáḥ sá u jāyate púnaḥ
sá bhūtó bhávyaṃ bhaviṣyát pitā́ putráṃ prá viveśā śácībhiḥ |” (Atharva Veda-XI.4.20)
He moves as an embryo within the gods; having arrived, and being in existence, he is born again. Having arisen he enters with his mights the present and the future, as a father (goes to) his son”.

“vishvaM bhuutaM bhuvana.n chitraM bahudhaa jaata.n jaayamaana.n cha yat.h |
sarvo hyeshha rudrastasmai rudraaya namo astu |” (Yajurveda Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.24.1)
“The material universe the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

“yátrādityā́ś ca rudrā́ś ca vásavaś ca samā́hítāḥ
bhūtáṃ ca yátra bhávyaṃ ca sárve lokā́ḥ prátiṣṭhitāḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ ” (Atharva Veda X:7.22)
“Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha (Jwala Linga of Rudra) In whom Ādityas dwell, in whom Rudras and Vasus are contained, In whom the future and the past and all the worlds are firmly set”.

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH | puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^ janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH |” (Svet. Upa 2.16)
“He indeed, the Lord, who pervades all regions, was the first to be born and it is He who dwells in the womb of the universe. It is He, again, who is born as a child and He will be born in the future, He stands behind all persons and His face is everywhere”.

From above verses it is crystal clear that it’s Lord Rudra who is certainly whatever that has been in the past, whatever that is in present and whatever that would be in future.

The next attribute in sequence for our analysis is, “This cause of the universe, is imperishable described as absolute ether”. Now let’s analyze who is described as having such an attribute.

“R^icho axare parame vyoman.h yasmindevaa adhi vishve nishheduH |
yasta.n na veda kimR^ichaa karishhyati ya ittadvidusta ime samaasate |” (Sve. Upa. 4:08)
“He who does not know that indestructible being of the Rig-Veda, that highest ether-like (Self) wherein all the gods reside, of what use is the Rig-Veda to him? Those only who know it, rest contented”

“xaraM pradhaanamamR^itaaxara.n haraH xaraatmaanaaviishate deva ekaH | ” (Sve. Upa. 1:10)
“Prakriti (Pradhana) is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable. The non—dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti and the individual soul”.

The above verses are sufficient to understand that the indestructible, imperishable lord is Hara. Now let’s move on to next verse of Maha Narayanopanishat

Maha Narayanopanishad I-3:

yenaavR^ita.n kha.n cha diva.n mahii cha yenaadityastapati tejasaa bhraajasaa cha |
yamantaH samudre kavayo vayanti yadakshare parame prajaaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.1.3)

MEANING:

He by whom the space between heaven and earth as well as the heaven and the earth are enveloped. He by whom the sun burns with heat and gives light, and He whom the sages bind in the ether of their hearts (with the string of meditation), in whom – The Imperishable One – all creatures abide.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here we’re required to analyze the following attributes.

– He by whom the space between heaven and earth as well as the heaven and the earth are enveloped.
– He by whom the sun burns with heat and gives light, and He whom the sages bind in the ether of their hearts (with the string of meditation)
– In whom – The Imperishable One – all creatures abide

Our first task is to know the lord who has enveloped entire Earth & Heaven and pervaded in between.

“sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt |
sabhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvātyatiṣṭhad daśāṅghulam |” (Rig Veda 10.90)
“A thousand heads hath Puruṣa, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet. On every side pervading earth he fills a space ten fingers wide”.

“purusho vai rudrah” (Yajurveda Taittirya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
“Lord Rudra is Veda Purusha”. Kaushitaki Brahmana (6:1:13) of Rig Veda calls Lord Rudra as “sahasrakha sahasrapat” (tata.udatiṣṭhat.sahasra.akṣaḥ.sahasra.pāt).

Hence we infer that the Purusha who spans entire Earth and space is Lord Rudra. Let’s see few more verses.

“atha kasmAduchyate.ananto yasmAduchchAryamANa eva
tiryagUrdhvamadhastAchchAsyAnto nopalabhyate tasmAduchyate.anantaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad)
“He is called “all pervading“ because like oil in gingili (Til), he peacefully pervades all over the world and its beings, from top to bottom and from right to left. He is called “Anantha (endless)”, because his end is neither at the top nor bottom, nor right nor left”.

“vishvatashchaxuruta vishvatomukho vishvatobaahuruta vishvataspaat.h |” (Sve. Upa. 3:03)
“His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere, His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet”.

“sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Svet. Upa. 3:11)
“He is the all—pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is the omnipresent Lord Shiva”.

The above verses show that lord Rudra is all-pervading and infinite. This is enough to understand that he envelops heaven, earth and the space in between as well. Now let’s proceed with the next attribute for analysis, which is, “He by whom the sun burns with heat and gives light, and He whom the sages bind in the ether of their hearts (with the string of meditation)”

In this connection Katha Upanishad says:

“yadida.n ki.n cha jagat.h sarvaM praaNa ejati niHsR^itam.h |
mahad.hbhayaM vajramudyataM ya etadviduramR^itaaste bhavanti |” (Katha Upa. II.3.2)
“All this universe, evolved (from Brahman), moves in prana (in Brahman); the most frightful like an uplifted thunderbolt. Those who know this become immortal”.

“śreṣṭho jātasya rudra śriyāsi tavastamastavasāṃ vajrabāho |
parṣi ṇaḥ pāramaṃhasaḥ svasti viśvā abhītī rapaso yuyodhi |” (Rig Veda 2.33.3)
” In glory thou art the most glorious of all that exists, O Rudra, the strongest of the strong, thou wielder of the thunderbolt! Carry us happily to the other shore of our anguish, and ward off all assaults of mischief”.
.

“bhayaadasyaagnistapati bhayaattapati suuryaH |
bhayaadindrashcha vaayushcha mR^ityurdhaavati paJNchamaH |” (Katha Upa. II.3.3)
“For fear of Him, fire burns; For fear of Him, shines the sun;
For fear of Him, Indra and Vayu function; For fear of Him, death, the fifth, stalks on the earth”.

This Lord Prana who is none other than Lord Rudra is strict and disciplined. Hence due to his fear all otehr deities perform their duties on time. Because of the fear of Rudra all cosmic functions happen peoperly.

“so.aha.n sarvAkAraH . yato vA imAni bhUtAni jAyante |
yena jAtAni jIvanti . yatprayantyabhisa.nvishanti . taM mAmeva
viditvopAsIta . bhUtebhirdevebhirabhiShTuto.ahameva . bhIShAsmAdvAtaH
pavate . bhIShodeti sUryaH . bhIShAsmAdagnishchendrashcha . somo.ata
eva yo.aha.n sarveShAmadhiShThAtA sarveShA.n cha bhUtAnAM
pAlakaH . so.ahaM pR^ithivI . so.ahamApaH . so.aha.n tejaH . so.aha.n vAyuH |
so.aha.n kAlaH . so.aha.n dishaH . so.ahamAtmA . mayi sarvaM pratiShThitam.h |
brahmavidApnoti param.h . brahmA shivo me astu sadAshivom.h |” (Bhasma Jabala Upanishad)
“I myself am that Great Lord Siva, God of all gods, and the Supreme Controller of all the universes. I am that Brahman, I am Omkara; I am the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of all. Through My terror only, vayu blows, through my terror only Surya shines, through my terror only fire burns, Indra et al also function properly through my terror. I am this world and the five elements. I am the Highest Truth that exists, the Brahman of the Upanishads”.

“umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |” (Kaivalyopanishad 7)
“Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya)”.

We have analyzed and understood the first attribute that due to Rudra Sun burns and give slight. It’s lord Rudra whom the sages bind in their heart by concentrating in Yoga. Now let’s analyze the next one which is, “In whom – The Imperishable One – all creatures abide”. This we have already analyzed in previous sections of Maha Narayanopanishad above. Hence i’m not repeating the efforts. It’s lord Rudra only who fits in this attribute as per Shruti. Let’s move on to next verse of Maha Narayanopanishad.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-4, I-5:

yataH prasuutaa jagataH prasuutii toyena jiivaan.h vyachasarja bhuumyaam.h |
yadoshhadhiibhiH purushhaan.h pashuumshcha vivesha bhuutaani charaacharaaNi |(Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.1.4)
ataH para.n naanyadaNiiyasam hi paraatpara.n yanmahato mahaantam.h |
yadekamavyaktamanantaruupa.n vishvaM puraaNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |(Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.1.5)

MEANING:

From whom the creatrix of the world, Prakriti, was born, who created in the world creatures out of elements such as water, who entered beings consisting of herbs, quadrupeds and men as the inner controller, who is greater than the greatest, who is one without a second, who is imperishable, who is of unlimited forms, who is the universe, who is ancient, who remains beyond darkness or Prakriti and who is higher than the highest – nothing else exists other than, or subtler than, Him.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is more or less a repeat or re-statement of whatever was stated in previous verses. Here the attributes of SUpreme Lord Rudra has been sung in another words. But still let’s analyze and see them very briely.

Here the attributes described are:

– From whom the creatrix of the world, Prakriti, was born,
– Who created in the world creatures out of elements such as water, who entered beings consisting of herbs, quadrupeds and men as the inner controller,
– Who is greater than the greatest, who is one without a second, who is imperishable, who is of unlimited forms, who is the universe, who is ancient, who remains beyond darkness or Prakriti and who is higher than the highest – nothing else exists other than, or subtler than, Him.

The first extract indicates that from Supreme Lord, Prakriti emerged. Let’s see who is that source.

“xaraM pradhaanamamR^itaaxara.n haraH | xaraatmaanaaviishate deva ekaH |” (Sve. Upa. 1:10)
“Prakriti is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable. The non—dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti and the individual soul”. Prakriti is all the creation, right from the Pancha Bhutas (Five elements) viz. Earth, Fire, Water, Air, Sky, to all the created beings including Gods.

In this connection Rig Veda says:

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ |
janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ |” (Rig Veda IX.96.5)
“Father of sacred chants, Soma flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu”. Soma (Sa+Uma) Lord who is with Uma.

Shatapatha Brahmana VI:1:3:10 – VI:1:3:17 details out clearly that because of Lord Rudra Agni, Water, Indra, Vayu, Sun, Moon, Plants, Parjanya (Rain god) became such like. And Shatapatha Brahmana VI:1:3:19 says that Lord Rudra entered all those forms of Prakriti (Pancha Bhutas) and became all those forms.

“kumāro rūpāṇyanuprāviśanna vā agniṃ kumāramiva paśyantyetānyevāsya rūpāṇi
paśyantyetāni hi rūpāṇyanuprāviśat” (Shatapatha Brahmana VI:1:3:19)
“That boy (Rudra) entered into the forms one after another; for one never sees him as a mere boy (kumâra), but one sees those forms of his, for he assumed those forms one after another”.

So, it’s clear that from Lord Rudra only all the aspects of Prakriti (creation) were born. Now let’s analyze the next attribute which says, “Who created in the world creatures out of elements such as water, who entered beings consisting of herbs, quadrupeds and men as the inner controller”

Regarding the prime elements of Prakriti viz. Agni, Water etc. we have already seen from Shatapatha Brahmana and Rig Veda verses above that from Lord Rudra manifested all these elements. So, now we just have to prove that lord Rudra entered all plants and two footed and four footed animals. Here we go.

“umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)
“Salutations to the overlord of all created beings and who is the lord of Uma”.

“paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye |” (Rig Veda 10.90.8)
“He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame”.

“Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |” (Yajurveda III-1-4 & Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
“What cattle the lord of cattle(pashupati) ruleth?, He rules Both the four-footed and the two-footed.”

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu |
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“vrikshanam pataye namo” (yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of the trees”

From above analysis we are clear that Lord Rudra is the one spoken as the one who is the creator and overlord of all animals, nature and creation. For the third attribute of the verse we had already discussed in detail in previous sections of this Upanishad. Hence that attribute also points towards lord Rudra only.

Let’s move on to next section of Maha Narayanopanishad for analysis.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-6:

tadevarta.n tadu satyamaahustadeva brahma parama.n kaviinaam.h |
ishhTaapuurtaM bahudhaa jaata.n jaayamaana.n vishvaM bibharti
bhuvanasya naabhiH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.2.6)

MEANING:

Sages declare: That alone is right and That alone is true: That alone is the venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise. Acts of worship and social utility also are that Reality. That alone being the navel of the universe, sustains manifoldly the universe which arose in the past and which springs to existence at present.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here we’re required to deal with the following attributes of the God:
– That alone is right and That alone is true:
– That alone is the venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise.
– Acts of worship and social utility also are that Reality.
– That alone being the navel of the universe, sustains manifoldly the universe which arose in the past and which springs to existence at present.

All these attributes are explained in the following verses clearly.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth, is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe”.

“saamaishchidanto virajashcha baahuuM hiraNmaya.n vedavidaa.n varishhTham.h |
yamadhvare brahmavidaH stuvanti saamairyajurbhiH kratubhistvameva |” (Ekakshara Upanishat 10)
“Thou art He whom in the sacrifices the knowers of Brahman adore with Vedic Songs, formulas and rites and the soma juice; as the final (Truth) devoid of all admixture, as the golden, the best of Veda-knowers”.

“tamid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamaghachanta viśve |
ajasya nābhāvadhyekamarpitaṃyasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni tasthuḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:82:6)
“The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn’s navel, that One wherein abide all things existing”.

This is from a hymn to Viswakarman. And it is to be noted that Vedas describe lord Rudra by various names among them Viswakarman is one. In fact Rig Veda 10:81:3 clearly talks about Viswakarma (Rudra)’s attribute of having faces, eyes, everywhere,

“viśvataścakṣuruta viśvatomukho viśvatobāhurutaviśvataspāt |
saṃ bāhubhyāṃ dhamati saṃ patatrairdyāvābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ |” (RV 10:81:3)
“He who hath eyes on all sides round about him, a mouth on all sides, arms and feet on all sides, He, the Sole God, producing earth and heaven, weldeth them, with his arms as wings, together”.

This is EXACTLY same as mentioned in (Swetaswatara Upanishad 3:03). So, RV 10:82:6 beyond doubt, talks about Aja (Rudra) whose navel is the support of existence.

Now we’re left with the attribute of being the past, and present for which Yajurveda says the following:

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu” – (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

Hence from the above analysis it is perfectly clear that the Maha Narayanopanishad verse I-6 talks about only lord Rudra. Now let’s proceed ahead with subsequent verses of this Upanishad.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-7:

tadevaagnistadvaayustatsuuryastadu chandramaaH |
tadeva shukramamR^ita.n tadbrahma tadaapaH sa prajaapatiH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.2.7)

MEANING:

That alone is Fire: That is Air; That is Sun; That verily is Moon; That alone is shining Stars and Ambrosia. That is Food; That is Water and He is the Lord of creatures.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The above verse clearly talks about one and only Lord Rudra. here are straight forward verses to support this claim:

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu |
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i )
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

“tadevaagnistadaadityastadvaayustadu chandramaaH |
tadeva shukra.n tad.h brahma tadaapastat.h prajaapatiH |” (Sve Upa. 4:2)
“That Supreme Self is Agni (Fire); It is Aditya (Sun); It is Vayu (Wind); It is Chandrama (Moon). That Self is the luminous stars; It is Hiranyagarbha; It is water; It is Virat”.

“yo devo agnau yo.apsu yo vishvaM bhuvanamaavivesha |
ya oshhadhiishhu yo vanaspatishhu tasmai devaaya namo namaH |” (Sve. Upa. 2:17)
“The Self—luminous Lord, who is fire, who is in water, who has entered into the whole world, who is in plants, who is in trees— to that Lord let there be adoration! Yea, let there be adoration!” (Sve Upa. 2:17)

“vij~naano.asmi visheshho.asmi somo.asmi sakalo.asmyaham.h |” (Maitreya Upanishad 3.03)
“I am the true knowledge (Vijnana), I am the special one, I am Soma, I am the all. I am the auspicious one, I am free from sorrow, I am consciousness, I am the impartial one”.

Here Shiva says he is SOMA. Shiva is himself Soma (being associated with Uma). However here explicit mention of Soma refers to “Chandrama, and also the divine nectar”. Hence He is Amruta also.

“yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachchAmR^ita.n tasmai vai namonamaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:23)
“He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is Ambrosia and we salute him again and again”.

This proves that Lord Rudra is himself the “Ambrosia”.

“annanam pataye namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of food”.

Lord Rudra is himself present as the Pancha Bhuta and entire Jagat itself is manifested form of Lord Rudra. He is also the lord of vegetation (“vrikshanam pataye namo” (Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2), similarly he is also present as the lands of cultivation (“nama urvaryaya cha khalyaya cha” which means, “Salutations to Him who is in the form of the bountiful fields and the threshing floors” -Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6) and he is the indweller of animals as well (“sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH” which means, “He dwells in the hearts of all beings” -(Sve. Upa. 3:11)”.

There is no food item which is not obtained from plants or animals. So it makes very clear that Lord Rudra is himself food (he being present as vegetation and animals), he himself is the lord & giver of food (he being lord of food) and he himself is the means by which we get food (he being in the form of lands of cultivation).

“pashunam pataye namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of all creatures”. All creatures are bound by the “Pasha” of samsaara. Hence every creature is a “Pashu”. And Lord Rudra is the “Pati” (Lord) of all who ferries everyone from the ocean of samsaara.

With this analysis we have successfully proved that the verse 1-7 of Maha Narayanopanishad talks only about Lord Rudra. Let’s proceed ahead.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-8, I-9:

sarve nimeshhaa jaj~nire vidyutaH purushhaadadhi |
kalaa muhuurtaaH kaashhThaashchaahoraatraashcha sarvashaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.1.8)
ardhamaasaa maasaa R^itavaH sa.nvatsarashcha kalpantaam.h |
sa aapaH pradudhe ubhe ime antarikshamatho suvaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.2.9)

MEANING:

All nimesas, kalas, muhurtas, kasthas, days, half-months, months, and seasons, were born from the self-luminous Person. The year also was born from Him. He milked water and also these two, the firmament and the heaven.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Nimesas, Muhurtas, kasthas, days, half-months, months, and seasons all are part of TIME (KALA). They don’t have a separate existence. Their existence is powered by Kala. And Kala is the supreme Brahman (Rudra) as supported by Atharva Veda XIX:53-54 which is a hymn to Mahakala (Lord Shiva). This vedic hymn says everything emerged from Kala (read Rudra). Let me just cite one verse here:

“kāló ha bhūtáṃ bhávyaṃ ca putró ajanayat purā́
kālā́d ŕ̥caḥ sám abhavan yájuḥ kālā́d ajāyata |” (Atharva Veda XIX-54-3)
“In Kala erst the text produced what is and what is yet to be.The Riks arose from Kala, the Yagus was born from Kala;”

The same is clarified in Svetaswatara Upanishad as follows:

“chhandaa.nsi yaGYaaH kratavo vrataani bhuutaM bhavya.n yachcha vedaa vadanti |
asmaan.h maayii sR^ijate vishvametattasmi.nshchaanyo maayayaa sanniruddhaH | “(Sve. Upa. 4:09)
“That from which the maker (mâyin) sends forth all this–the sacred verses, the offerings, the sacrifices, the panaceas, the past, the future, and all that the Vedas declare–in that the other is bound up through that mâyâ”.

Now who is this Mayin who is lord of Maya? It is clarified in the next verse.

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h |” (Sve. Upa. 4:10)
“Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ (art), and the Lord Maheshwara the Mâyin (maker); the whole world is filled with what are his members”.

“kvā̀rdhamāsā́ḥ kvà yanti mā́sāḥ saṃvatsaréṇa sahá saṃvidānā́ḥ |
yátra yánty r̥távo yátrārtavā́ḥ skambháṃ táṃ brūhi katamáḥ svid evá sáḥ |” (Atharva Veda X:7:5)
“Whitheward go the half-months, and, accordant with the full year, the months in their procession? Who out of many, tell me, is that Skambha to whom go seasons and the groups of seasons?”

So, it is very clear that all divisions of time arose from Rudra who is Mahakala/Skhambha.

“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa |” (Atharva Veda X-7.35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.

from the above verse it’s clear that the Jwala Linga of lord Shiva is the originator of Earth and heaven.

Therefore from the aforementioned analysis it becomes crystal clear to us that Maha Narayanopanishad I-8, I-9 clearly eulogize lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-10:

nainamuurdhva.n na tirya~ncha.n na madhye parijagrabhat.h |
na tasyeshe kashchana tasya naama mahadyashaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.2.10)

MEANING:

I-10: No person ever grasped by his understanding the upward limit of this Paramatman, nor His limit across, nor His middle portion. His name is ‘great glory’ for no one limits His nature by definition.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

There is no need to invest much efforts in analyzing this verse of Mahanarayanopanishad. It is a direct verse which talks about Lord Shiva. This has been adapted by the great sage Svetaswatara to talk about the infiniteness of Lord Rudra.

“nainamuurdhva.n na tiryaJNcha.n na madhye na parijagrabhat.h |
na tasya pratimaa asti yasya naama mahad.h yashaH |” (Svet. Upa 4:19)
“No one has grasped him above, or across, or in the middle. There is no image of him whose name is Great Glory”.

“ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva |” (Atharva Veda X:8:7)
“Up, eastward downward in the west, ‘it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied.With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?”

“anantáṃ vítataṃ purutrā́nantám ántavac cā sámante
té nākapāláś carati vicinván vidvā́n bhūtám utá bhávyam asya |” (Atharva Veda X:8:12)
“The infinite to every side extended, the finite and the infinite around us,These twain Heaven’s Lord divides as he advances, knowing the past hereof and all the future”.

Same fact about Lord Shiva’s infinite Jwala Linga form was believed firmly by the great seer Adi Shankara himself. Otherwise he wouldn’t have stated numerous times this very same thing. Here are examples:
“Pradakshina hyananthasya hyadwayasya kutho nathi |” (Para Puja Stotram-7)
“How can I offer him circumambulation, who is non-dual and infinite (whose ends are not known)?”

“Pooja dravya samruddhayo virachitha poojam kadam kurmahe,
Pakshitwam na cha vaa kitithwa mapi na praptham maya dhurlabham,
Jane masthaka mangri pallavam mumajane na theham vibho,
Na gnatham pithamahena harina tatwena that roopina |” (Shivananda Lahari-86)
“Oh Consort of Uma, Oh Lord who is everywhere, Heaps of material for thine worship is ready, But how will I ever worship thee? Neither I can become a swan nor a boar, And how will I ever find your crown and your tender feet, When even Brahma and Vishnu who took those forms, Could not ever know about them”.

So, it’s as clear as a crystal that Lord Rudra is infinite and the same quality has been propunded by this Mahanarayana Upanishad I-10. Let’s move ahead now.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-11:

na sa.ndR^ishe tishhThati ruupamasya na chakshushhaa pashyati
kashchanainam.h |
hR^idaa maniishaa manasaabhiklR^ipto ya ena.n viduramR^itaaste
bhavanti | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.3.11)

MEANING:

I-11: His form is not to be beheld; none whosoever beholds Him with the eye. Those who meditate on Him with their minds undistracted and fixed in the heart know Him; they become immortal.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is the verse which Svetaswatara Rishi has adapted in his Upanishad. He tells the same fact about lord Shiva as follows.

“na sa.ndR^ishe tishhThati ruupamasya na chaxushhaa pashyati kashchanainam.h |
hR^idaa hR^idisthaM manasaa ya enameva.n viduramR^itaaste bhavanti |” (Svet. Upa. 4:20)
“His form cannot be seen, no one perceives him with the eye. Those 10 who through heart and mind know him thus abiding in the heart, become immortal”.

Hence it is again very clear to us that this Mahanarayanopanishad I-11 directly eulogizes Bhagawan Rudra only!

HIRANYA GARBHA SUKTA (Taken from Taitiriya Aranyaka):

N.B:- Before proceeding with the analysis of thi Sukta let me make it very clear that although it’s a hymn to Hiranyagarbha, and Vedas and Upanishads clearly say that Hiranyagarbha was begotten by Lord Shiva, yet here we would find that it is Hiranyagarbha who is being praised with the qualities / attributes of Lord Shiva. This is true since Vedas eulogize the supreme lord Shiva with various names and since Hiranyagarbha has manifested from Shiva only, all glories of Hirayagarbha actually glorifies lord Shiva only. Let’s move ahead now.

Hirayagarbha Sukta -1:

adbhya saMbhuutaH pR^ithivyau rasaachcha vishvakarmaNaH
samavartataadhi |
tasya tvashhTaa vidadhadruupameti tatpurushhasya vishvamaajaanamagre | (Taitiriya Aranyaka 3.13.1.1)

MEANING:

1. The universe arose from Visvakarman through water, earth, fire and other elements. He excelled Aditya, Indra and other gods. The sun called Tvasta rises in the morning embodying His brilliance. In the beginning of creation the mortal world enveloped in gloom received its divine brilliance from the sun shining in the glory of Paramatman.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here we are required to analyze primarily two points viz.
– Universe was created by Viswakarma. And we’ve to analyze who he is
– The primal lord is greater than Aditya, Indra, and other gods
– Sun called Twasta rises in the morning embodying his(Supreme lord’s) brilliance

Analysing the first item: Lord Rudra is the only God in Vedas whom Vedic hymns describe by many names sometimes with direct epithets sometimes indirectly. Viswakarman in Vedas is not the same as the divine architect of gods – Viswakarman (of Puranas). In vedas it is lord Rudra who is called by the name of Viswakarman. We’ve already seen above that Rig Veda 10:81.3 which is a hymn to Viswakarman talks about lord Rudra and is exactly same as expounded by Swe. Upa 3:03. And Rig veda 10:82.6 supports and extends the evidence that it was the unborn Lord Shiva who produced forth all this creation. It states that the waters received the germ prevail (seed) from the unborn Viswakarman (Rudra) and the universe was begotten.

Analyzing the second item: Here we’ve to identify that primal lord whom Vedas described as being greater than Aditya, India, and other gods. Let’s see who is the candidate who fits in here perfectly.

In this connection Shatapatha Brahmana gives a detailed proof, the unborn lord Rudra who is beyond time and space as the pure conciousness Shiva, he appeared within time and space. Shatapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.8 clearly identifies the Prajapati (Lord of beings) as the “Year” (sa bhūtānām patiḥ saṃvatsaraḥ) and year is based on the foundation called “time”. Usha is dawn which is nothing but the empty space (Dayus). So, this section actually reveals the fact that lord Shiva appeared in time and space. That same Shiva who is unborn, manifested within the shining universe (Hiranyagarbha) and then assumed the form of many gods. Lord Rudra asked for naming him (assumes names) and with each name he manifested a deity from him and said he (Rudra) is mightier than all of them.

“tamabravīdrudro ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodagnistadrūpamabhavadagniva rudro |
yadarodīttasmādrudraḥ so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.10)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Rudra’ And because he gave him that name, Agni became suchlike (or, that form), for Rudra is Agni: because he cried (rud) therefore he is Rudra. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!'”

“tamabravītsarvo ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodāpastadrūpamabhavannāpo vai sarvo |
‘dbhyo hīdaṃ sarvaṃ jāyate so ‘bravījjyāyānvā ato ‘smi dhehyeva me nāmeti |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.11)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Sarva.’ And because he gave the him that name, the waters became suchlike, for Sarva is the waters, inasmuch as from the water everything (sarva) here is produced. He said, ‘Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!’

Similarly Shatapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.12-6.1.3.17 gives account of Lord Rudra’s Asthamurthy forms by names Pashupati (Plants got manifested from this name), Ugra (God Vayu manifested from this name). Asani (God Indra manifested from this name), Bhava (Parjanya the rain god manifested from this name), Mahadeva (the prajapati Brahma and Moon manifested from this name), Isana (Sun god Aditya manifested from this name). And every time after taking a new name and form Lord Rudra mentioned that he is mightier than all of them. Atharva Veda 15:14 section details out the same story in a different poetic manner where it also speaks of many other forms of lord Shiva including Brihaspati, Vishnu, Maruts to name a few.

The above analysis clearly proves that it is lord Rudra who exists as all the other Gods and is mightier than everyone.

Analyzing the third item: Here we are required to see who is that supreme Lord whose brilliance is embodied by Sun god at every sunrise.

“Asau yoavasarpati nilagrivo vilohitah |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:1)
“The black-throated Rudra who has assumed the form of the sun that glows red when rising”

“Asau yastamro aruna uta babhruh sumangalah Ye chemarudra abhito” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:1)
“This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-youllow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra”.

From the above verses it is crystal clear that the morning Sun shines under the brilliance of the Supreme Lord Rudra.

So, we have successfully analyzed and found out that the Hiranyagarbha Sukta verse-1 eulogizes Lord Shiva only. Let’s move on to next verse.

Hirayagarbha Sukta -2:

vedaahametaM purushhaM mahaantaM aadityavarNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |
tameva.n vidvaanabhR^ita iha bhavati naanyaHpanthaavidyate.ayanaaya |
(Taittiriya Aranyaka 3.13.1.2)

MEANING:

2. I know this Great Person who is beyond ignorance and darkness and whose splendour is comparable to that of the sun. Knowing Him thus in this life itself, one transcends death. There is no other path leading to the attainment of liberation.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

We have a direct verse in Svetaswatara Upanishad which is also “adapted” from Yajurveda Taittiriya Aranyaka same verse and it explains that this Supreme Purusha who shines with golden color is lord Rudra only.

“vedaahametaM purushhaM mahaantamaadityavarNa.n tamasaH parastaat.h |
tameva viditvaatimR^ityumeti naanyaH panthaa vidyate.ayanaaya “” (Sve. Upa. 3:08)
“I know that great person (purusha) of sunlike lustre beyond the darkness. A man who knows him truly, passes over death; there is no other path to go”.

Further we have other Shruti pramanas which unanimously state the same fact about Lord Rudra. The below verses from Maitreya upanishad are direct dialogues from the mouth of Lord Shiva himself.

“paramo.asmi paraatparaH” (Maitreya Upa. 3:10)
“I am the supreme, greater than the great”.

“shaanto.asmi purushhottamaH” (Maitreya Upa. 3:10)
“I am quiescence, the greatest being (Purushottama)”

“namah paryaya chavaryaya cha |
namah prataAranaya chottaranaya cha “” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka:8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.

Further Rigveda 7:59:12 states the famous Maha Mrityunjaya Mantram which occurs in Yajurveda-Sri Rudram as well. In this Mahamrityunjaya Mantra Vedas (Vedic seers) request Lord Shiva for liberation. It is an interesting fact to know that in all the four Vedas vedic sers have prayed for Liberation only to Lord Shiva (Not even to lord Vishnu). So, it’s crystal clear that the Purushottama (Rudra) is the only Lord who can grant liberation. Hence the Hiranyagarbha Sukta-2 is proved to be a verse glorifying Lord SHiva only.

Hirayagarbha Sukta -3:

prajaapatishcharati garbhe antaH ajaayamaano bahuthaa vijaayate |
tasya dhiiraaH parijaananti yonim.h mariichiinaaM padamichchhanti
vedhasaH (Taittiriya Aranyaka 3.13.1 – 3.13.2)

MEANING:

3. The sun who is the Lord of creatures moves about in the space between heaven and earth causing day and night. Although He is unborn, being the Self of all, He manifests Himself as the manifold universe. Wise men realize the source of the universe, the all-pervading Paramatman. Prajapati, the first patriarchs, sought the position, which Marichi and other sages attained.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

From our analysis in previous sections we have seen that Vedas call Lord Rudra as the Sun illuminating the universe.

The next part of this upanishadic verse is directly copied in Atharvaveda Skhambha Suktam where that Suktam states that Lord Rudra enters into the womb as Prajapati.

“prajā́patiś carati gárbhe antár ádr̥śyamāno bahudhā́ ví jāyate |” (Atharvaveda X:8:13)
“Within the womb Prajapati is moving: he, though unborn, is born in sundry places”.

The same hymn further states that same Supreme Lord who is unborn is glorified under various names.

“nā́ma nā́mnā johavīti purā́ sū́ryāt puróṣásaḥ |
yád ajáḥ prathamáṃ saṃbabhū́va sá ha tát svarā́jyam iyāya yásmān nā́nyát páram ásti bhūtám |” (Atharvaveda X:7:31)
“Ere sun and dawn man calls and calls one Deity by the other’s name. When the Unborn first sprang into existence he reached that independent sovereign lordship; than which aught higher never hath arisen”.

“Namo jyeshhthaya cha kanishhthaya cha |
namah purvajaya chaparajaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6)
“Salutations to Him who is senior and who is junior. Salutations to Him who was born before all and who will be born after all”.

This seemingly simple statement from Rudram actually carries a lot of meaning. It states that Lord Rudra is the first born (Jyeshtha) which represents Prajapati(Hiranyagarbha) who was the first to manifest. Kanishtha(Youngest) is again Rudra as per Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:19 Lord Rudra manifests as other Gods and again disappeared, and when searched for him he manifested again as cited in Shatapatha Brahmana 9:1:1:6. So it is clear that Lord Rudra is the youngest also. But it is again from Lord Rudra the Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha) also sprang into existence. So, he being the father of father he is Purvaja (Ancestor). Regarding Shiva begetting Hiranyagarbha (prajapati) we have already discussed detailed verses in previous sections (hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa – Sve. Upa 3:04)

Hence we have proved the statement “Although He is unborn, being the Self of all, He manifests Himself as the manifold universe. Wise men realize the source of the universe, the all-pervading Paramatman” as belonging to lord Shiva only. Let’s move on to next verse.

Hirayagarbha Sukta -4:

yo devebhya aatapati yo devaanaaM purohitaH |
puurvo yo devebhyo jaataH namo ruchaaya braahmaye | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 3.13.2)

MEANING:

4. Salutation to the resplendent Sun-God who is the son of Para-Brahman, who shines for the benefit of gods, who is invoked as the beneficent leader of the gods, and who was born as the eldest among the gods.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

I do not require to repeat the same analysis here since this section is not new. The same concept has been propounded in previous verses of this Mahanarayanopanishad where we have extensively discussed that all these attributes point at lord Rudra only. Just to remind, I would state here few important points:

Lord Rudra is unborn who is called Parabrahman in vedas (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1) and Upanishads (various places). And the same unborn Parabrahman Rudra manifested as Aditya (Sun god) as seen in Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17 also lord Rudra was born as eldest among the Gods (Prajapati)and it is Lord Rudra only who is the indweller of all Gods (devana hridayebhyo namah – Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9).

Hence the above verse from this upanishad even though it glorifies Sun-god. It is actually glorifying Lord Rudra indirectly. Let’s move ahead.

Hirayagarbha Sukta -5:

ruchaM braahma.n janayantaH devaa agre tadabruvan.h |
yastvaivaM braahmaNo vidyaat tasya devaa asan.h vashe | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 3.13.2)

MEANING:

5. When the gods instituted the Knowledge of Brahman they declared thus teaching about the Supreme reality. – That sage who knows the Supreme as described before will have sovereignty over gods, for he has become the Inmost Self of all.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

“umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h .
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |” (Kaivalyopanishad 7)
“Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him (Rudra) who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya)”.

“deho devaalayaH proktaH sa jiivaH kevalaH shivaH .
tyajedaj~naananirmaalya.n so.ahaMbhaavena puujayet.h |” (Maitreyi Upanishad II:1)
“The body is said to be the temple; the individual Self (Jiva) is Shiva alone. One should discard the faded flowers in the form of spiritual ignorance and worship God (with the conviction) ‘He and I are one’.

From above verses it’s clear that Vedas proclaim the highest reality as SHiva and that Shiva is the self. Hence when the self is known one gains the highest truth of being one with Shiva. Hence one gains the superiority over other Gods because of this supreme wisdom.

Hirayagarbha Sukta -6:

hriishcha te lakshmiishcha patnyau ahoraatre paarshve nakshatraaNi
ruupam |
ashvinau vyaattam.h ishhTaM manishhaaNa amuM manishhaaNa sarvaM
manishhaaNa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 3.13.2)

MEANING:

6. O Sun, Hri and Lakshmi are Thy consorts, Thyself being Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. Day and night are Thy two sides. Asterisms in the sky are Thine own form. The Ashvins are Thy mouth. Being such, grant me whatever I desire, spiritual illumination, happiness here and other objects of desire.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is probably one of the highly misinterpretted verses of Vedas. Seeing the statement as Hree and Lakshmi being consorts many (so called) scholars tag this verse with Vishnu saying Hree=Bhudevi and Lakshmi=Sridevi the daughter of ocean of milk. This interpretation is incorrect. ‘Hreem’ is Shakta Pranava and ‘Hree’ is an aspect of goddess Tripurasundari devi (Consort of Shiva). Lalita Sahasranama Stotram says, “Hreemkarini” is goddess Lalita Tripurasudnari. On similar lines ‘Mahalakshmi’ is another name of same Tripurasundari devi. Here this upanishad is totally dedicated to (and discusses about) the supreme being. And as per Vedas Vishnu is a manifestation of Shiva (RV 9:96:5 and AV 15:14:5). So, the case of this supreme power Lakshmi representing Vishnu’s consort is ruled out. Here Lakshmi represents Mahalakshmi the 18 handed 3 eyed supreme goddess ‘Durga’ described in Devi Bhagawatam who killed Mahishasura.

The way “Mahanarayana / Adinarayana’ are the names of Shiva and not of Narayana(Vishnu) similarly Mahalakshmi is Tripurasundari the consort of Shiva and she is not Lakshmi (consort of Vishnu). Devi Bhagawatam and other Shakta texts confirm the same that Mahalakshmi who has 3 eyes, 18 hands (Durga) had manifested as Lakshmi who later became Vishnu’s consort. The way we have Supreme God’s potency manifesting as a deity e.g, original goddess Sri (Srimata) / Mahalakshmi(Lalita) manifested as Sridevi(Lakshmi) from her potency of prosperity, and again we have Kubera representing the lordship of riches. But the way Lakshmi is superset to Kubera, Mahalakshmi is superior or superset of Lakshmi.

Here in this vedic verse it uses the term “Lakshmi” but she is “mahalakshmi” not the daughter of ocean. Hree (Bhuvaneshwari) who is the rulership aspect of Tripurasundari, Mahalaskhmi (Lakshmi in short) is the aspect of prosperity and grace. These two Hree and lakshmi are the potencies of Lord Rudra since he rules over all and is the giver of bounty and prosperity. This is just a poetic expression when it states “Hreescha Lakshmischa Patnyou”. Literal interpretation of ‘wives’ would kill the beauty. Rather it should be interpreted as the ‘potencies’ of Rulership and Prosperity belonging to the supreme Lord Rudra.

Sri Rudram Chamakam portion states it clearly that the Lord of Riches is Rudra alone. And hence Vedic hymns of Chamakam request time and again to Lord Rudra to shower proeprity, grace, fame, wealth, etc. on them. Here are few direct extarcts from Chamakam to support this point. “shreyashcha me vasyashcha me yashashcha me”, “arthashcha me”, “dhanam cha me”. Also Mahabharata’s Shiva sahasranama stotram calls lord Shiva by name “Om Ye Namah”, meaning “Salutations to the lord who exists in the form of Lakshmi”. So, goddess Lakshmi (Consort of Vishnu) is a manifestation of Lord Rudra alone. However the above verse doesn’t talk about Lakshmi devi. It points at the supreme potency of prosperity of supreme being hence it should be understood as Mahalakshmi.

Further, this verse doesn’t talk about the sun-god. It actually applies on Lord Rudra as seen below

“sarvadevaatmako rudraH sarve devaaH shivaatmakaaH |
rudrasya dakshiNe paarshve ravirbrahmaa trayo.agnayaH |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 4)
vaamapaarshve umaa devii vishhNuH somo.api te trayaH |
yaa umaa saa svaya.n vishhNuryo vishhNuH sa hi chandramaaH |” (Rudra Hridayopanishad 5)
“On the right side of Rudra, there is the sun, then the four-headed Brahma, and then three Agnis (fires). On the left side, there exist Sri Umadevi, and also Vishnu and Soma (moon). Uma Herself is the form of Vishnu. Vishnu Himself is the form of the moon”.

So from the above verses it is clear that Lord Rudra’s two sides are Brahma(Sun) and Vishnu(Moon) which implies it’s Lord Rudra who has day and night as the two sides. It states Vishnu is of the form of moon. Hence it is clear who has day and night on his two sides (It’s lord Rudra).

Further the stars and constellations being the body of supreme lord is another way to cite the fact of Lord Rudra being all-pervading since entire universe is a manifestd form of lord Rudra alone.
Let’s move ahead now.

HYMN TO HIRANYAGARBHA (Continuation of the above Sukta from Taittiriya Samhita):

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 1:

hiraNyagarbhaH samavartataagre bhuutasya jaataH patireka aasiit.h |
sa daadhaara pR^ithivii.n dyaamutemaa.n kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema |(Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.3 – IV.1.8.4)

MEANING:

1. The resplendent Prajapati was born at the beginning of creation from the Supreme potent with the power of Maya. Having been born He became the one sustainer and nourisher of all beings. The same Paramatman, here designated as Hiranyagarbha, supports the earth as well as heaven. May we worship that shining One with offerings – who is of the nature of bliss or whose characteristic nature cannot be interrogated.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Regarding Prajapati being born at the beginning, we have discussed this enough no. of times. Hence I wouldn’t cite references again to prove that. But it is evident from Vedas that Prajapati sprang into existence from Lord Rudra alone.

Entire world is a manifestation brought forth by the Prakriti. And Prakriti is called Maya the potency of lord Rudra. So, it is lord Rudra who created this entire world (Hiranyagarbha) which is a Prakriti element through his Maya. The below verse confirms this.

“maayaa.n tu prakR^iti.n vidyaanmaayina.n cha maheshvaram.h |
tasyavayavabhuutaistu vyaapta.n sarvamida.n jagat.h | (Sve. Upa. 4:10)
“Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ (art), and the Maheshwara as the Mâyin (maker); the whole world is filled with what are his members”

The same Paramatma who is the sustainer and nourisher of all beings is again lord Rudra alone as proved in below verses. It becomes clear that Lord Rudra is slone the supreme ruler and lord who sustains the world (Bhuvanasya Goptaa).

“sa eva kaale bhuvanasya goptaa vishvaadhipaH sarvabhuuteshhu guuDhaH |
yasmin.h yuktaa brahmarshhayo devataashcha tameva.n GYaatvaa mR^ityupaashaa.nshchhinatti |” (Svet. Upa. 4:15)
“He also was in time the guardian of this world, the lord of all, hidden in all beings. In him the Brahmarshis and the deities are united, and he who knows him cuts the fetters of death asunder”.

“sa tanmayo hyamR^ita iishasa.nstho GYaH sarvago bhuvanasyaasya goptaa |
ya iishe.asya jagato nityameva naanyo heturvidyata iishanaaya |” (Svet. Upa. 6:17)
“He is the soul of the universe, he is the immortal, remaining the lord, the knower, the ever-present guardian of this universe, the eternal ruler who rules this world for ever, for none else is there efficient to govern the world eternally”.

Other properties stated in this Suktam have been proved many times above. So, let’s move ahead.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 2:

yaH praaNato nimishhato mahitvaika idraajaa jagato babhuuva |
ya iishe asya dvipadashchatushhpadaH kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.4)

MEANING:

2. Who became the sovereign ruler of all beings living and existing on the earth; who controls as the indwelling Spirit all the bipeds and quadrupeds evident on the earth;

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is a direct statement referring to only one god who possesses these attributes – the one and only Lord Rudra. In this connection we have the following evidences available in Shruti.

“Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |” (Yajurveda III-1-4 & Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
“What cattle the lord of cattle(pashupati) ruleth?, He rules Both the four-footed and the two-footed.”

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |” (Sve Upa. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings”.

Let’s move ahead now.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 3:

ya aatmadaa bala.ndaa yasya vishva upaasate prashishha.n yasya devaaH |
yasya chhaayaamR^ita.n yasya mR^ityuH kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.4)

MEANING:

3. Who is the giver of Self (all Selves in reality being Himself); who is the bestower of strength (as nourisher through food); whose command even gods are eager to receive; whom immortality and death obey like shadow;

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

“deho devaalayaH proktaH sa jiivaH kevalaH shivaH |” (Maitreyi Upanishad II:1)
“The body is said to be the temple; the individual Self (Jiva) is Shiva alone.

“annanam pataye namo” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of food”.
Lord Rudra is himself present as the Pancha Bhuta and entire Jagat itself is manifested form of Lord Rudra. He is also the lord of vegetation (“vrikshanam pataye namo” (Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2), similarly he is also present as the lands of cultivation (“nama urvaryaya cha khalyaya cha” which means, “Salutations to Him who is in the form of the bountiful fields and the threshing floors” -Sri Rudram Anuvaka-6) and he is the indweller of animals as well (“sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH” which means, “He dwells in the hearts of all beings” – Sve. Upa. 3:11)”.

There is no food item which is not obtained from plants or animals. So it makes very clear that Lord Rudra is himself food (he being present as vegetation and animals), he himself is the lord & giver of food (he being lord of food) and he himself is the means by which we get food (he being in the form of lands of cultivation).

Now we’re left with the analysis on the point which says we have to find one god on whose command gods function. Let’s see who qualifies for this role as per Shruti.

“yadida.n ki.n cha jagat.h sarvaM praaNa ejati niHsR^itam.h |
mahad.hbhayaM vajramudyataM ya etadviduramR^itaaste bhavanti |” (Kathopanishad 2:3:2)
“All this universe, evolved (from Brahman), moves in prana (in Brahman); the most frightful like an uplifted thunderbolt. Those who know this become immortal”.

From the above verse we learnt that Prana is the Brahman which created the entire universe. And by a careful study of Atharvaveda’s “Hymn to Prana” we can understand that Prana is lord Rudra only. It further states the following verse.

“bhayaadasyaagnistapati bhayaattapati suuryaH |
bhayaadindrashcha vaayushcha mR^ityurdhaavati paJNchamaH |” (Kathopanishad 2:3:3)
“For fear of Him, fire burns; For fear of Him, shines the sun;
For fear of Him, Indra and Vayu function; For fear of Him, death, the fifth, stalks on the earth”.

Kathopanishad 2:3:2 talks about the fear due to “Thunderbolt”. And 2:3:3 says even Indra fears that lord’s thunderbolt. But usually we know that Indra is the god who wields Thunderbolt (Vajram). But here the wielder of thunderbolt is Lord Rudra. How? Here is the answer: Lord Rudra also holds Thunderbolt. In fact there is no weapon which lord Rudra doesn’t wield. Ranging from celestial bows to Sudarshana and Pashupata every weapon is Rudra’s weapon which he donates to other Gods on need basis or gifts permanently. Rig Veda (2.33.3) calls Lord Rudra as “vajrabāho“, which means, “thou wielder of the thunderbolt“. RUDRA KAVACHAM composed and recited by Rishi DURVASA gives us the details in the first Dhyana Sloka:

“panchavaktram trinetram shuulam vajram cha khadgam parashumabhayadam” (It states that Lord Shiva having five faces three eyes holds trident, thunderbolt, sword and battle axe)

Now by the fear of Prana (Rudra) which is the Brahman, entire cosmos function. Even the very Gods do their duties on time due to the fear of Rudra. This is the same reason why Vedic Rishis also fear Rudra. Lord Rudra’s strictness inculcates discipline in the entire cosmos and among all beings including Gods. Due to this fear of Rudra, Vedic Rishis are so afraid of Rudra that they are afraid of the name “Rudra” itself. This is the reason they have sung Vedic hymns for same Rudra in disguise of various names like Vishwakarma, Indra, Agni, Soma, Prana, Skhambha, Purusha, Narayana, Vratya etc.

Lord Rudra has no boss above him. He is the only boss of entire creation including all gods and creatures. Other Gods are incapable of ruling over everything with perfection. It’s only Lord Rudra who is capable since he is the highest God and hence he continues to be the ruler forever.

“ya iishe.asya jagato nityameva naanyo heturvidyata iishanaaya |” (Svet. Upa. 6:17)
“He rules this world for ever, for no one else is able to rule it”.

“na tasya kashchit.h patirasti loke na cheshitaa naiva cha tasya liN^gam.h |
sa kaaraNa.n karaNaadhipaadhipo na chaasya kashchijjanitaa na chaadhipaH (Svet. Upa. 6:09)
“No one in the world is His master, there is no ruler who has control over him, not even a sign of him exists who rules him. He is the cause of all, and the ruler of individual souls. He has no parent, nor is there any one who is His lord”.

Regarding the immortality aspect it is crystal clear why Vedas seek Lord Shiva’s refuge for granting immortality and liberation (Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra testifies this). Further Svetaswatara Upanishad details it out explicitly as:

“xaraM pradhaanamamR^itaaxara.n haraH xaraatmaanaaviishate deva ekaH | (Sve. Upa. 1:10)
“Prakriti (Pradhana) is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable. The non—dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti and the individual soul”.

Now let’s move ahead with next sloka of this upanishad.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 4:

yasyeme himavanto mahitvaa yasya samudram rasayaa sahaahuH |
yasyemaaH pradisho yasya baahuu kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.4 – IV.1.8.5)

MEANING:

4. Whose glory the mountains, the Himalayas and the rest, declare; whose greatness the ocean along with rivers proclaim; to whose hands engaged in dispensing justice may be compared the eight directions;

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Whosoever is the lord/owner, the suboridinates would sing his glories only. This is a natural fact. So, whosoever is the lord of oceans & mountains his glories would be sung by the oceans and mountains.

Vedas call Lord Rudra as “lord” of mountains, and their indweller also. It’s to be noted that Rudra is called as Lord of mountains not just one mountain. So, he only is the ruler of all mounts.

“yaabhishhu.n girishanta haste bibharshhyastave |
shivaa.n giritra taa.n kuru maa hi.nsiiH purushha.n jagat.h |” (Svet. Upa. 3:06)
“O lord of the mountains, make lucky that arrow which thou, a dweller in the mountains, holdest in thy hand to shoot”.

“giricharaya kulujnchanam pataye namo namah |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-3)
“who wanders about the mountains; to the lord of the landlords, salutations”.

So, Rudra is not only the lord of mountains, he is the leader/lord of the landlords as well. So, entire land (Prithvi) and other celestial regions which has a owner all are subordinate to Rudra. This implies, Rudra is the true/actual owner of every land. Hence entire land (prithvi and celestial lands) belongs to Rudra alone.

“nama urmyayacha vasvanyaya cha
nama strotasyaya cha dvipyaya cha |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-5)
“Salutations to Him who is in great waves of ocean and in the still waters. Salutations to Him who is in the floods and in the islands”.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu |” (YajurVeda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-9 & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“That Rudra who has even entered into and pervaded fire, the waters, vegetation, and all the worlds, let my salutations be to that Rudra”. So, it proves that Lord Rudra is present in the form of waters be it in ocean or in a well. Hence by default he is the sole lord of waters as well.

“jagatam pataye namo” (YajurVeda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of all the worlds/entire creation”. Mountains and Oceans are part of the Jagat they are not separate from that. So, Rudra is the sole ruler and owner of all these mountains and oceans.

“dishan cha pataye namo” (YajurVeda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2)
“Salutations to the lord of all directions”.
Here we should understand one revealation that Lord Rudra is called the lord of all directions. Traditionally we find one deity ruling one direction. They are called as Dikpalakas. But Rudra is the lord of all directions it shows the totality of his lordship. Here directions not only mean directions in literal sense, but within space and time entire space is described in terms of directions only. So, lord of all directions means again the total lordship over entire universe (jagat).

In Sri Rudram umpteen no. of times, lord Rudra has been asked to confer his grace on the devotees. With this i believe we have successfully analyzed this upanishad’s verse. Let’s move ahead.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 5:

ya.n krandasii avasaa tastabhaane asyaikshetaaM manasaa rejamaane |
yatraadhi suura uditau vyeti kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.5)

MEANING:

5. Whom the dual deity, heaven and earth, shining by light and established for the protection of the world view in mind as the source of their greatness; supported by whom the sun moves gloriously after rising;

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Let’s see the following verses.

“Bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣamtásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ” (Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
“Bhava rules the sky(àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth(pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

“bhayaattapati suuryaH |” (Katha Upa. 2:3:3)
“By the fear of Rudra sun shines”.

So, Rudra being the Lord of Earth and Heavens he is the one whose glories are sung by the dual deities Prithvi-Dayus(heaven). And due to the fear arising out of the strictness of Lord Rudra Sun moves (performs his duties on time) gloriously after rising.

Let’s proceed ahead now.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 6:

yena dyaurugraa pR^ithivii cha dR^iDhe yena suvaH stabhita.n yena naakaH |
yo antarikshe rajaso vimaanaH kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.5)

MEANING:

6. By whom the powerful sky and the terrestrial region were made firm; by whom the blissful heaven was awarded to the virtuous, by whom Release was appointed for the virtuous; who is the maker of Rajasa creation in the mid-region;

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

“viśvataścakṣuruta viśvatomukho viśvatobāhurutaviśvataspāt |
saṃ bāhubhyāṃ dhamati saṃ patatrairdyāvābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:81:3)
“He who hath eyes on all sides round about him, a mouth on all sides, arms and feet on all sides. He, the Sole God, producing earth and heaven, weldeth them, with his arms as wings, together”.

Shatapatha Brahmana verses from 6:1:3:1 – 6:1:3:19 gives us a clear picture of Lord Rudra’s asthamurty forms. There Lord Rudra remains in a three fold existence.
Threefold state, refers to the three physical planes of existence – prithivi (earth), antariksha (atmosphere) and dhyaus (heavens). The form of Agni Linga (Shiva) on the prithivi is fire, water and living beings; His form in the antariksha is the wind, lightning and clouds; His form in the dhyaus is the Moon, & Sun.

So, from the above verses it’s clear that it’s lord Rudra who created sky (antariksha/mid-region), earth and heaven and made them firm also. After that he awarded the Heavens to God Indra who is the virtuous receiver of that lordship. And it’s due to fear of Rudra’s anger (discipline and strictness) only that Lord Indra performs his duties perfectly (bhayaadindrashcha vaayushcha mR^ityurdhaavati paJNchamaH – Kathopanishad 2:3:3).

Let’s move ahead.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 7:

aapo ha yanmahatiirvishvamaaya.n daksha.n dadhaanaa janayantiiragnim.h |
tato devaanaa.n niravartataasurekaH kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.5 – IV.1.8.6)

MEANING:

7. Through the power of whom the great Causal Waters holding within it the power of unfoldment and the capacity to produce fire transformed itself into the form of the world and from whom the one Breath of all gods came into existence;

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

In the beginning when there was only non-existence, there was only the Nirguna Brahman (Shiva) alone. That Purusha desired to multiply and create. Kama arose in him. Hence lord Shiva is termed as Kameshhwara the lord who is the cause behind the generation of the universe.

“kaamas tad agre sam avartataadhi manaso retah prathamam yad aasit |” (Rig veda 10:129:4)
“Kama rose in the beginning, Kama, the primal seed and germ of Spirit”.

Hymn to Vishwakarma (Rudra) from Rig Veda states it further how the germ(seed) of Shiva became the cause of universe.

“paro divā para enā pṛthivyā paro devebhirasurairyadasti |
kaṃ svid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamapaśyanta viśve |” (Rig Veda 10:82:5)
“That which is earlier than this earth and heaven, before the Asuras and Gods had being,—What was the germ primeval which the waters received where all the Gods were seen together?”

“tamid gharbhaṃ prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥsamaghachanta viśve |
ajasya nābhāvadhyekamarpitaṃyasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni tasthuḥ |” (Rig Veda 10:82:6)
“The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn’s navel, that One wherein abide all things existing”.

Due to space issues, and to remove alleviate redundancy I wouldn’t like to repeat already studies proofs in above sections about Lord SHiva being the one who produced Hiranyagarbha (Prajapati) who became responsible for further creation etc. So, it’s a fact that from Lord SHiva’s germ (seed) only the entire creation got its shape.

Hymn to Hiranyagarbha contd. verse – 8:

yashchidaapo mahinaa paryapashyaddaksha.n dadhaanaa janayantiiragnim.h |
yo deveshvadhi deva eka kasmai devaaya havishhaa vidhema | (Tattiriya Samhita IV.1.8.6)

MEANING:

Who – the Hiranyagarbha – viewed the waters which create fire and support the Vedic acts of worship (in order to endow it with such potency); who is the one God ruling over all the rest.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The following verses should make it clear who was there before the birth of Hiranyagarbha and who is it’s lord.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu” (Sve Upa. 3:4)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!”

“tataH paraM brahma paraM bR^ihanta.n yathaanikaaya.n sarvabhuuteshhu guuDham.h |
vishvasyaikaM pariveshhTitaara miisha.n ta.n GYaatvaa.amR^itaa bhavanti” (Sve Upa. 3:7)
“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal”

Here ends the Hiranyagarbha Sukta. We’ll again get back to the Mahanarayanopanishad verses.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-12:

eshha hi devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo hi jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa vijaayamaanaH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratya~NmukhaastishhThati vishvatomukhaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.3.12)

MEANING:

I-12: This Self-luminous Lord renowned in the scriptures pervades all the quarters of heaven. Having been born as Hiranyagarbha in the beginning He indeed is inside the universe represented as the womb. He alone is the manifold world of creation now springing into existence and causing the birth of the world of creation yet to come. As one having face everywhere, He dwells also as the inner most Self leading all creatures.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is again a repetion of the same qualities of the Supreme Beingw hich we had discussed many times before in this same upanishad. Truly, the Supreme Lord can’t be known completely, hence probably due to that reason these upanishads do Stuti (prayer) to the lord by changing the words but singing same glories time and again.

We need not analyze this verse in depth since this is a direct verse which refers to Lord Rudra. The beauty of this verse is indeed so great that Sage Shvetaswatara had adapted this verse from Yajurveda in his Upanishad since it directly refers to Lord Rudra.

“eshho ha devaH pradisho.anu sarvaaH puurvo ha jaataH sa u garbhe antaH |
sa eva jaataH sa janishhyamaaNaH pratyaN^janaastishhThati sarvatomukhaH” (Sve. Upa 2.16)
“He indeed is the god who pervades all regions: he is the first-born (as Hiranyagarbha), and he is in the womb. He has been born, and he will be born. He stands behind all persons, looking everywhere”.

Let’s move on to next verse in this Upanishad.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-13:

vishvatashchakshuruta vishvato mukho vishvato hasta uta vishvataspaat.h |
saM baahubhyaa.n namati saM patatrairdyaavaapR^ithivii janayan.h deva ekaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.3.13)

MEANING:

I-13: The Self-luminous Reality is one without a second and is the creator of heaven and earth. (Having created the universe by Himself and out of Himself.) He became the possessor of the eyes, faces, hands and feet of all creatures in every part of the universe. He controls all of them by dharma and adharma (merit and demerit) represented as His two hands and the constituent elements of the universe which have supplied the Souls with the material embodiment represented as patatra or legs.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is also a direct verse from Yajurveda which became the constituent of Svetaswatara Upanishad. Hence we need not make any further analysis since this directly speaks about Lord Rudra alone (Who else has faces everywhere except for Lord Shiva? This is a simple fact every Hindu would know).

“vishvatashchaxuruta vishvatomukho vishvatobaahuruta vishvataspaat.h |
saM baahubhyaa.n dhamati saMpatatrairdyaavaabhuumii janayan.h deva ekaH |” (Sve. Upa. 3:03)
“His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere, His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet. He it is who endows men with arms, birds with feet and wings and men likewise with feet. Having produced heaven and earth, this one-God (deva ekah) remains as their non—dual manifester.”

Let’s move on to next verse.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-14, I-15:

venastat pashyan vishvaa bhuvanaani vidvaan yatra vishvaM bhavatyekaniiDam.h |
yasminnidamsa.n cha vi chaikamsa otaH protashcha vibhuH prajaasu | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.3.14)
pra tadvoche amR^ita.n nu vidvaan gandharvo naama nihita.n guhaasu |
triiNi padaa nihitaa guhaasu yastadveda savituH pitaa sat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.4.15)

MEANING:

I-14-15: He in whom this universe originates and into whom it is absorbed; He who exists as the warp and woof in all created beings; He by whom the three states (of waking, dream and deep sleep) are appointed in the intellects hidden in creatures; He in whom the universe finds a single place of rest – having seen that Paramatman, the Gandharva named Vena became a true knower of all the worlds and proclaimed (to his disciples for the first time) that Reality as immortal. He who knows that all-pervasive One becomes worthy of receiving the honour due to a father even from his own natural father.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse talks primarily of the following two aspects of the Supreme Being:
– The Supreme Lord is the one from whom everything originates and he takes them back at the time of dissolution
– He dwells in the inner self of all beings and sports in the three stages of intellects of all beings.

Let’s see who qualifies for these attributes.

“pratyaN^janaastishhThati saJNchukochaantakaale |
sa.nsR^ijya vishvaa bhuvanaani gopaaH |” (Sve. Upa 3.02)
“He (Rudra) dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time”.

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA | (Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

“sarvaanana shirogriivaH sarvabhuutaguhaashayaH |
sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH |” (Sve Upa. 3:11)
“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is omnipresent Shiva”.

“vishvam bhutam bhuvanam citram bahudha jatam jayamanam cayat |
sarvo hyesha rudrastasmai rudraya namo astu |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1 of Yajurveda)
“The whole universe, the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such”.

The above verses successfully proves the first point as belonging to Lord Rudra alone. Now for the second quality we have the following verses.

“puratraye kriiDati yashcha jiivastatastu jaataM sakalaM vichitram.h |
aadhaaramaanandamakhaNDabodhaM yasmi.NllayaM yaati puratrayaM cha |” (Kaivalyopanishad 14)
“Again, through his connection with deeds done in previous births, that very Jiva returns to the dream-state, or the waking state. The being who sports in the three cities (viz., the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep) – from Him has sprung up all diversity. He is the substratum, the bliss, the indivisible Consciousness, in whom the three cities dissolve themselves”.

The above verse talks about the supreme God as the one who sports in the three cities. But who that God is? That answer is given in same upanishad in the following verse.

“umaasahaayaM parameshvaraM prabhuM trilochanaM niilakaNThaM prashaantam.h |
dhyaatvaa munirgachchhati bhuutayoniM samastasaakShiM tamasaH parastaat.h |” (Kaivalyopanishad 7)
“Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya)”.

These verses prove beyond doubt that Mahanarayanopanishad I-14, 15 talk only about lord Shiva. Let’s visit the next verse from the Upanishad and analyze.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-16:

sa no bandhurjanitaa sa vidhaataa dhaamaani veda bhuvanaani vishvaa |
yatra devaa amR^itamaanashaanaastR^itiiye dhaamaanyabhyairayanta | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.4.16)

MEANING:

I-16: Through whose power the gods who have attained immortality in the third region of heaven got allotted their respective places, He is our friend, father and ordainer. He knows the proper places of each because He understands all created beings.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is so beautiful since it says that the Supreme Lord who created all beings is a friend, caretaker of all beings and understands them. This is a nice fatherly gesture indeed. It touched my heart. Well, coming back to the point, we are required to find out the lord on whom the following attributes suit:

– The lord who created all Gods and gave them their respective positions/powers
– The God who is the Lord of all beings since it’s the Lord only who controls as well as takes care of them

For the first point we have the following supporting statement which proves that this quality belongs to Lord Rudra.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH |
hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu |” (Sve. Upa. 3:04)
“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers or positions, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!” (Sve Upa. 3:4)

The first quality is proved beyond doubt that it applies on Lord Rudra alone. Now for the second quality of being the lord of all beings and their care taker/protector we have the following verses.

“sa tanmayo hyamR^ita iishasa.nstho GYaH sarvago bhuvanasyaasya goptaa |
ya iishe.asya jagato nityameva naanyo heturvidyata iishanaaya |” (Svet. Upa. 6:17)
“He is the soul of the universe, he is the immortal, remaining the lord, the knower, the ever-present guardian of this universe, the eternal ruler who rules this world for ever, for none else is there efficient to govern the world eternally”.

Here Rudra is called as the guardian who protects / takes care of the universe (Bhuvanasya gopta). That protector of all the lord Rudra is descibed as the lord of all beings also as seen in below verses.

“umaapataye pashupataye namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1)
“Salutations to the overlord of all created beings and who is the lord of Uma”.

“paśūntāṃścakre vāyavyānāraṇyān ghrāmyāśca ye |” (Rig Veda 10.90.8)
“He formed the creatures of-the air, and animals both wild and tame”.

“Pashupatih Pashunaam Chatushpadam uta ca dvipadam |” (Yajurveda III-1-4 & Taittiriya Samhita 3:1:4:2)
“What cattle the lord of cattle(pashupati) ruleth?, He rules Both the four-footed and the two-footed.”

So, it is clear enough that the Lord Rudra alone created all Gods, gave them their respective powers and positions, he alone created all beings and the worlds, he alone is the lord of all and protector of all worlds (including the indwellers obviously). Let’s move on to next verse.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-17:

pari dyaavaapR^ithivii yanti sadyaH pari lokaan pari dishaH pari suvaH |
R^itasya tantu.n vitata.n vichR^itya tadapashyat tadabhavat prajaasu | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.4.17)

MEANING:

I-17: They (i.e. those who have realized their identity with the Highest Lord) immediately spread over heaven and earth. They pervade other worlds, the quarters of heaven and the heavenly region called Suvarloka. Whosoever among created beings sees that Brahman named Rita or ‘the True’, unintermittently pervading the creation like the thread of a cloth, by contemplation in mind, truly becomes That.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Here we are required to analyze the following points.
– Who is that lord who is the Rta (Rule/Law) and truth whom Vedas describe as Brahman whose realization makes the Jiva become one with him
– Who is that Brahman of Vedas by becoming one with him (post realization), a jeeva becomes all pervading

So, in this connection we have direct verse proving the first quality to be only of lord Shiva.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth, is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe”.

“saamaishchidanto virajashcha baahuuM hiraNmaya.n vedavidaa.n varishhTham.h |
yamadhvare brahmavidaH stuvanti saamairyajurbhiH kratubhistvameva |” (Ekakshara Upanishat 10)
“Thou art He whom in the sacrifices the knowers of Brahman adore with Vedic Songs, formulas and rites and the soma juice; as the final (Truth) devoid of all admixture, as the golden, the best of Veda-knowers”.

The first point is proved. For the second point we have a direct example in Vedas and Mahabharata. Sage Narayana was a great devotee of Lord Shiva. He once desired to become all pervading, hence he desired to become one with Purusha (Shiva). For that he observed Purusha Medha sacrifice and did penance for Lord Shiva after that by the grace of the Lord Shiva who is the Purusha of vedas he became one with him hence gained the special quality of pervading the entire universe and attained universal agreeableness. This is depicted in the following verses of scriptures.

“puruṣo ha nārāyaṇo’kāmayata atitiṣṭheyaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtānyahamevedaṃ sarvaṃ
syāmiti sa etam puruṣamedham pañcarātram
yajñakratumapaśyattamāharattenāyajata teneṣṭvātyatiṣṭhatsarvāṇi bhūtānīdaṃ
sarvamabhavadatitiṣṭhati sarvāṇi bhūtānīdaṃ sarvam bhavati ya evam
vidvānpuruṣamedhena yajate yo vaitadevam veda |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 13.6.1.1)

“Purusha Narayana desired, ‘Would that I overpassed all beings ! would that I alone were everything- here (this universe) !’ He beheld this ‘five days’ sacrificial performance, the Purushamedha and took it and performed offering therewith ; and having performed offering therewith, he overpassed all beings, and became everything here. And, verily, he who, knowing this, performs the Purushamedha, or who even knows this, overpasses all beings, and becomes everything here.”

“matprasādān manuṣyeṣu devagandharvayoniṣu aprameyabalātmā tvaṃ nārāyaṇa bhaviṣyasi |” (Mahabharata 7:172:74)
“‘O Narayana, through my grace, amongst men, gods, and Gandharvas, thou shalt be of immeasurable might and soul”.

Here Aprameyaatma which means immesurable soul is nothing but all pervasiveness. So, Narayana rishi gained all pervasive quality from Lord Shiva’s devotion by becoming one with Shiva the Purusha of Vedas. Since the same aage Narayana incarnates as Krishna in every Kalpa in Dwapara, Bheeshma mentioned the same about Krishna in the following way.

“Rudra bhakthya thu krishnena jagat vyaptham mahathmana |
Tham prasadhya thadha devam bhadaryam kila bharatha |” (Mahabharata 13:14:10)
“Arthath priya harathwam cha sarva lokeshu vai yadhaa |
Prapthavaaneva rajendra suvarnaakshan maheswaraath |” (Mahabharata 13:14:11)
“It is in consequence of the devotion of the high-souled Krishna to the illustrious Rudra whom he gratified. O Bharata, in the retreat of Vadari, by penances, that he has succeeded in pervading the entire universe. O king of kings, it is through Maheswara of celestial vision that Vasudeva has obtained the attribute of universal agreeableness,–an agreeableness that is much greater than what is possessed by all articles included under the name of wealth”.

“Yuge yuge thu krushnena thoshitho vai maheswara |
Bhakthya paramaya chaiva prathi sruthwa mahatmana |” (Mahabharata 13:14:13)
“In every new Yuga has Krishna (by such penances) gratified Mahadeva. In every Yuga has Mahadeva been gratified with the great devotion of the high-souled Krishna”.

So, this example makes it VERY clear that it’s not only about Narayana/Krishna, but in fact anyone who realizes his true self as being same as the Brahman of Vedas (i.e Shiva) and becomes one with him through devotion and wisdom, merges with him and gains universal pervasiveness since he becomes Shiva himself.

Let’s move on to next point.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-18:

pariitya lokaan pariitya bhuutaani pariitya sarvaaH pradisho dishashcha |
prajaapatiH prathamajaa R^itasyaatmanaatmaanamabhisaMbabhuuva | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.4.18)

MEANING:

I-18: Having pervaded the worlds and the created beings and all the quarters and intermediate quarters, the first born of Brahman known as Prajapati or Hiranyagarbha became by His own nature as Paramatman, the ruler and protector of individual souls.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

We have enough no. of times discussed similar qualities. So here let me keep the analysis to be very minimal in terms of repetition. We know who pervades entire Jagat (sarvavyaapii sa bhagavaa.nstasmaat.h sarvagataH shivaH). We know who created Hiranyagarbha. It is Shiva alone (hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n). We know who is the lord of all quarters (directions)- it is again Lord Shiva (Dishanaam Pataye Namo). AFter creating the Hiranyagarbha (shining visible universe) Lord Shiva appeared through it again and became overloard of all gods and beings after creating them. This we had seen in above sections where Shatapatha Brahmana references were cited for analysis. So, actually it is Lord Rudra alone who existed before Hirayagarbha, he alone created Hiranyagarbha (Prajapati), and again he himself is Prajapati as confirmed in Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:16. So whatever glories are sung for Prajapati are actually the glories of Lord Shiva alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-19:

sadasaspatimadbhutaM priyamindrasya kaamyam.h |
saniM medhaamayaasishham.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.4.19)

MEANING:

I-19: I pray I may attain to the marvellously excellent Lord of the unmanifest cause of the universe who is dear to Indra and my own Self, who is covetable, who is worthy of reverence and who is the bestower of intellectual powers.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Not Applicable

Maha Narayanopanishad I-20:

uddiipyasva jaatavedo.apaghnanniR^itiM mama |
pashuumshcha mahyamamaavaha jiivana.n cha disho disha | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.5.20)

MEANING:

I-20: O Jatavedas, shine brilliantly in order to destroy the sins connected with me. Confer on me enjoyments of various kinds including cattle. Give me sustenance and longevity and appoint a suitable dwelling for me in any direction.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Jataveda is a term used in Rig Veda and is an epithet for agni, that is, fire-god. In some references, the term has also been used as an epithet of Shiva. In some references, the term Jataveda has been used to personify the one who has produced the Vedas. Agni is an aspect of Rudra alone. And various Vedic verses which eulogize Agni actually point at Rudra.

Whatever be the case, let us do a reverse mapping and undrstand who is being prayed in the above verse. We have to see who is the lord whom the following requests have been made:
– Request for destruction of sins
– Request for conferring enjoyments and cattle
– Request for granting Sustenance, long life and dwelling place

“…tapas cha may” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam – 9)
“Let the starving rites which would remove sins be made over to me”

Lord Rudra is praised as the one who ferries men from all sins.

“namah prataranaya chottaranaya cha” ((Yajurveda Sri Rudra Anuvaka-8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.

“Mrida no rudrotano mayaskridhi kshayadviraya namasa vidhema te” (Yajurveda Sri Rudra Anuvaka-10)
“Lord Rudra! Confer on us happiness in this world, and in the next. You who has destroyed our sins, we shall serve and worship you by our salutations”.

“Yatha nah shamasadhdvipade chatushhpade vishvam pushhtam grame aasminnanaturamh” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-10)
“May we adopt a mental inclination which results in Rudra maintaining friendship with our human relations and our wealth of cattle; sleek and content”.

“…payas cha may rasas cha may Gruthams cha may” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam – 4)
“May Lord Rudra grant me milk, essence of milk, and ghee”.

“Garbhaa se vatsaa cha may, trayavus cha may” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam – 10)
“Let cows with calves in the womb be made over to me, Let calves be made over to me”.

In fact this entire 1oth paragraph of Chamakam is dedicated to cows, calves bulls etc. cattle only.

“…sahashcha ma aayushcha me” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam – 1)
” Let Lord Shiva Grant us strength and assured longevity & honourable old age”

“…vasyashcha me” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Chamakam – 2)
“May Lord Shiva grant me mansions (dwelling place)”

So, it is clear that Jataveda is used as an epithet for Lord Rudra alone who is requested to grant all sorts of creature comforts.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-21:

maa no himsiijjaatavedo gaamashvaM purushha.n jagat.h |
abibhradagna aagahi shriyaa maa paripaataya | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.5.21)

MEANING:

I-21: O Jatavedas, through Thy grace may not the our cows, horses, men and other belongings in the world be slayed. O Fire, come to succour us without holding weapons in Thy hand or thoughts of our offences in Thy mind. Unite me on all sides with wealth.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is a prayer to Lord Rudra. Anuvaka 10 of Sri Rudram (From Yajurveda) requests Lord Rudra to be happy with the reader, and not to slay his cattle, progeny, and not to strike them with his arrows. We need not analyze it further since it is crystal clear prayer to Rudra only. One who knows Sri Rudram hymn would understand it easily. But still then let me cite one or two verses to prove my point for the one who are not aquainted with Sri Rudram.

“Manastoke tanaye ma na ayushhi ma no goshhu ma no ashveshhu ririshhah Viranma no rudra bhamitoavadhi rhavishhmanto namasa vidhema te” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka – 10)
“Lord Rudra! Getting angry at our transgressions hurts not only our children, our sons in particular, but also our cattle and horses, and our warriors. Making offerings into the sacred fire, we shall serve and calm you by our Namaskars (salutations)”.

“Aratte goghna utta purushhaghne kshayadviraya sumnamasme te astu
Raksha cha no adhi cha deva bruhyatha cha nah sharma yachchha dvibarhah” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka – 10)
“Oh Deva! Let that terrible form of yours be far away from us — that which afflicts our cattle, our sons and grandsons, and wastes your enemy warriors. Let that form which confers happiness be near to us. Protect us. Recommend us to the other Gods and bespeak in our favor. You who increases the happiness of both worlds. Please confer happiness upon us”.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-22, I-23:

purushhasya vidmahe sahasraakshasya mahaadevasya dhiimahi |
tanno rudraH prachodayaat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.5.22)
tatpurushhaaya vidmahe mahaadevaaya dhiimahi |
tanno rudraH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.5.23)

MEANING:

I-22: May we know the Supreme Person and for the attainment of His Knowledge may we meditate upon Him, the thousand-eyed Great God. May Rudra, the giver of Knowledge, impel us towards such meditation and keep us in it.
I-23: May we know or realize the Supreme Person. For that, may we meditate upon Mahadeva and to that meditation may Rudra impel us.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

These are direct verses praying to Mahadeva who is the Veda Purusha as exclaimed in Yajurveda itself (purusho vai rudrah). There is no need to correlate anything here. This section is direct in meaning and straightaway points at lord Shiva.

The below verses are also very direct in meaning. They all are prayers to realize the supreme Purusha (Shiva) and the means of realizing has been sought through various Gods. Hence no commentary is needed here.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-24:

tatpurushhaaya vidmahe vakratuNDaaya dhiimahi |
tanno dantiH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.5.24)

MEANING:

I-24: May we know the Supreme Person. For that, may we meditate upon Vakratunda. May Dantin impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-25:

tatpurushhaaya vidmahe chakratuNDaaya dhiimahi |
tanno nandiH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.6.25)

MEANING:

I-25: May we know the Divine Person. For that, may we meditate upon Chakratunda. May Nandi impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-26:

tatpurushhaaya vidmahe mahaasenaaya dhiimahi |
tannaH shhaNmukhaH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.6.26)

MEANING:

I-26: May we know that Divine Person. For that, may we meditate upon Mahasena. May Shanmukha impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-27:

tatpurushhaaya vidmahe suvarNapakshaaya dhiimahi |
tanno garuDaH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.6.27)

MEANING:

I-27: May we know that Divine Person. For that, may we meditate on Suvarnapaksha. May Garuda impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-28:

vedaatmanaaya vidmahe hiraNyagarbhaaya dhiimahi |
tanno brahma prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.6.28)

MEANING:

I-28: May we know the Veda, embodied as the four-faced Brahma. For that, may we meditate upon Hiranyagarbha. May Brahman impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-29:

naaraayaNaaya vidmahe vaasudevaaya dhiimahi |
tanno vishhNuH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.6.29)

MEANING:

I-29: May we know Narayana. For that, may we meditate upon Vasudeva. May Vishnu impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-30:

vajranakhaaya vidmahe tiikshNadamshhTraaya dhiimahi |
tanno naarasimhaH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.7.30)

MEANING:

I-30: May we know Vajranakha. For that, may we meditate upon Tikshnadamstra. May Narasimha impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-31:

bhaaskaraaya vidmahe mahaddyutikaraaya dhiimahi |
tanno aadityyaH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.7.31)

MEANING:

I-31: May we know Bhaskara. For that, may we meditate upon the great-light-producer. May Aditya impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-32:

vaishvaanaraya vidmahe laaliilaaya dhiimahi |
tanno agniH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.7.32)

MEANING:

I-32: May we know Vaishvanara. For that, may we meditate upon Lalila. May Agni impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-33:

kaatyaayanaaya vidmahe kanyaakumaari dhiimahi |
tanno durgiH prachodayaat.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.7.33)

MEANING:

I-33: May we know Katyayana. For that, may we meditate upon Kanyakumari. May Durgi impel us towards it.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-34:

sahasraparamaa devii shatamuulaa shataa~Nkuraa |
sarvamharatu me paapa.n duurvaa duHsvapnanaashinii | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.7.34)

MEANING:

I-34: May durva (the panic grass), who represents the divine Spirit, who is superior to a thousand purifying agencies, who has innumerable nodes and sprouts and who destroys the effects of evil dreams, remove all my impurities.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:12 details out that all plants and trees are also Lord Rudra alone. Even Kaushitaki Brahmana of Rig Veda voices the same opinion:

“sa.vai.tvam.ity.abravīd.ugra.eva.deva.iti yad.ugro.deva.oṣadhayo.vanaspatayas.tena |” (Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:2:37)
“Thou art Ugradeva (the fierce god),’ Prajapati answered; for Ugradeva is plants and trees”.

Also lord Rudra is the lord of all plants and trees (vrikshanam pataye namo – Sri Rudram Anuvaka-2)

Hence this Durva grass is not an exception. This Durva grass which represents the divine spirit is in fact representing Lord Rudra alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-35:

kaaNDaat kaaNDaat prarohantii parushhaH parushhaH pari |
evaa no duurve pratanu sahasreNa shatena cha (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.8.35)

MEANING:

I-35: O durva, just as thou growest farther and farther multiplying at every node putting forth roots and fresh stalks, so also help us to grow in progeny by hundreds and thousands.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

As discussed in previous section, the glory being sung about Durva grass actually is the glory being sung to Lord Rudra indirectly.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-36:

yaa shatena pratanoshhi sahasreNa virohasi |
tasyaaste deviishhTake vidhema havishhaa vayam.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.8.36)

MEANING:

I-36: O Devi, worshipped by devotees, may we worship thee with oblations – thou who multipliest thyself by hundreds and growest in thousands.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is addressed to the Shakti of lord Shiva. We have evidences in Vedas where we read that Lord Shiva manifests as entire creation, multiples as various gods, bestows them their powers, and even manifests as cattle, plats, birds, humans and all creatures. However there is no difference between Shiva and Shakti. They are one in each other that’s the reason they are represented as Ardhanareeshwara (androgenous form) sharing one body each half representing each of them. Hence it doesn’t matter or doesn’t make any difference whether you view the creation as originated from Shiva or Shakti. They both are inseparably identical with each other.

Hence we have Bahvricha Upanishad from Rig Veda which testifies the same and says everything originated from Tripurasundari (Shakti) the consort of Shiva.

“devI hyekAgra evAsIt.h | saiva jagadaNDamasR^ijat.h |
kAmakaleti vij~nAyate | shrR^i.ngArakaleti vij~nAyate |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 1)
“Om. The Goddess was indeed one in the beginning. Alone she emitted the world-egg. (She) is known as Love’s Part (IM). (She) is known as the half-syllabic instant after OM.”.

“tasyA eva brahmA ajIjanat.h | viShNurajIjanat.h |
rudro.ajIjanat.h | sarve marud.hgaNA ajIjanat.h |
gandharvApsarasaH kinnarA vAditravAdinaH samantAdajIjanat.h |
bhogyamajIjanat.h| sarvamajIjanat.h | sarvaM shAktamajIjanat.h |
aNDajaM svedajamudbhijjaM jarAyujam.h yatkiMchaitat.h prANi
sthAvaraja.ngamaM manuShyamajIjanat.h |” (Bahvricha Upanishad 2)
“Of Her was Brahma born; was Vishnu born; was Rudra (the destroyer deity who is a manifestation of Lord Shiva) born. All wind-gods were born, celestial minstrels, nymphs, semi-human beings playing on instruments, were born (of Her), all around. What is enjoyed was born; everything was born (of Her). Everything of Power was born (of Her). The egg-born, the sweat-born, the seed-born, the womb-born, whatever breathes here, the stationary as well as the moving, and man were born (of Her)”.

So, it becomes clear that from Devi the Shakti of lord Shiva entire creation, gods manifest. She alone multiples as all these. And she being non-distinct from Lord Shiva, it is again a verse which glorifies lord Shiva alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-37:

ashvakraante rathakraante vishhNukraante vasundharaa |
shirasaa dhaarayishhyaami rakshasva maaM pade pade (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.8.37)

MEANING:

I-37: O earth that is traversed by a horse, a chariot and Vishnu, I shall keep thee on my head; protect me at every step.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse and below few verses which are addressed to Goddess Earth do not need any commentary since Earth has been produced by Lord Rudra alone. Rig veda 9:96:5 gives an evidence that Earth was begotten by Rudra(Soma). Hence this glory of Earth is hers alone. But if you analyze indepth meaning it also applies on lord Rudra since he is the indweller of all gods (“Devanahridayebhyo Namah” as exclaimed by Sri Rudram). So, i’m just leaving these verses for goddess Earth as for her only. Salutations to goddess Earth who is the mother of all.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-38:

bhuumirdhenurdharaNii lokadhaariNii |
uddhR^itaasi varaaheNa kR^ishhNena shatabaahunaa (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.8.38)

MEANING:

I-38: The earth is the giver of happiness like the milch cow, the sustainer of life and support for all living beings. (Represented as such the earth is addressed): Thou wert raised up by Krishna in His incarnation of the boar having hundred hands.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-39:

mR^ittike hana paapa.n yanmayaa dushhkR^ita.n kR^itam.h |
mR^ittike brahmadattaasi kaashyapenaabhimantritaa |
mR^ittike dehi me pushhTi.n tvayi sarvaM pratishhThitam.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.8.39)

MEANING:

I-39: O excellent earth, destroy my evil deeds as well as sins connected with me. O excellent earth, thou art a gift from God to creatures. Thou art prayed over by Kashyapa. O excellent earth grant me prosperity, for everything depends on thee.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-40:

mR^ittike pratishhThite sarva.n tanme nirNuda mR^ittike |
tvayaa hatena paapena gachchhaami paramaa.n gatim.h (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.9.40)

MEANING:

I-40: O excellent earth, on which all creatures are supported, cleanse all that (sin) from me. O excellent earth, my sins having been destroyed by thee, I attain to the highest goal.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-41:

yata indra bhayaamahe tato no abhaya.n kR^idhi |
maghava~nchhagdhi tava tanna uutaye vidvishho vimR^idho jahi | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.9.41)

MEANING:

I-41: O Indra, make us fearless of those (causes such as sin, enemies and hell) of which we are afraid. O Maghavan, destroy that, i.e. the cause of fear, that is in us (thy devotees). For our protection destroy our harassing enemies.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is addressed to Indra when you study on a superficial level. But Vedas call lord Rudra by name Indra in various places. Indra represents Shiva’s lordship. We have already discussed in earlier sections how sers of Sri Rudram prayed to Lord Rudra from ferrying them from sins, protecting them from enemies, and ferrying them from the ocean of samsaara and birth and death. In the entire set of Vedas only Lord Rudra has been prayed to gtant Salvation, neither Indra, nor Vishnu nor anyone else has been found worthy of conferring salvation. Maha Mrityunjay Mantra from Rigveda is an example of the request placed with Lord Shiva. And Salvation can only protect one from heaven/hell, from births and deaths. That’s the only state of fearlessness, absolute bliss and oneness with the Supreme being Rudra.

So, even though this verse looks like a prayer to Indra, it is actually a request placed before lord Rudra under the name – Indra.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-42:

svastidaa vishaspatirvR^itrahaa vimR^idho vashii |
vR^ishhendraH pura etu naH svastidaa abhaya~NkaraH (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.9.42)

MEANING:

I-42: May Indra come to our succour – Indra who is the giver of welfare on earth and bliss in the next world, who is the lord of people, who is the slayer of Vritra, who is the subduer of enemies and giver of rain, who is peaceable and giver of safety.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is a direct verse for Indra only. But since Indra is none other than lord Rudra only as stated in Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:14 and Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:3:41.
The indweller of all such gods is Rudra alone so all glories/prayers to every other God actually goes to Lord Rudra. Hence the below verse on Indra also is a prayer to Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-43:

svasti na indro vR^iddhashravaaH svasti naH puushhaa vishvavedaaH |
svasti nastaarkshyo arishhTanemiH svasti no bR^ihaspatirdadhaatu (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.9.43)

MEANING:

I-43: May Indra who is profusely praised by the devotees through sacred hymns, or frequently worshipped with oblations, vouchsafe to us safety and well-being. May the all-knowing or all-possessing Pusan vouchsafe to us well-being. May Garuda, the son of Triksha, whose chariot is not injured by anyone, vouchsafe to us safety. May Brihaspati, the preceptor of gods, grant us well-being.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-44:

aapaantamanyustR^ipalaprabharmaa dhuniH shimiivaa~nchharumaamR^ijiishhii |
somo vishvaanyatasaavanaani naarvaagindraM pratimaanaani debhuH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.9.44)

MEANING:

I-44: Soma who is of mild anger, who strikes with stones, who shakes enemies, who has many deeds, who wields weapons and who delights in soma juice kept over, causes the jungles of dried up trees and bushes (to grow by the downpour of rains). Counter-weights do not weigh down making Indra light.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Soma is Sa+Uma which means the Lord who is with Uma. Hence it refers to Lord Rudra only. Soma is a gentle aspect of lord Shiva. Hence this verse is addressed to Soma.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-45:

brahmajaj~naanaM prathamaM purastaadvi siimataH surucho vena aavaH |
sa budhniyaa upamaa asya vishhThaaH satashcha yonimasatashcha vivaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.10.45)

MEANING:

I-45: Vena, the noon sun who was born at the beginning of creation as the first effect of the Supreme Reality, Brahman, and who is of excellent brilliance, spreads over the whole world up to its boundary. He illumines also the heavenly bodies. He remains manifoldly in his own limited forms which are like himself. He also spreads over and permeates the causal substance out of which the visible and the invisible universe emerges.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Shatapatha Brahmana makes it clear that Lord Rudra alone manifested as the Sun (Aditya):

“tamabravīdīśāno ‘sīti | tadyadasya tannāmākarodādityastadrūpamabhavadādityo vā
īśāna ādityo hyasya sarvasyeṣṭe so ‘bravīdetāvānvā asmi |” (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17)
“He said to him, ‘Thou art Îsâna (the Ruler).’ And because he gave him that name, the Sun became suchlike, for Îsâna is the Sun, since the Sun rules over this All.”.

So, this glory to the Sun “Vena” sia gain a glory of the lord Rudra only since Rudra alone manifested himself as Sungod.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-46:

syonaa pR^ithivi bhavaan nR^iksharaa niveshanii |
yachchhaa naH sharma saprathaaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.10.46)

MEANING:

I-46: Being the producer of creatures including men and their settler in respective regions and also far-famed for forbearance, O earth, be to us an ender of sorrows and giver of bliss here and hereafter.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-47:

gandhadvaaraa.n duraadharshhaa.n nityapushhTaa.n kariishhiNiim.h |
iishvariim sarvabhuutaanaa.n taamihopahvaye shriyam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.10.47)

MEANING:

I-47: I invoke in this act of worship Sri, the support of all, who is known through smell, who is unassailable, perpetually prosperous, rich in cowdung and the mistress of all created beings.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Goddess Sri is also a form of Lord Rudra only. Sri Rudram makes it very clear that all superior goddesses are lord Rudra’s forms only.

“nama uganabhyastrihatibhyashcha vo namo” (Yajurveda SriRudram Anuvaka-4)
“Salutations to you who are in the form of the superior female Gods and the fierce vengeful and powerful Goddesses”.

Even Shiva Sahasranama from Mahabharata calls Lord Shiva as
“Om Ye Namah” (Mahabharata 13:17:647)
“Salutations to the lord Shiva who is in the form of goddess Lakshmi”

Sri Rudram Chamakam portion states it clearly that the Lord of Riches is Rudra alone. And hence Vedic hymns of Chamakam request time and again to Lord Rudra to shower proeprity, grace, fame, wealth, etc. on them. Here are few direct extarcts from Chamakam to support this point. “shreyashcha me vasyashcha me yashashcha me”, “arthashcha me”, “dhanam cha me”, So goddess Lakshmi (Consort of Vishnu) is a manifestation of Lord Rudra alone.

Hence even though this verse I-47 is a prayer to goddess Sri, it indirectly goes to Lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-48:

shriirme bhajatu alakshmiirme nashyatu |
vishhNumukhaa vai devaashchhandobhirimaa.c.nllokaananapajayyamabhyajayan.h |
mahaam indro vajrabaahuH shhoDashii sharma yachchhatu (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.10.48)

MEANING:

I-48: May Sri favour me. May Alakshmi connected with me and mine be destroyed. The gods having Vishnu for their chief (who is the perpetual abode of Sri) by the help of (the means prescribed in) the Vedas won these worlds for themselves free from the fear of enemies. May Indra armed with thunderbolt and worshipful moon grant us happiness.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

As explained in previous verse’s commentary, it’s Lord Rudra who is present as goddess Lakshmi. It is again the same lord Rudra whose manifestation is lord Vishnu as studied in verses from Rig Veda, Sri Rudram (Yajurveda) and Atharva Veda in earlier sections of this post. So, both Vishnu and Lakshmi are forms of lord Rudra only. Therefore whatever prayer is addressed to goddess Sri, goes to lord Rudra in reality.

The below few verses are normal prayers hence they do not require any commentary since we have seen umpteen times the proofs from Vedas that Indra, Soma, Varuna, Agni, Plants, Waters etc. everything is lord Rudra. So, whatever entity these prayers are addressed to, they go to lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-49:

svasti no maghavaa karotu |
hantu paapmaana.n yo.asmaan dveshhTi | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.11.49)

MEANING:

I-49: May Indra grant us welfare. May he destroy the evil one hostile to us.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-50:

somaanam svaraNa.n kR^iNuhi brahmaNaspate kakshiivanta.n ya aushijam.h |
shariira.n yaj~nashamala.n kusiida.n tasmintsiidatu yo.asmaan dveshhTi | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.11.50)

MEANING:

I-50: O Lord of prayers, make me the presser of soma juice, well known among the gods like Kakshivan, the son of Usik. Make me physically capable of performing sacrifices. Let those who are hostile to us remain ‘there’ long, in the hell.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-51:

charaNaM pavitra.n vitataM puraaNa.n yena puutastarati dushhkR^itaani |
tena pavitreNa shuddhena puutaa ati paapmaanamaraati.n tarema | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.11.51)

MEANING:

I-51: He who is rendered holy by the ancient, widespread, sanctifying feet (or by virtuous conduct) crosses over evil deeds and their effects. Having been rendered holy by that naturally pure and purifying feet of the Lord (or conduct) may we overcome our enemies, the sins.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-52:

sajoshhaa indra sagaNo marudbhiH somaM piba vR^itraha~nchhuura vidvaan.h |
jahi shatruumrapa mR^idho nudasvaathaabhaya.n kR^iNuhi vishvato naH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.11.52)

MEANING:

I-52: O Indra, O slayer of Vritra, O valorous one and all-knowing one, accept with pleasure our soma oblation in the company of your retinue and troop of gods. Slay our enemies, give us victory in battle and grant us safety and fearlessness from every quarter.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-53:

sumitraa na aapa oshhadhayaH santu |
durmitraastasmai bhuuyaasuryo.asmaan dveshhTi ya.n cha vaya.n dvishhmaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.11.53)

MEANING:

I-53: For us may (the regents of) water and herbs be friendly and to those who dislike us and whom we dislike let them be unfriendly.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-54:

aapo hi shhThaa mayobhuvastaa na uurje dadhaatana |
mahe raNaaya chakshase |
yo vaH shivatamo rasastasya bhaajayate.aha naH |
ushatiiriva maataraH |
tasmaa ara.n gamaama vo yasya kshayaaya jinvatha |
aapo janayathaa cha naH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.12.54)

MEANING:

I-54: O waters, verily you are bliss-conferring. Being such, grant us food, and great and beautiful insight (of the Supreme Truth). Further make us in this very life participators of that joy of yours which is most auspicious, just like fond mothers (who nurse their darlings with nourishment). May we attain to that satisfactory abode of yours which you are pleased to grant us. Generate for us also the waters of life and pleasures on earth (during our sojourn here).

Maha Narayanopanishad I-55:

hiraNyashR^i~Nga.n varuNaM prapadye tiirtha me dehi yaachitaH |
yanmayaa bhuktamasaadhuunaaM paapebhyashcha pratigrahaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.12.55)

MEANING:

I-55: I take refuge in Varuna, who is of golden lustre or who has a golden diadem. O Varuna, being entreated by me, grant me the saving grace. For I have enjoyed what belongs to bad people and accepted gift from sinners.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-56:

yanme manasaa vaachaa karmaNaa vaa dushhkR^ita.n kR^itam.h |
tanna indro varuNo bR^ihaspatiH savitaa cha punantu punaH punaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.12.56)

MEANING:

I-56: May Indra, Varuna, Brihaspati and Savitur completely destroy that sin committed by me and my people in thought, word and act.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Atharva Veda 15:14:2 – says Shiva became Indra
Atharva Veda 15:14:3 – says Shiva became Varuna
Atharva Veda 15:14:9 – says Shiva became Brihaspati
Kaushitaki Brahmana 6:3:6 – says Shiva became Sungod (Savitur/Aditya)

Hence whatever be the names used to pray in this verse, the prayer actually goes to Lord Rudra only!

Maha Narayanopanishad I-57:

namo.agnaye.apsumate nama indraaya namo varuNaaya namo vaaruNyai namo.adbhyaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.12.57)

MEANING:

I-57: Salutation to fire hidden in water. Salutation to Indra. Salutation to Varuna. Salutation to Varuni, the consort of Varuna. Salutation to the deities of waters.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The above verse I-57 is an adaptation and another way of stating the below fact.

“Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha
tasmai rudraya namo astu” (YajurVeda 5:5:9-i & Taittiriya Samhita 5.5.9.3)
“The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage”.

Rudra is Indra, Varuna, and all deities. So, this prayer would indirectly go to lord Rudra alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-58:

yadapaa.n kruura.n yadamedhya.n yadashaanta.n tadapagachchhataat.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.13.58)

MEANING:

I-58: (Through the power of this mantra) let all that is injurious, impure and troublesome in water be destroyed.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-59:

atyaashanaadatiipaanaad yachcha ugraat pratigrahaat.h |
tanme varuNo raajaa paaNinaa hyavamarshatu | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.13.59)

MEANING:

I-59: May the King Varuna efface by his hand whatever sin I have incurred by unlawful eating, unlawful drinking and accepting gifts from an unlawful person.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-60:

so.ahamapaapo virajo nirmukto muktakilbishhaH |
naakasya pR^ishhThamaaruhya gachchhedbrahmasalokataam.h | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.13.60)

MEANING:

I-60: Thus being sinless, stainless and unbound by evil and bondage, may I ascend to the happy heaven and enjoy equality of status with Brahman.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-61:

yashchaapsu varuNaH sa punaatvaghamarshhaNaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.13.61)

MEANING:

I-61: May the sin-effacing Varuna who dwells in other sources of water like rivers, tanks and wells also purify us.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The “Sin-Effacing Varuna” is an indirect way to call Lord Rudra. It states that this Varuna is present in various water bodies like wells, rivers, tanks etc. The same is clarified in Yajurveda Sri Rudram that it is lord Rudra who dwells in all water bodies and he is alone the god who ferries men from sins and confers salvation.

“namah prataranaya chottaranaya cha” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.

“Namah kupyaya cha vatyaya cha” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-7)
“Salutations to Him who is in the wells and in the pits. Salutations to Him who is born in the rivers as river water and in the absence of rains”.

Hence the above prayer which is addressed to Varuna is actually addressed to Rudra. Moreover Atharva Veda 15:14:3 states that Lord Rudra manifested as Varuna. Hence Varuna is Lord Rudra alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-62:

imaM me ga~Nge yamune sarasvati shutudri stomam sachataa parushhNiyaa |
asiknia marudvR^idhe vitastayaarjiikiiye shR^iNuhyaa sushhomayaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.13.62)

MEANING:

I-62: O Ganga, O Yamuna, O Sarasvati, O Sutudri, O Marudvrudha, O Arjikiya, come together and listen to this hymn of mine along with Parushni, Asikni, Vitasta and Sushoma.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

We had already seen verses where Rudra is mentioned as present in waters, water bodies. So, whatever river you pray it also goes to the indweller – Lord Rudra.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-63:

R^ita.n cha satya.n chaabhiiddhaattapaso.adhyajaayata |
tato raatrirajaayata tataH samudro arNavaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.13.63)

MEANING:

I-63: From the all-illuminating Supreme, by His resolve, the right and the true were generated. From Him night and day were generated. And from Him again was generated the sea with different waters.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This verse is just yet another way to state the smae fact that the Parabrahman Lord Shiva is Truth, Righteousness, and he created day and night. We have already visited similar verses supporting this fact which i’m just copying here for everyone’s ease.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness and Truth, is the androgynous Person the Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe.

“nā́ma nā́mnā johavīti purā́ sū́ryāt puróṣásaḥ |
yád ajáḥ prathamáṃ saṃbabhū́va sá ha tát svarā́jyam iyāya yásmān nā́nyát páram ásti bhūtám |” (Atharvaveda X:7:31)
“Ere sun and dawn man calls and calls one Deity by the other’s name. When the Unborn first sprang into existence he reached that independent sovereign lordship; than which aught higher never hath arisen”.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-64, I-65:

samudraadarNavaadadhi sa.nvatsaro ajaayata |
ahoraatraaNi vidadhadvishvasya mishhato vashii | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.14.64)
suuryaachandramasau dhaataa yathaapuurvamakalpayat.h |
diva.n cha pR^ithivii.n chaantarikshamatho suvaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.14.65)

MEANING:

I-64-65: Then, after the creation of the vast ocean the year was generated. Afterwards the ruler of the world of sentient and non-sentient beings who made day and night ordained sun and moon, sky and earth and the atmosphere and blissful heaven, just as they were in the previous cycles of creation.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3 (and also the prior chapter) states it clearly that from the Agni (Jwala Linga form of Shiva) Prajapati was born, Prajapati created cosmic waters, and then he created foam, clay, earth etc. elements. The same section 6:1:3:8 makes it very clear that Prajapati is time (year). Similarly Usha is space. So, time and space were generated from Agni (Rudra) alone. And again Rudra took different manifestations within the space-time coordinates. Day and night are part and parcel of year and year is based on time. So, all this creation, time, space, day, night everything is verily Rudra.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-66:

yatpR^ithivyaam rajaH svamaantarikshe virodasii |
imaamstadaapo varuNaH punaatvaghamarshhaNaH |
punantu vasavaH punaatu varuNaH punaatvaghamarshhaNaH |
eshha bhuutasya madhye bhuvanasya goptaa |
eshha puNyakR^itaa.n lokaaneshha mR^ityorhiraNmayam.h |
dyaavaapR^ithivyorhiraNmayam samshritam suvaH |
sa naH suvaH samshishaadhi | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.14.66)

MEANING:

I-66: May the sin-effacing Varuna, the deity presiding over the waters, purify the taint of sin that attaches to the beings dwelling on the earth, in the atmospheric region and in the space between the earth and heaven and also connected with us (the performers of religious work). May the Vasus purify us. May Varuna purify us. May Aghamarshana, the sage called by that name, purify us. He, Varuna, is the protector of the world that was and also the world that exists at present between the past and the future worlds. He grants to the doers of meritorious deeds the worlds which they deserve and to the sinful the world of death called Hiranmaya. Again Varuna who is the support of heaven and earth, having become the sun is wholesome and attractive. Being such, blissful in nature, thou O Varuna, grant us thy favours and purify us.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The “Sin-Effacing Varuna” is an indirect way to call Lord Rudra. It states that this Varuna is present in various water bodies like wells, rivers, tanks etc. The same is clarified in Yajurveda Sri Rudram that it is lord Rudra who dwells in all water bodies and he is alone the god who ferries men from sins and confers salvation.

“namah prataranaya chottaranaya cha” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-8)
“Salutations to Him who ferries men over the sins and evils of Samsara (the Illusions of the world), and who by the grant of knowledge ferries them over the Samsara altogether”.

“Namah kupyaya cha vatyaya cha” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka-7)
“Salutations to Him who is in the wells and in the pits. Salutations to Him who is born in the rivers as river water and in the absence of rains”.

Hence the above prayer which is addressed to Varuna is actually addressed to Rudra. Moreover Atharva Veda 15:14:3 states that Lord Rudra manifested as Varuna. Hence Varuna is Lord Rudra alone. For the latter part of the prayer we hav the following supporting evidences.

“Bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣamtásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ” (Atarvaveda IX-2-27)
“Bhava rules the sky(àntárikṣam), Bhava rules the earth(pr̥thivyā́); Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!”

In Atharvaveda there is a hymn to lord Rudra’s Jwala-Linga form which is called Skhambha. It says,

“skambhó dādhāra dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ ubhé imé skambhó dādhārorv àntárikṣam
skambhó dādhāra pradíśaḥ ṣáḍ urvī́ḥ skambhá idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanam ā́ viveśa” (Atharvaveda X:7.35)
“Skambha set fast these two, the earth and heaven, Skambha maintained the ample air between them. Skambha established the six spacious regions: this whole world Skambha entered and pervaded”.

“skambhénemé víṣṭabhite dyáuś ca bhū́miś ca tiṣṭhataḥ
skambhá idáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇán nimiṣác ca yát” (Atharvaveda X:8.2)
“Upheld by Skambha’s power these two, the heaven and the earth, stand fast. Skambha is all this world of life, whatever breathes or shuts eye”.

“eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |
pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA | “(Svet. Upa 3.02 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2)
“Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3:17 makes it clear that Lord Rudra manifested as Aditya.

So, it is the Skhambha (Lord shiva) who is the support of heaven and earth. Lord Shiva is called the protector of the universe. Same Lord Shiva manifested as Aditya. Hence this I-64 is totally a prayer to Lord Rudra only, but has been presented under a name ‘Varuna’. It actually goes to Rudra and none else.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-67:

aardra.n jvalatijyotirahamasmi |
jyotirjvalati brahmaahamasmi |
yo.ahamasmi brahmaahamasmi |
ahamasmi brahmaahamasmi |
ahamevaahaM maa.n juhomi svaahaa | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.15.67)

MEANING:

I-67: That Supreme Light which projected Itself as the universe like a soaked seed which sprouts (or that Supreme Light which shines as the substratum of the liquid element) – I am that Supreme Light. I am that supreme light of Brahman which shines as the inmost essence of all that exists. In reality I am the same infinite Brahman even when I am experiencing myself as a finite self owing to Ignorance. Now by the onset of knowledge I am really that Brahman which is my eternal nature. Therefore I realise this identity by making myself, the finite self, an oblation into the fire of the infinite Brahman which I am always. May this oblation be well made.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

The above prayer is addressed to the Supreme Light/lightening which is Brahman of Vedas. The Supreme light is again none otehr that lord Shiva. Here are the evidences.

“yo vai rudraH sa bhagavAnyachcha tejastasmai vai namonamaH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 2:19)
“He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is te Supreme Light and we salute him again and again”.

“tasyottarataH shiro dakShiNataH pAdau ya uttarataH sa o~NkAraH ya o~NkAraH sa praNavaH yaH praNavaH sa sarvavyApI yaH sarvavyApI so.anantaH
yo.anantastattAra.n yattAra.n tatsUkShma.n tachChukla.n
yachChukla.n tadvaidyuta.n yadvaidyuta.n tatparaM brahma yatparaM
brahma sa ekaH ya ekaH sa rudraH ya rudraH yo rudraH sa IshAnaH ya
IshAnaH sa bhagavAn.h maheshvaraH |” (Atharvasiras Upanishad 3:6)
“The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. Its feet are on your right side. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava(primeval sound). That Pranava is spread everywhere. That which is everywhere is the greatest. That which is limitless, shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid- the basic unit of life) is very very minute. That which is minute is like a lightning power. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman. That Brahman is one and only one. That one and only one is Rudra, it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull), it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things”.

Hence that prayer actually goes to the lord Rudra only.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-68:

akaaryavakiirNii steno bhruuNahaa gurutalpagaH |
varuNo.apaamaghamarshhaNastasmaat paapaat pramuchyate | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.15.68)

MEANING:

I-68: He who is a transgressor of the scriptural conduct, a recreant, a thief, a feticide or an outrager of his preceptor’s honour is released from his sins; for Varuna, the regent of waters and effacer of sins (absolves them from sins by the repetition of this mantra).

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

Needn’t repeat the same reasoning again and again. Varuna as the great sin remover points at Lord Rudra.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-69:

rajobhuumistva maam rodayasva pravadanti dhiiraaH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.15.69)

MEANING:

I-69: I am the ground of sins. Therefore you cause me to weep. Wise men say (don’t make me weep, but favour me by destroying my sins).

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

“śarīrā́nmartyā́d utkrā́manti, atha rodayanti, tad yad rodayanti, tasmā́d rudrā́iti |” (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III:9:4)
“When the pranas and the atman leave the body, they make one cry in anguish. that’s why they are called ‘Rudras'”.

“nama uchchairghoshhayakrandayate pattinam pataye namo |” (Yajurveda Sri Rudram Anuvaka – 2)
“Salutations to Him of the fearsome war cry, who causes His enemies to weep”.

Now here we have to understand that there is noone who is an enemy of Rudra. It is just a way of expression but the inner tatwam (meaning) is that whosoever walks on the path of unrighteousness is a sinner and such sinners are punished by Rudra. He makes them cry. This punishment is all because of the law of Karma but in fact he neither has partiality for anyone nor is anyone his enemy in reality. He is again the one who ferries men over the sins and evils of samsaara (Nama prataranaya cha chottaranaya cha). So, when a sinner surrenders himself to Rudra, that moment itself he becomes freed from the anger of Rudra and he becomes worthy of Rudra’s grace. He is ferried by Rudra from all sins and he gets cleansed.

So, it is lord Rudra who makes one cry when punishes, and it is again he whom sages have prayed to confer his grace and erase their sins (Sri Rudram vouches for this fact). Therefore this prayer/verse is actually addressed to Rudra alone.

Maha Narayanopanishad I-70:

aakraantsamudraH prathame vidharma~njanayanprajaa bhuvanasya raajaa |
vR^ishhaa pavitre adhi saano avye bRihatsomo vaavR^idhe suvaana induH | (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.1.15.70)

MEANING:

I-70: The Supreme represented as the ocean has overflown to the whole creation. He has created at first creatures according to the deserts of their various past deeds. He is the ruler of the universe and the munificent giver of gifts to the devotees. He dwells together with Uma (His power giving spiritual illumination) in the hearts of devotees which are holier than other parts of their body (the seat of the Divine) and therefore superior and elevated like a peak and affording protection. The Jiva who is his abode grows to be infinite. He is the Lord who delights the individual souls by guiding according to their deeds and conferring on them fruits of their actions.

COMMENTARY (With Reasoning & Analysis):

This is a readymade / direct verse to lord Shiva the consort of Uma. There is no need of further analysis on this verse.

Here ends the Chapter-I of MahaNarayanopanishad. Subsequent chapters would be analyzed in separate posts due to space issues.


Mahanarayanopanishad verses translation belong to Swami Vimalananda. Interpretation, Commentary, Reasoning & Analysis belong to me

Copyright © 2011, by Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula. All Rights Reserved.
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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)

Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula, is 'षण्मातुरः' or 'षण्णां मातृणां पुत्रः' in detail, which means 'The son of six (divine) mothers' as he considers the six great goddesses viz. Parvati, Ganga, Lakshmi, Bhudevi, Saraswati, and Gayatri, as his own mothers, and sees himself as an infant in their laps. Together with their respective consorts he considers them as his own parents. He considers their children such as Ganesha, Skanda, Sanatkumara, Narada, Pradyumna etc., as his own siblings; in fact, not different from himself. He loves these six mothers very dearly, and equally loves the divine fathers; however, he has offered his 'devotion' only to Mahadeva! Hence he stands for lord Shiva safeguarding him from his haters. One would know him better from his writings.
Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः)
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17 Comments

  1. m s

    Hara hara mahadeva !

    WOnderful reading…thank you so much.

    With respect,
    Tara Kedarnath

    Reply
  2. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Tara ji,

    Thanks for stopping by this site, reading and liking. It's all the grace of Mahadeva and all glories to him. If there are any shortcomings, they are purely mine!

    Keep visiting this blog; lot many good topics are in pipeline.

    Thanks again!

    Best Regards, Santosh

    Reply
  3. arun subbe

    Om Namah Shivaya!

    As you say in the vision behind this blog, it indeed serves a medicine for my wounds. I have a doubt and will be grateful to you for clarifying it. Yajurveda Tattriya Aranyaka calls Rudra the son of Brihaspati. The verses are:
    “sahasravṛdiyaṃ bhữmiḥ
    paraṃ vyoma sahasravṛt
    aśvinã bhujyữ nãsatyã
    viśvasya jagataspatỉ
    jãyã bhữmiḥ patirvyoma
    mithunantã aturyathuḥ
    putro bṛhaspatỉ rudraḥ
    saramã iti strỉpumam
    śukraṃ vãmanyadyajataṃ vãmanyat
    viṣurữpe ahanỉ dyauriva sthaḥ”

    Please throw more light on this.

    Regards
    Arun

    Reply
  4. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Dear Arun,

    Brihaspati is an epithet for earth. Rudra manifestted himself in this universe between heaven and earth. I'll write someday detailed article on this but at present my brain has some higher priority topics in pipeline. So it might get delayed, however just know that that verse doesn't mean the way it says.

    Om namah shivaya !

    Reply
  5. Glitzy

    Thank you so so very much for sharing this… If you dont mind me sharing this on facebook as well…

    Regs
    Ghanesh

    Reply
  6. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Dear Ghanesh,

    Thanks for liking. Yes you may!

    Reply
  7. madan basnet

    plz explain hym brahmano sevaki putro brahmanyo madhusuna.nisakao nirajanano makaran karana akarana parabrahmo.
    plz explain all the meanings of gopal tapani upanishad.
    what are the proofs that vedic rudra is lord shiva only???
    plz dont tell that govinda is another name of kesava if so plz admit satchit ananda parabrahman is only one???

    Reply
  8. madan basnet

    1.AT FIRST I M DELIGHTED AS ONENESS OF HARIHAR AND SHANKARNARAYAN.THE VEERBHADRA SHARABHA BHASMASUR BANASURA AMBRISH KSHUPA AND DADICHI AND OTHER LATER TEXTS ARE ALL INTERPOLATIONS UNDER THE STOLEN INTELLECT OF SAT CHIT ANANDA.
    2.SECONDLY SRUTI ARE MOST AUTHENTIC WHERE RUDRA IS PRESENTED AS STORMING GOD AND NO RESEMBALANCES AS MODERN SHIVA???
    3.IF RUDRA IS SAT CHIT ANANDA THEN Y THE LORD OF DISEASE AND STORM FEAR IS INVOKED TO HIM???
    4.IF RUDRA IS SUPREME WHY NOT ALL VEDIC HYMNS LYK PURUSA SUKTAM ,RUDRAM ALL UPANISHAD MAHOPANISHAD ARE DIRECTLY INVOKED TAKING NAME RUDRA AT FIRSTLY ONLY BT NAME RUDRA IS PLACED LATER AFTER PRAISING SAT CHIT ANANDA PARAMTMA AS HIS MANIFESTATION.
    5.PLZ EXPLAIN BRAHMANYO DEVAKI PUTRO BRAHMANYO MADHUSUNA WTH TELLING DEVAKI PUTRO IS SHIVA.
    6.PLZ EXPLAIN GOPALA TAPNAI UPANISHAD IN DETAIL.
    7.PLZ EXPLAIN OF WHICH UNIVERSE UMA MAHESWAR U R TALKING OF THS OR …COUNTLESS UNIVERSE DUST AND COUNTLESS SHIVA VISHNU BRAHMA.DEVI BHAGWAT AND SHRIMAD BHAGWAT

    Reply
  9. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Admitted that “Satchidananda parabrahman is only one”. 🙂

    Reply
  10. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula

    Please learn that using ALL CAPS means “Shouting” in the language of internet world. And ALL caps make the message uncomfortable to read.
    Well, respecting your typing effort I have read you questions (read politely put challenges). But I am sorry, I have no time to answer them in detail but here are few one liners if it helps.

    1) What you cited as interpolations, have some genuine stories also.
    2) That conclusion is wrong
    3) Fear is the foundation (of Brahman-Rudra) because of which entire universe remains in discipline.
    4) Can't explain in one liner. May be de-prioritize it for a later time or never!
    5) No directly devaki putra cannot be said as Shiva but indirectly everything and every form is Shiva so, you may assume that approach if you need to
    6) No comments
    7) LOL. My Shiva is beyond the universe, is nishkala. He again enters the universe and remains as Maheshwara.

    Reply
  11. Hari Vallabh

    Namaste Santoshji,
    Good Noon! It is always helpful to read your enlightened article.By the way Not sure in which Upanishad (MahaUpanishad or MahanarAyan Upanishad) I came across one verse that “at the time of Dissolution Only narAyana existed nor Bramha nor Ishana.And I got somewhat perplexed Although narAyana is Actually Adi Shakti or Son of Lord Shiva and also Identical With Shiva-Shakti but would you put some Light.Does my Understanding for the same as mentioned above is correct or not.

    Moreover May I suggest you that kindly brought upto light separate Article for the same as earlier you did it for “Rudra deriving strength from Vishnu”

    Once Again thanks for replying and solving each doubts🙏

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      You are referring to “mahopanishad’. I’ll clarify “narayana tatwam” in my update to Narayana-suktam related article.

      Reply
  12. Karthick

    Just a point to add. “na sa.ndR^ishe tishhThati ruupamasya” also comes in Pancha Brahma Upanishad.

    na jananti surah sarve sarvakaranakaranam
    na sandrishe tishthati rupamasya paratparam purusham vishvadhama

    His form will not stand before any. He is the highest of the highest, the support of the universe, the person, by whom the universe is manifested and in whom it is involved. He is the Supreme Brahman, calm, he is the Supreme abode and I am that Brahman itself.

    Reply
  13. Mayank Lakhandar

    Are u serious! the real Brahman is lord kabir
    See – yajurved adhyay 29 mantar25 ,, samved in sankhya 359 samved adhyay no.4 Khand no 25 slokh no8 ,, mantar sankhya 1400 samved utarchik adhyay no.12 Khand no.3 shlok no.5 ,, rigved mandal 9 sukt 96 mantar 17-20 ,, arthaveda khand 4 animal no1 mantar 7

    Bhagvat Gita adhyay 8 shlok 9,10

    Guru granth sahib – Raag tilang mehla 1 (page 721)

    Quran Sharif adhyay Surat qafrani s. 25 ayayt 52,58-59

    Holy Bible – iyov 36

    Kabir is the only god and everything is false

    Reply
    1. Santosh Kumar Ayalasomayajula (षण्मातुरः) (Post author)

      Oh. Kabir is the only god and you are the only Troll!
      None of your references say anything about kabir. I respect kabir as a jnani a great saint a bhakta of Rama. But he as a supreme God? Hahaha don’t kid me.

      Reply
      1. Mayank Lakhandar

        Hehe. I was just kidding though, your blogs are excellent but your conclusion varied a lot when I read gopala tapani Upanishads where the Krishna is told as the supreme lord above shiv. Plss make a blog on that and make the confusion clear of many people. Thanx

        Reply
  14. Abhishek Tripathi

    To Owner of this website
    firstly i would like to congratulate you for creating this wonderful website to make things crystal clear about God Shiv.
    i would also like to request you to make people understand the difference between Shiv and his visible incarnations namely Sadashiv Shankar and Rudra.

    Reply

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